->''"...I often find myself living at such cross-purposes with the modern world: I have been a converted Pagan living among apostate Puritans."''
-->-- ''Surprised by Joy''

Clive Staples Lewis[[note]][[SomeCallMeTim "Jack" to his friends and family]][[/note]] (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was an Irish-born British author of many sorts of books in the mid-20th-century: scholarship regarding medieval literature, lay Christian theology, ScienceFiction, and {{Fantasy}}.

Lewis was born and raised in [[UsefulNotes/NorthernIreland Ulster]]. [[MissingMom His mother died]] when he was young. He was educated in a series of English {{Boarding School}}s, the first of which was run by a SadistTeacher. He fought in [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarI the Great War]]. He was a member of UsefulNotes/TheInklings and a friend of Creator/CharlesWilliams and Creator/JRRTolkien, whose influence partially led him to rediscover Christianity (though Lewis being an Anglican and Tolkien a Roman Catholic led to some friction). He published an autobiography of his early life and conversion titled ''Surprised by Joy''. Afterwards, he met Joy Gresham and [[CitizenshipMarriage married her so she could remain in the UK]]. Then, they [[MarriageBeforeRomance fell in love]] and had an Anglican ceremony after Joy was diagnosed with terminal bone cancer. She died four years later. Lewis himself died on the same day (November 22, 1963) as [[Literature/BraveNewWorld Aldous Huxley]] and UsefulNotes/JohnFKennedy; this led to his passing being almost unpublicized.

Lewis and Gresham's romance was dramatized in the film and stage play ''{{Film/Shadowlands}}'', with Creator/JossAckland and Creator/AnthonyHopkins taking the role of Lewis in two different film versions. Also, a {{biopic}} called ''Tolkien & Lewis'' portraying the two authors' friendship is reportedly in development.

{{Trope Namer|s}} for TheFourLoves (from the book ''Literature/TheFourLoves'') and NarniaTime (from the way time works between worlds in ''Literature/TheChroniclesOfNarnia'').

!!C. S. Lewis' fictional works:
* ''Dymer'' (1926): A narrative poem, published under the pseudonym Clive Hamilton.
* ''Literature/ThePilgrimsRegress'' (1933): His first publication following his conversion. An {{allegory}} generalizing from the details of Lewis' own, somewhat unusual, conversion.
* ''Literature/TheSpaceTrilogy''
** ''Out of the Silent Planet'' (1938)
** ''Perelandra'' (1943)
** ''That Hideous Strength'' (1946)
* ''Literature/TheScrewtapeLetters'' (1942): An [[ScrapbookStory epistolary novel]], consisting of letters from [[UnreliableNarrator an elder demon]] to a young tempter, concerning the proper way to damn an Englishman.
* ''Literature/TheGreatDivorce'' (1945): A dream-visit to a semi-MundaneAfterlife, where the joys of Heaven are available to all, and the punishments of Hell are entirely [[SelfInflictedHell self-inflicted]] (and therefore all the more inescapable).
* ''Literature/TheChroniclesOfNarnia''. In terms of InUniverse chronology, they were published OutOfOrder. Later editions correct the SequelNumberSnarl by numbering them chronologically, but many readers maintain that reading them in publication order is more rewarding because the prequel contains [[CallForward references that only make sense if you've read the other books first]]. As for Lewis himself, the man didn't care that much about reading order.
** ''Literature/TheLionTheWitchAndTheWardrobe'' (1950), second chronologically.
** ''Literature/PrinceCaspian'' (1951), fourth chronologically.
** ''Literature/TheVoyageOfTheDawnTreader'' (1952), fifth chronologically.
** ''Literature/TheSilverChair'' (1953), sixth chronologically.
** ''Literature/TheHorseAndHisBoy'' (1954), third chronologically (being an {{interquel}} set during a TimeSkip in ''The Lion, the Witch, and the Wardrobe'').
** ''Literature/TheMagiciansNephew'' (1955), first chronologically (being a {{prequel}}, of course).
** ''Literature/TheLastBattle'' (1956), seventh and last chronologically.
* ''Literature/TillWeHaveFaces'' (1956): A PerspectiveFlip of the myth of [[Myth/ClassicalMythology Eros and Psyche]]. The novel Lewis considered his best.
* ''Screwtape Proposes A Toast'' (1961): A brief sequel to ''Literature/TheScrewtapeLetters''.
* ''Letters to Malcolm: Chiefly on Prayer'' (1964): A posthumously published epistolary novel.
* ''The Dark Tower'' (1977): An abandoned and unfinished sequel to ''Out Of The Silent Planet'', i.e. ''Literature/TheSpaceTrilogy'''s WhatCouldHaveBeen.
* ''Boxen: the Imaginary World of the Young C. S. Lewis'' (1985): Stories about talking animals which Lewis and his brother wrote from childhood through their teen years, [[OldShame which he never considered publishing during his life]].[[invoked]]

!!Non-fiction with their own pages
* Literature/TheDiscardedImage
* Literature/TheFourLoves

For a complete list of Lewis' writings, non-fiction and fiction, see [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C._S._Lewis_bibliography the other wiki]].

!!Tropes featured in his work:

* AllJustADream: [[spoiler: ''The Great Divorce'']].
* AllTakeAndNoGive: Repeatedly. Discussed more than once in ''The Four Loves.'' Particularly the pathological Giver variant.
* AuthorTract: Much of Lewis's work could qualify [[note]](a good reminder that [[TropesAreTools Tropes Are Not Bad]])[[/note]], including [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spirits_in_Bondage that book of cynical, decidedly anti-Christian poetry]] he wrote before his conversion, though there are some exceptions:
** A lot of his nonfiction: While his religious books have always been his most popular, Lewis wrote quite a bit of literary criticism and history too.
** ''Literature/TillWeHaveFaces'': While the Christian themes are there, they're pretty subtle and easy to miss if you're not looking for them. It ''is'' a retelling of a pagan myth, after all.
* BeCarefulWhatYouWishFor: This Aesop is particularly prominent in ''Literature/TheMagiciansNephew'' and ''Literature/TheGreatDivorce''
* BigCreepyCrawlies:
** In ''Surprised by Joy'', Lewis writes that his nightmares during childhood were either about ghosts or insects. Of the two, he found the dreams about insects much more frightening.
** In ''The Pilgrim's Regress'', young John is told that the damned are tortured by scorpions the size of lobsters.
** In ''Perelandra'', Ransom encounters flies and beetles larger than himself in the caverns of Venus. Subverted in this case. Once the [[{{Satan}} Un-man's]] presence is gone, Ransom ceases to find them frightening, and speculates that they may, in fact, be sentient.
** In ''The Problem of Pain'' he discusses the moral problem of the suffering of animals (who after all are not either being [[PayEvilUntoEvil punished for something]] or [[TheSpartanWay being trained in how to be good]] and therefore not subject to some of the possible explanations for human suffering). In fact he does take the question seriously. But when he gets to discussing animals and the afterlife, he imagines someone asking "Where do you put all the mosquitos" and then notes ironically that heaven for mosquitos and hell for humans might be "very conveniently combined."
* BlasphemousPraise: {{Deconstructed}}. One of the letters collected in ''Letters to Children'' is to a young Christian reader of ''Literature/TheLionTheWitchAndTheWardrobe'' who was concerned that he loved Aslan more than UsefulNotes/{{Jesus}}. Lewis wrote back to reassure him that this did not count as idolatry because Aslan is a MessianicArchetype, so loving what Aslan does amounts to the same thing as loving what Jesus did.
* BoardingSchoolOfHorrors: Boarding schools in Lewis's works are very unlikely to be positively portrayed-- at best a necessary evil-- influenced by his own experiences with a SadistTeacher and {{Jerk Jock}}s as described in ''Surprised by Joy.''
* BritishTeeth: He mentions having inherited bad teeth from both his parents in ''Mere Christianity''.
* CombatByChampion: Prince Caspian features a particularly gut-churning edge-of-your-seat example. All the more so for Peter's quiet dignity.
%%* CommonalityConnection: In ''Surprised by Joy'' and "Three Ways of Writing for Children".
* {{Corpsing}}: He popularized a parlor game among his students and UsefulNotes/TheInklings to see who could read aloud from the infamously PurpleProse-filled novels of Creator/AmandaMcKittrickRos the longest before breaking down into laughter.
* {{Deconstruction}}[=/=]RealityEnsues: In 1955, a psychologist (to whom the idea of female astronauts had not occurred) suggested that Mars astronauts might need ladies of the evening to keep them sexually satisfied. In his short story "Ministering Angels," Lewis (taking [[https://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Proverbs+26%3A5&version=NIV Proverbs 26:5]] to heart) shows how the implementation would fail; the only women who volunteered were a fashionable psychologist who bought this (and would talk the hind leg off a donkey) and a washed-up tart who has lost all her charms with age. Furthermore, the men on Mars are not nearly as horny as supposed (and Paterson is AmbiguouslyGay), the professor-whore is unlikeable, and the crew of the ship that brought the two are fed up with them.
* DemocracyIsFlawed: The chief value he saw in Democracy was simply that [[WhoWatchesTheWatchmen it prevented tyranny]]. Otherwise he would have preferred Aristocracy.
* DueToTheDead: A major plot point in ''Literature/TillWeHaveFaces'', and even overdone in ''Literature/TheGreatDivorce''.
* EveryoneHasStandards: ''Mere Christianity'' uses the universal existence of morality to argue for the existence of [[{{God}} a moral Law-Giver]].
* EvilIsCool: [[invoked]] AvertedTrope. '''Hard'''! Lewis's works do a good deal to deconstruct this line of thinking, most prominently in ''Literature/TheScrewtapeLetters'' .
* EvilOverlord: The White Witch and the Lady Of the Green Kirtle in ''Literature/TheChroniclesOfNarnia''.
* FairyTaleMotifs: Discussed throughout his work, and given free rein in ''Literature/TheChroniclesOfNarnia'' (which is a FantasyKitchenSink).
* AFormYouAreComfortableWith: Several of his works depict Heaven, but always in a highly symbolic manner with a disclaimer that this is merely a representation that the reader can understand.
* ForTheEvulz: Deconstructed in ''Mere Christianity'': although it is possible to do good for the sake of doing good, nobody does evil for the sake of doing evil. A person might give money to the needy even when they are not feeling particularity generous that day, simply because it was the right thing to do, and they might even do it reluctantly. But who ever heard of someone who reluctantly cheated on their spouse in spite of being perfectly content with the partner they already had, purely because it was the wrong thing to do? Evil deeds are merely the pursuit of some good in the wrong way; anyone you might consider a villain either A) genuinely thinks they are doing the right thing, B)Thinks their villainous acts are justified, or C) doesn't give a crap.
* FunWithAcronyms: He was commissioned to write a volume of the ''Oxford History of English Literature'' [[note]]volume 3, "English Literature in the Sixteenth Century Excluding Drama," published in 1954[[/note]], which proved to be so much tedious research and work that he wryly nicknamed it "O HEL!"
** The despotic organization that the heroes must take down in ''That Hideous Strength'' is called the "National Institute for Co-ordinated Experiments"--[[IronicName N.I.C.E., for short.]]
** The whores-for-Mars-astronauts program in "Ministering Angels" is called the "Woman's Higher Aphrodesio-Therapeutic Humane Organization" (WHAT-HO).
%%* GetItOverWith
* GoodIsNotNice: Lewis' views on God - a being of absolute goodness - verged on CosmicHorrorStory, a theme that shows up in works from ''Narnia'' to ''The Great Divorce''. The fact that God is always good and right means that we are ''screwed'' when He comes to judge us, if not for Jesus' intervention.
* HaveAGayOldTime: Lampshaded. In one of the essays from ''God In the Dock'', he gives a LongList of old ecclesiastical terms that have changed meaning.
* HeAlsoDid: Lewis's fiction and Christian writings have a much wider readership than his works of academic literary scholarship.[[invoked]]
* HighFantasy: He and Tolkien were the {{Trope Maker}}s, though Lewis' ''Narnia'' books skew more toward FairyTale than Tolkien's more epic ''Literature/LordOfTheRings''. Among other things, they [[TropeCodifier codified]] many genre staples, such as the EvilOverlord and MedievalEuropeanFantasy (before them, similar fantasy works would have taken place in the actual MiddleAges).
* HilariousInHindsight: It wasn't until after Lewis published his autobiography ''Surprised By Joy'' that he wound up quite unexpectedly finding romance late in life and getting married... to a woman named Joy.
* HumansAreTheRealMonsters: Appears to some extent in practically all his work, but his non-fiction dedicates entire chapters to expounding on how and why humans are bastards, and how the bastardliness can be reduced. In one of his essays, he mentions Dark-Gods-of-the-Blood which comes down to how we must always fight off the desire to give into the baser desires we feel as we go through daily life.
* ItsAllAboutMe: A theme of many of his theological works, especially ''The Great Divorce.'' Lewis views {{Pride}} as the cardinal sin, and the source of all other sin.
* JesusWasCrazy: Famously, ''Mere Christianity'' popularized the so-called "trilemma" argument in favor of the deity of UsefulNotes/{{Jesus}}: if Jesus wasn't {{God}}, then it's fallacious to say He was "[[JesusWasWayCool a great moral teacher]]," since an actual great moral teacher would be humble rather than [[AGodAmI claiming to be God]] as Jesus did. So either Jesus was GodInHumanForm, Jesus was [[ThatLiarLies a liar]], or Jesus Was Crazy. [[note]]Assuming the usual [[UsefulNotes/{{Christianity}} Christian view]] of Literature/TheBible, of course. Let's remember the RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgment. And in fact, in the next chapter of that book, he considers other possibilities outside the "trilemma"—such as the possibility that Jesus' words were not recorded accurately.[[/note]]
* LiteraryAllusionTitle:
** ''That Hideous Strength'' is named after a line in a Sir David Lyndsay poem.
** ''Surprised By Joy'' is named after Wordsworth's "Surprised By Joy--Impatient As The Wind".
** ''The Great Divorce'' is a response to Blake's ''The Marriage of Heaven and Hell''.
** ''The Pilgrim's Regress'' is a ShoutOut to ''Literature/ThePilgrimsProgress''.
** ''Mere Christianity'' is a nod to 17th-century theologian Richard Baxter, who used the phrase to argue that Christians should not divide themselves into factions or sects.
%%* MagicPoweredPseudoscience: in ''That Hideous Strength''
* TheMentor: Lewis regarded Creator/GeorgeMacDonald as this, although they never met in person, because of the influence [=MacDonald=]'s writings had on his faith. [=MacDonald=] appears as a character in ''Literature/TheGreatDivorce'' and is quoted throughout ''Mere Christianity'', among other places. Lewis even compiled an anthology of selections from George [=MacDonald=]'s prose that he found particularly insightful.
* {{Mythopoeia}}: Lewis was one of the {{Trope Codifier}}s, both in his own works and his analysis of Creator/GeorgeMacDonald's fairy tales.
* NoSuchThingAsSpaceJesus: Averted in Literature/TheSpaceTrilogy, and discussed in several of his theological essays.
* ObstructiveBureaucrat: ''Literature/TheScrewtapeLetters'' opines that {{Hell}} is run by these.
* PenName: Published his first books of poems under the name "Clive Hamilton" (his first name plus his mother's maiden name) and ''A Grief Observed'' as N. W. Clerk (N. W. short for "Nat Whilk," Old English for "I know not who.")
* PerspectiveFlip: ''Till We Have Faces'' is the myth of Cupid and Psyche as told by Psyche's sister, the one who persuaded Psyche to disobey Cupid.
* ReligionRantSong: His first published book ''Spirits In Bondage'' (under the PenName Clive Hamilton) is a collection of lyric poems with a very cynical, negative view of religion. They were written before his conversion, of course.
* ResignedToTheCall: The way Lewis describes his conversion in ''Surprised By Joy'':
-->You must picture me all alone in that room in Magdalen, night after night, feeling, whenever my mind lifted even for a second from my work, the steady, unrelenting approach of Him whom I so earnestly desired not to meet. That which I greatly feared had at last come upon me. In the Trinity Term of 1929 I gave in, and admitted that God was God, and knelt and prayed: perhaps, that night, the most dejected and reluctant convert in all of England.
* RomanticismVersusEnlightenment: His works are so far down the Romanticism end that one could make a trebuchet by loading whatever one wants to chuck on the Enlightenment side of the scale, and then letting go.
* SlidingScaleOfIdealismVsCynicism: All seven ''Narnia'' books he has written fall off the idealistic end of the scale.
%%* SourSupporter
* SpeciesSpecificAfterlife: In one of his non-fiction essays, he considers the possibility that animals have immortal souls, and wonders if giving them segregated afterlives would be the only way to keep different animals from tormenting each other. Then he cheekily notes that mosquito Heaven and human Hell might easily be the same place.
* TheStoic: One of his favorite tutors, Kirk, is described in this way. In fact descriptions in ''Surprised by Joy'' make him sound like he had UsefulNotes/AspergersSyndrome.
* TalkingAnimal: ''Literature/TheChroniclesOfNarnia''
%%* TalkingInYourDreams
* TearsOfJoy: Not quite the theme of ''Surprised by Joy'', but heading that way.
* TranslationWithAnAgenda: Lewis once vetoed a Japanese translation of ''Miracles'' because the translator was a [[UsefulNotes/{{Christianity}} Baptist]] who attempted to {{bowdlerize}} some passages to make it seem as though Lewis was TheTeetotaler and a non-smoker. He objected that the translator's doctrinal agenda gave a very inaccurate impression-- Lewis was an Anglican who was an avid beer-drinker and pipe smoker.
* TropesAreTools: At one point in "On the Reading of Old Books", he shows an upside to ValuesDissonance:
-->None of us can fully escape this blindness [of our age], but we shall certainly increase it, and weaken our guard against it, if we read only modern books. Where they are true they will give us truths which we half knew already. Where they are false they will aggravate the error with which we are already dangerously ill. The only palliative is to keep the clean sea breeze of the centuries blowing through our minds, and this can be done only by reading old books. Not, of course, that there is any magic about the past. People were no cleverer then than they are now; they made as many mistakes as we. But not the same mistakes. They will not flatter us in the errors we are already committing; and their own errors, being now open and palpable, will not endanger us. ... To be sure, the books of the future would be just as good a corrective as the books of the past, but unfortunately we cannot get at them.
* TrueCompanions: The Inklings.
* ViewersAreGeniuses: His work geared at adults is often peppered with untranslated Latin or French phrases, under the assumption that his readers will know what they mean. It was likely enough at the time when large numbers of upper and middle class English would have learned those at school.
* WhatCouldHaveBeen: A scholarly book entitled ''Language and Human Nature'' was begun but never completed. The rub: It was to have been coauthored with Creator/JRRTolkien. [[http://www.txstate.edu/news/news_releases/news_archive/2009/07/CSLewis070809.html]]. Mind you, he fought in a World War, so we should really be thankful we had him at all.[[invoked]]
* UsefulNotes/WorldWarII:
** Much of Lewis's fiction (''Literature/TheScrewtapeLetters'', ''Literature/TheGreatDivorce'', five of the seven [[Literature/TheChroniclesOfNarnia Narnia]] books, and the second book in Literature/TheSpaceTrilogy, specifically) takes place during the War. It's usually not dealt with extensively, but you can catch plenty of references to the Blitz and the subsequent air raids, blackouts, etc. all the same. This is understandable, as Lewis lived in England and did much of his writing during the '30s and '40s.
** What later became ''Mere Christianity'' was originally a series of wartime radio broadcasts given by Lewis, meant to lift the spirits of the British people. These broadcasts were only edited and put into print after the war was over.
%%* YouAreWorthHell: Thoroughly {{deconstructed|Trope}}.
* YouKeepUsingThatWord: The subject of his scholarly book ''Studies In Words'', which traces the historical development of the meanings of eight seemingly simple words such as "nature," "free," and "sad."