The protagonist and main character of [[VideoGame/BeyondGoodAndEvil the game]]. She works as a photographer, and lives in a lighthouse on the planet Hillys with her uncle Pey'j, and a group of orphans. At first she just wants to make a little money to get out of PerpetualPoverty, but she quickly gets caught up in a [[LaResistance resistance movement]], a GovernmentConspiracy, and an AlienInvasion.

* ActionGirl: With a sideorder of ActionMom thrown in.
%%* BadassBandolier
* BigEater: Jade can wolf down a dozen Starkos without breaking a sweat.
%%* BareYourMidriff
* DeadpanSnarker: Mostly around Pey'j. She's a lot more serious around Double H, since she's nowhere near as comfortable with him... At first.
* FriendToAllChildren: She runs an orphanage.
%%* GreenEyes
* HumanAlien: [[spoiler:It is revealed at the end of the game that she is a Shauni, which may or may not be an alien race.]]
* HealingHands: [[spoiler:Which she uses to bring back Pey'j.]]
* HeroicBSOD: [[spoiler:When she returns home to her lighthouse, she discovers that it's been destroyed, and all of her adoptive children have most likely been killed. She breaks down and delivers a heart-wrenching soliloquy about her uselessness. Said soliloquy was so impressive that they even included it on the official OST album under the trackname "Enfants Disparus".]]
* HotScoop: She even used to be the page picture for that trope!
* HumanoidAbomination
* InSeriesNickname: Shauni [[spoiler: which she chooses as her penname, but turns out to be her real name]], Miss Thyrus (by Double H until his brain unscrambles enough to start calling her Miss Jade instead) and Little Rookie (by the race announcer.)
* IntrepidReporter: Ditto.
* LotusPosition: She meditates in this in the game's opening.
* MamaBear: Get close to the lighthouse orphans at your own peril.
* MindControlEyes: Her eyes glow when [[spoiler: the [=DomZ=] priest infiltrates her mind.]]
* OrphanageOfLove: She runs one for war orphans, along with her uncle.
%%* PluckyGirl
* SimpleStaff: And she kicks a lot of ass with it.
%%* SheFu
* StealthExpert: Despite having no training in it, Jade is pretty stealthy. In fact she's practically a female [[Franchise/MetalGear Solid Snake]].
* TeamMom: At least, to the orphans.
* VoiceOfTheResistance: At least, she seems to be one of the main reporters for the IRIS Network.

Jade's uncle, who's a Sus Sapien (an evolved pig). He works as a mechanic at the lighthouse, spending time repairing the hovercraft, or building oddball things like his prized Jet Boots.

%%* {{Acrofatic}}
* BeneathNotice: [[spoiler:So good at hiding his identity as the chief of IRIS, that not even his second-in-command (Hahn) knew who his boss was. The Alpha Section pulled the needle out of the proverbial haystack when they captured him.]]
* BoisterousBruiser: CHILI CON CARNE!
* DeadpanSnarker: ''Constantly.''
* DisneyDeath: [[spoiler:After spending weeks in a Domz torture device, he's dead by the time Jade manages to free him. Luckily her [[NewPowersAsThePlotDemands healing powers]] manage to revive him.]]
* {{Fartillery}}: He has ''flatulence-powered jet boots''. Which he's quite proud of demonstrating.
%%* FunnyAnimal
%%* GadgeteerGenius
* GeniusBruiser: He can throw a punch--er, wrench--better than you'd think. He's also probably the smartest member of Jade's crew.
* GoodScarsEvilScars: It's never explained how he got his eye scar, but given the implications he makes about his past, one can make a few assumptions.
%%* HonoraryUncle
* ImprobableWeaponUser: Also counts as an ImprovisedWeapon--he uses a wrench.
* InterfaceSpoiler: We can see his Jet Boots in his S.A.C. before he introduces them.
* LargeHam: Pun not intended.
* MyNaymeIs: Yes, it's spelled ''Pey'j''.
* MrFixit: He repairs the [[WhatAPieceOfJunk hovercraft]], but it only lasts long enough to make it to [[BlackMarket Mamago Garage]]. He's also capable of repairing an elevator, and [[spoiler:an orbit-capable small spaceship!]]
%%* NonHumanSidekick
%%* OlderSidekick
* PapaWolf: Towards Jade.
* PigMan: Of the friendly variety.
%%* PluckyComicRelief
* RebelLeader: [[spoiler:He's the secret leader of the IRIS Network.]]
* RetiredBadass: We don't know ''what'' he got up to with Jade's parents, but indications are, it was pretty hardcore, and Pey'j has a surprising knowledge of buttkicking.
* SouthernFriedGenius: If his accent is anything to go by, he comes in spicy Texan flavor.
* TakeCareOfTheKids: He was Jade's parents' best friend; they put her under his care to save her.
* WeekendInventor: The Jet Boots, the hovercraft, [[spoiler: the Beluga]], and who knows what else...
%%* WrenchWhack

!!Double H
An agent/reporter for the IRIS Network. Went missing in action a while back, but becomes one of Jade's allies after she saves his life.

* AccidentalMisnaming: Refers to Jade as "Miss Thyrus" during his initial CloudCuckoolander episode when Jade brings up the IRIS Network.
--> '''Jade''': Jade! My name is Jade!
--> '''Double H''': I'm at your service, Miss Jade Thyrus!
* BattleCry: "Carlson & Peeters!"
* BigBookOfWar: ''Carlson & Peeters'', which he quotes ''constantly''.
* BruiserWithASoftCenter: Almost to EmotionalBruiser levels.
* CloudCuckoolander: Primarily during his EasyAmnesia stint, but even when he recovers, he's still a little... out there. But it's in more of a BunnyEarsLawyer sense.
* ColdBloodedTorture: When Jade first discovers him, he's being tortured with some sort of [=DomZ=] machine.
* DefectorFromDecadence: He's ex-Hyllian Army, and it's a shame his former comrades spend most of game [[ExtremeDoormat with their hands tied by the influence of Alpha Section]], because Double H demonstrates that these guys can kick some ass in a pinch.
* DorkKnight: Though no one seems to comment on it.
%%* DropTheHammer
* EasyAmnesia: From the ColdBloodedTorture he receives. It doesn't last long though.
* ElectricTorture: He's first found caught in it.
* EveryoneCallsHimBarkeep: Although Jade's IRIS teammates call her by her name most often, Double H is only called by his codename... [[spoiler: except for when he's dying. Then, they call him "Hub." WordOfGod confirms that his full name is Hubert.]]
* FireForgedFriends: While it's not that she actively ''dislikes'' him, at first, Jade is clearly a lot less comfortable while working with Double H than she is working with Pey'j. However, the trials they endure together in the Factory unite them, and they become true friends. She's still a little less sure of him than she is of Pey'j, but even that begins to change.
* FirstNameBasis: As befitting his KnightInShiningArmor personality, he always politely refers to Jade as "Miss Jade." However, shortly after [[spoiler: the lighthouse is destroyed]], he kills the "Miss," cementing their [[FireForgedFriends Fire Forged Friendship]] once and for all.
* GentleGiant: Despite his military-minded exterior, he's ultimately kind-hearted--and even, if the credits are anything to go by, as much a FriendToAllChildren as Jade and Pey'j.
* GladHesOnOurSide: He remarks this about Jade after watching her single-handedly beat up several monsters.
* HelmetsAreHardlyHeroic: Averted. He never goes into battle without first donning his helmet, which he apparenly keeps in HammerSpace the rest of the time.
* IOweYouMyLife: The reason for his fierce loyalty--at first.
* JustInTime: [[spoiler: Double H saves Jade just as she's about to fall to her death.]]
* KnightInShiningArmor: Which, by the way, will be handy for several puzzles in the Slaughterhouses.
* LanternJawOfJustice
* LargeHam: '''''CARLSON AND PEETERS!'''''
%%* OlderSidekick
%%* PermaStubble
* PerpetualFrowner: At least at first. He starts to smile more in the later portions of the game.
* PluckyComicRelief: Less so than Pey'j though.
* SmoochOfVictory: Tries to plant one of these on Jade after she wins the last hovercraft race. Her reaction and if he succeeds are ambiguous.
* SorryImLate: He comes to your aid in the middle of a boss battle.
* SpaceMarine: More of a parody than a traditional take, though.
* TakeMyHand: [[spoiler: His rescue of Jade in the optional rooftop chase scene.]]
* UseYourHead: His main attack seems to be ramming things with his head.
* WhenHeSmiles: After being dour-faced for the entire game, he finally smiles after [[spoiler: seeing Jade break out of her HeroicBSOD.]] [[http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/HHSmile_5591.jpg Cue "awwwws."]]
* YouSeeImDying: [[spoiler: At the end of the dungeon where you save him, you find out he's dying due to [=DomZ=] infection, and you have to get him back to HQ in [[TimedMission five minutes]].]]

Jade's little [[ArtificialIntelligence AI]] buddy who transfers money to her account, and digitalizes items for later use.

* AsLongAsItSoundsForeign: He speaks with... [[WhatTheHellIsThatAccent some sort of accent]], but whatever it is, it's ''[[CrazyAwesome awesome]]''.
* BagOfHolding: He scans all of Jade's items and turns them into data. to be reconfigured upon actual use... [[TechnoBabble Or something like that.]]
* ChekhovsGunman: His major appearances are mostly near the beginning of the game. However, [[spoiler:in the end, he's able to hack into the computer on the moon base.]]
* HardLight: He's able to push buttons, somehow. And yet, he can't be high-fived or shoulder-slapped. Odd.
* HollywoodHacking: He has no problems [[spoiler: hacking the ''entire communications satellite.'']] Of course, it ''could'' be that he simply put the moves on the female AI.
* PoirotSpeak: Sort of just mashes Spanish, French and Italian words into his speech.
%%* ProjectedMan
* SnarkyNonHumanSidekick: He and Pey'j have a tendency to argue with one another.

Member of the IRIS Network, and the one who contacts Jade. He is usually the one in charge, so he might be second in command after the chief.

* BaldBlackLeaderGuy: Or at the very least, the Bald AmbiguouslyBrown Guy.
%%* BaldOfAwesome
%%* TheCall
%%* LaResistance
* RebelLeader: Although not quite the leader.
%%* TheStoic

Member of the IRIS Network, who Jade is constantly in contact with.

%%* CatGirl
%%* LaResistance
%%* MissionControl
* TeamMom: She seems to be this within the IRIS cell, and it shows especially when Double H comes back injured.
* VoiceWithAnInternetConnection: Not as often as Nino, but she takes the role on occasion.

Another IRIS member, who is in charge of broadcasting the reports.

* TheGenericGuy: Since he's most often in his "business" persona, he's probably the most normal of the IRIS members.
%%* LaResistance
* LargeHam: Tones up the ham a bit in his public bulletins about the Alpha Section's criminal activities.
%%* PlayfulHacker
* VoiceWithAnInternetConnection: He is explicitly a radio and communications officer, and sends most of your mission data.

The front man for IRIS, who works in the Akuda Bar as the master of Three Shell Monty. However, he also spends his time scouting for new talent--and signaled out Jade.

* BlindSeer: In a more modern version of this trope, he's the one who recognizes Jade's inherent talent and first realizes there's more to her than there is on the surface.
%%* CoolOldGuy
* InformedAttribute: He is ''probably'' blind given that he never seems to look anyone in the eye and his IronicNickname, but he then drops this line:
--> '''Peepers:''' You'd have to be blind not to see it. [Jade's talent]
** There's also the fact that he calls out a picture of a spirit eater that shows up in the first debriefing, even though nothing's said beforehand to suggest what it is.
* IronicNickname: Although he's called "Peepers," he is, in fact, blind.

!!Hal, Issam, and Babukar
A group of (supposedly related) rhino people who work at Mammago's Garage, who all talk and act like Jamaican stereotypes. They are the only ones who accept pearls in the game, which you can use to upgrade your hovercraft [[spoiler:or spacecraft]].

%%* BunnyEarsLawyer
%%* TheEngineer
%%* CoolGarage
%%* FriendInTheBlackMarket
%%* FunnyAnimal
%%* EruditeStoner
* GlobalCurrencyException: Only for the vendors.
* MommasBoy: Implied by their dialogue.

!!The Governor of Hillys
Helps out the IRIS Network, and gives out important information about the Alpha Section.

%%* CoolOldLady
%%* GovernmentInExile
* HollywoodHacking: To an extent; you'll have to take pictures of barcode-scanner locks and wait for her team to decrypt the passcode for you.
%%* NoNameGiven
* ReasonableAuthorityFigure: She not only knows the Alpha Sections are bad, but she and her team of hackers are actively willing to help IRIS.

!!The Lighthouse Children
Fehn, Pablo, Oumi, Yoa, Kip, and Zaza are a group of six children whom Jade watches over. They are all orphans of the war against the [=DomZ=]. Jade's desire to provide for them kickstarts the plot as she takes a risky job for the sake of helping them. [[spoiler: They eventually get kidnapped by the Alpha Sections, which drives Jade to a HeroicBSOD before coming back around to save them.]]

* AdorablyPrecociousChild: Kip, who takes a ''lot'' of responsibility for the other kids despite seemingly being one of the younger ones. Oumi is female, but has many of the same personality traits.
* AmazingTechnicolorPopulation: Yoa, who is, inexplicably, ''bright blue.'' She's supposedly a human, but that's up for debate.
* CoolBigSis: Fehn has an especially close relationship with Jade, so he views her in this light much more strongly than the other kids.
* FacialMarkings: Yoa has white ones on her cheeks, beneath her eyes.
* FunnyAnimal: Fehn and Oumi are both goat people, or ''Capra sapiens.''
* TheHeart: Oumi tries very hard to be this, and seems to worry about Jade a lot.
* HeartwarmingOrphan
* MrImagination: Fehn, who has a fondness for pretending to be a knight, and even wants to grow up to be a soldier.
** Possibly Pablo as well, since he seems to enjoy telling stories of Woof doing impossible things.
* MysteriousWaif: Yoa, in addition to being blue, speaks an unknown language and has been spying on Pey'j. Or she can ''see into the future.'' It's not clear which, but either way, she's mysterious and [[ForeShadowing drops some vauge hints about impending plot events if you talk to her]].
* OneSteveLimit: The orphan Fehn is not to be confused with the JerkAss news anchor Fehn Digler.
* ParentWithNewParamour: Initially, Fehn seems to ''think'' this is the case between [[SheIsNotMyGirlfriend Jade and Double H]]. He seems... skeptical. However, the end credits PhotoMontage shows that he eventually comes to like Double H a lot--and probably has Jade set him straight.
* ShrinkingViolet: Zaza. This is probably because her parents were only killed recently, so it's understandable that she's still in a state of shock.
* TroubledChild: Poor Zaza...

!!Fehn Digler
A smarmy Hillyan News reporter/anchor who spends most of the game being a propoganda mouthpiece for the Alpha Section.

* ConfusedBystanderInterview: Tries to pull this on Jade after the lighthouse attack. Pey'j is not amused.
%%* CoolShades
* GonzoJournalism: If you subscribe to the Hillyan News, you can be treated to his efforts to slander the IRIS "terrorists" after every major plot event ([[CoincidentalBroadcast often immedeately afterwards]]). [[spoiler:Satisfyingly twisted in your favor right before the endgame.]]
* KentBrockmanNews
%%* LargeHam
* OneSteveLimit: See above.
* ProfessionalButtKisser: If he isn't outright in the Alpha Section's pocket, he sure does love buttering them up. [[spoiler:Thus, when you blow the lid off the entire conspiracy at the end, he somewhat sheepishly spends his last broadcast singing the praises of the "proud journalistic profession".]]
* PropagandaMachine: One arm of it for the Alpha Section. When they broadcast audio of his interview with Jade, they include Pey saying "You guys are ''not'' what I'd call as fast as a speeding bullet!" They conveniently cut his follow-up, "Keep doing nothing, and next time, there'll be nothing left to save!" Also, they omit the "not".
%%* TheQuisling
%%* SmarmyHost
* TotallyRadical: "Hey pop! Stay zen! Don't get your snout bent out of shape!"
* WarWasBeginning: "The war has arrived at the gates of Hillys!"

!!General Kheck
The Supreme Commander of the Alpha Section. Appears on televisions all across Hillys reassuring the population (badly) that everything is under control.

* AlmostDeadGuy: [[spoiler:After Jade crashes his ship, he clings to life just long enough to deliver a DyingCurse to her face-to-face.]]
* ArmchairMilitary: While he'll sometimes do some fighting in the relative safety of a gigantic SpiderTank, he's never seen personally fighting the [=DomZ=] in battle, only broadcasting propaganda to the masses. [[spoiler:Makes sense considering he's their ally. He also takes this literally in one instance, piloting a flying, weaponized chair that he uses to try to kill Jade with during an optional quest.]]
* BaldOfEvil: A very bald and unapologetically evil man.
* CardCarryingVillain: [[spoiler:Privately, he doesn't even pretend to act like he's serving anyone's best interests but his own. He wipes out species along with the [=DomZ=] just to ensure his own immortality, and his final words are even, "May the angels of darkness rise to glory."]]
* ClimaxBoss: [[spoiler:Not directly, but his spider tank is.]]
* ColonelBadass: Though he doesn't get to show it until the end of the game.
* TheDragon: As the leader of the Alpha Section [[spoiler:he's the right-hand man to the [=DomZ=] Priest, and is apparently secure enough in his position that he's able to tell the Priest that it needs him as much as Kheck needs it.]]
* DyingCurse: He curses Jade and tells her why she's doomed to fail, because he thinks she's already lost everything important to her--her uncle, her kids, and even her parents. [[spoiler: Jade stares him down until his death, because she knows how wrong he is.]]
* GeneralFailure: There's really nothing excusing his handling of the military. [[spoiler:On the other hand, considering his allegiances, he's not exactly in a position to care...]]
* IHaveYourWife: [[spoiler:He kidnaps the orphans from the lighthouse.]]
* ImplacableMan: [[spoiler:In his optional sidequest encounter, he's riding a heavily armed, ''fast'' jetpack with equally-heavily armed troops backing him up. RunOrDie.]]
* LargeHam: Most apparent during his propaganda broadcasts where he really tries to oversell the evils of the IRIS Network and just how safe everyone is thanks to the Alpha Sections. [[spoiler:He also seems to be enjoying a lot when trying to kill Jade in an optional quest and later on the moon.]]
* ImmortalityImmorality: [[spoiler:Is willing to aid the [=DomZ=] in wiping out entire species by draining them of their fluids, just so he can live longer.]]
* ObviouslyEvil: Wears black armor. [[BaldOfEvil Has no hair]]. Makes hammy speeches on the television about how "Great" it is to be a member of the Alpha Section, while lunging his arm forward in a Hitler-like fashion.
* OptionalBoss: [[spoiler:Of the Alpha Section HQ sidequest; he follows up a hair-raising stealth sequence (evade detection at all costs or die instantly) with a JumpScare and a memorable RoofHopping escape.]]
* PropagandaMachine: Which he uses ''constantly'', and ''[[EvilIsHammy loudly]]''.
* TheReasonYouSuckSpeech: Gives one [[spoiler: as he's about to die]].
* SpiderTank: He pilots something similar to this [[spoiler: ON THE MOON.]]
* VampiricDraining: [[spoiler:Turns out, he and the [=DomZ=] have been kidnapping people to "drain their fluids" so they themselves can live longer.]]
* WouldHurtAChild: [[spoiler:Has the Alpha Section abduct the orphans from Jade's life house, and when they meet face-to-face, he mocks her about how they're already dead.]]

!!The Alpha Section
The FacelessMooks under the command of General Kheck. They've recently converted the [[SecretGovernmentWarehouse Nutripils factory]] and the [[LandmarkingTheHiddenBase Old Slaughter House]] into their [[SupervillainLair military bases]] on Hillys.

* DropTheHammer: Their weapon of choice.
* EvilMakesYouUgly: [[spoiler:Without their helmets on, the Alpha Section troops look downright grotesque.]]
* EyeBeams: Though in this case they're for scanning the environment, and not igniting their enemies.
* GasMaskMooks: [[spoiler:In order to hide the grotesque corruption that the [=DomZ=] have afflicted them with.]]
* MightyGlacier: If you're not able to exploit their obvious weak point (below) or [[BullyingADragon just choose not to]], you can take one out in a straight fight with some {{Bullfight Boss}}-like tactics. However, their hammers hit damn hard if you mess up, and they can take a lot of punishment. Fighting a crowd of them is usually unwise unless you're very good with melee combos.
* ObviouslyEvil: That the Alpha Section doesn't mean well is really no big surprise. Beside the traits that General Kheck shows, the average soldiers never show their faces, have glowing red visors, and wear black armor with skulls painted on them.
* ShootTheFuelTank: Kicking it once causes them to run around uncontrollably until they get it repaired. Kicking it ''twice'' causes the tank to fly into air, taking it with them [[{{Balloonacy}} higher and higher]], unless they hit a ceiling or something else [[CruelAndUnusualDeath and explode]].
* PoweredArmor: It's even better than the regular army's laser proof armor.
* SpaceBase: [[spoiler:A base on the moon.]]

!!The [=DomZ=] Priest
The apparent leader of the [=DomZ=] and the FinalBoss of the game, who seems to have a specific interest in Jade. He appears as a strange squid-lobster hybrid... thing with a particularly screwed-up voice.

* BigBad: It is the thing responsible for the main conflict.
* TheCorruption: If the pod on [[spoiler:Pey'j's hand and the grotesque faces of the Alpha Section soldiers]] are anything to go by, the [=DomZ=] Priest can cause something along the lines of this.
* DeadpanSnarker: Isn't really one, but how he says "the pig" (referring to Pey'j) gives off vibes of this.
* DeathByIrony: [[spoiler: Before she was "taken away" and turned into a human, Shauni (Jade) was the source of his powers, and he wants her back. She's the one that kills him. Ends up pulling double-duty as HoistByHisOwnPetard, in that sense.]]
* EldritchAbomination: Yeah, it doesn't look all that threatening, but... seriously, what the ''hell'' is it? Where did it come from? How was it created? What the ''fuck'' is with the giant humanoid statue that it rests on? What's with the statue's deformed, almost holographic face? What's its gender? In what way is it a "priest"? Did it create the other [=DomZ=]? Are there more like it? Nobody knows, at least until we get some answers at the second game.
** ''Also'', it basically looks like a floating head with something resembling tendrils and mandibles. The very first utterance of a line it ever had was a cough, followed by him saying that he's dying. If we may be so blunt as to ask, "Your Excellency", what happened to the ''[[BodyHorror rest]]'' of your body?
* EvilOverlord: Inverted. He's secretly in command of an interstellar military force, not the planets' own security forces. He wants to drain the population of its life energy, not lord over it, and his existence is seemingly top-secret to all those that know, even enemies.
* EvilPlan: As above, its draining life energy.
* FantasticRacism: He almost derisively refers to Pey'j as "the pig" at one point. Might've just been a jab at the individual in question, however, seeing as how Pey'j was apparently among those that took away the source of his powers; it's somewhat understandable that he might hold a grudge over that.
* FlunkyBoss: He primarily lets that giant statue spawn crystal shields to protect him from attacks by Jade. Said statue also captures Pey'j and Double H, projecting copies of them to attack her, after the regular [=DomZ=] minions are out of the way. The only time he's ever fought directly would be after he drowns the entire area (apart from the triple elevator platform), where he literally comes face-to-face with Jade, lunging his entire figure at her to literally throw her off her feet.
* ForTheEvulz: He wants to live longer and restore his original level of power back. Okay, so maybe he wants to accomplish something important to him? ... nope, he just wants to live longer. Not a very good reason for him causing something along the lines of mass murder.
* ImAHumanitarian: When he attacks Jade by basically head-butting her, it almost looks like he's trying to ''eat'' her.
* ImpaledWithExtremePrejudice: ''Tries'' to do this to Jade, more or less. [[spoiler:He's killed in this way. ]]
* InterfaceScrew: Subjects you to this in ''epic'' fashion when [[DesperationAttack he's on his last legs]].
* TheManBehindTheMan: The ''real'' leader of the Alpha Section.
* ObviouslyEvil: Although introduced in the very last level of the game, the Priest makes its debut standing in front of [[GeneralRipper the commander]] of the [[ArmiesAreEvil Alpha Section]], who refers to the Priest as "Your Excellency". Hell, appearance notwithstanding, its echoing, almost sickly voice tone, on top of how he orders said commander to find Jade and bring her to it, clinches it.
* PuzzleBoss: You're supposed to defeat him by ''never missing a beat'' in hitting him whenever he turns up in a regular pattern. People who don't get this end up whaling on him only to get struck and returned to the start of the pattern, in a truly Sisyphean task.
* TeleportSpam: Does this every time Jade attacks him.
* VoiceOfTheLegion: ''Very'' diseased-sounding voice, echoing each time it utters a phrase.
* WeCanRuleTogether: A variation.