In One Piece, in the Alabasta Arc (specifically in the Alabasta civil war), our heroes deemed that the situation has too far gone south to be resolved in peaceful ways. Luffy then deduces that there's only one other way to solve the conflict: Beat the guy behind them all, Crocodile. His crew were initially surprised about Luffy's plan but it works in the end.
Really, this is often Luffy's strategy: Rushing in first to find the one behind the conflict (and/or the strongest of the enemy) and then beating them, often conflicting with the rest of the crew's plan.
This is the whole objective in Chess, via taking out the enemy king. Taking out the enemy pieces doesn't matter, although it makes life easier on your king.
Used and extensively discussed in The Patriot. Col. Benjamin Martin intentionally targets British officers first in his irregular guerrilla campaigns to sow confusion among the British regulars. He discusses it with British General Cornwallis during a neutral meeting, with the latter calling it uncalled for. Martin questions what would be an "acceptable" level of hostile intent during warfare, and Cornwallis' states his concern is to maintain order and prevent atrocities committed by leaderless armies. Martin refuses to change his tactic as long as other British officers like Col. Tavington engage in pointless brutalities that violate the Laws and Customs of Warfare, and Cornwallis concedes the point.
Star Wars: when the Jedi are not leading from the back, or a Frontline General, they engage in this type of mission. General Grievous also likes to do this against Jedi.
This is what the machines tried to do in the Terminator films, using Time Travel. First they tried to take out John Connor's mother so he wouldn't even be born. Then they sent a better Terminator to take out a teenage John Connor.
In Cleopatra Mark Anthony attempts this in the final sea battle against Octavian. He sails his ship right at Octavian's flagship because even if he loses the battle, killing Octavian will still win him the war. It fails because Octavian is not actually on his flagship and is instead on another ship away from the fighting.
During the Battle for Graza in book five of Arcia Chronicles, Alexander's army is betrayed, so he gathers the remaining loyal cavalry and orders a Self-Destructive Charge against the the enemy commander Pierre Tartue's position. He doesn't make it all the way there (though his best friend saves him from a certain death), but he gets close enough for Pierre to literally need a new pair of pants afterwards.
In A Song of Ice and Fire, a lot of battle strategies among the warring claimants to the throne involve capturing or killing important commanders on the other side(s) as well as taking a side "out of the race" by killing their leader
At the climax of Kushiel's DartIsidore d'Aiglemort leads his army on a cavalry charge against the Skaldi, aiming to get to Waldemar Selig and kill him. They end up in a Mutual Kill.
Done at the climax of Enders Game. Ender orders the fleet to charge straight in and fire their mass disintegrator weapons at the Formic homeworld, causing an Earth-Shattering Kaboom that kills all but one queen, taking all but a fraction of the species with it.
In the first Redwall novel, Constance the badger tries to end the siege of Redwall Abbey by sniping enemy commander Cluny the Scourge. It fails due to a rather accidental Decoy Leader situation. Later on, when Cluny falls in battle, the enemy army falls into disarray, and many of the invaders surrender immediately.
Dungeons & Dragons 1st Edition supplement Unearthed Arcana. In battle, cavaliers would automatically charge toward and attack enemy leaders in an attempt to gain glory by defeating them. The charge would be made at full speed, regardless of army cohesion, intervening friendly troops, or any other consideration.
Warhammer 40K's Tyranids use synapse creatures as commanders, who relay the Hive Mind's orders to each individual 'nid in range. Taking out a synapse creature (which can best be summed up as "shoot the big ones") causes momentary confusion amid the 'nids, until a synapse creature gets back in range.
Warhammer 40K: This is standard operating procedure when dealing with an Ork "Waaagh!" A Waaagh (combination mass migration, holy war, and pub crawl) only comes together when a Warboss is strong and charismatic enough, and killing him all but ensures that the inevitable squabble for leadership among his subordinates fractures the Waaagh. Of course, since a Warboss is a 12 foot tall mountain of muscle with stunning anger management issues, this is easier said than done.
Tau armies suffer severe morale penalties if their Ethereal leader is slain. A blurb in an Imperial Guard codex credits a Ratling sniper named Magogg with assuring one Imperial victory when he blew an Ethereal's head off.
Tyrant: Some cards have a skill called fear, which means it ignores the opposing assault and attacking the commander directly. Some of the top decks use this, and works because every battle pits 2 keystone armies.
In Fallout: New Vegas, Vulpes Inculta's backstory has him winning a victory for Caesar's Legion against a hostile tribe by charging through a hole in their defences and capturing their chieftain. His centurion demands that Vulpes executed for defying orders, but Caesar is impressed by his cunning and tactical knowledge and has him transferred to the Frumentarii, Caesar's network of spies.
Zig-Zagged in the Fire Emblem series. Sometimes missions can be won instantly by killing the enemy commander as soon as possible, other times you have to kill every enemy soldier regardless.
In Dawn of War II, this is represented by having the Tyranids start attacking each other.
The "Assassination" victory condition in Dawn of War: as soon as the enemy hero dies, they lose. Some AIs make an effort to keep their commanders alive, others... don't.
A valid tactic in Warlords Battlecry 3 is to go straight for the commander- since he's the initial builder unit and able to capture resource sites, taking him out will seriously hamper the enemy activities, possibly even crippling the AI side completely, if they have no alternative builders or heroes.
Killing the opponent's king unit in Regicide mode in Age of Empires II gives you instant victory, regardless of how many other units and resources the other player still has. Of course, losing your king will do the same to you. In several campaign scenarios the objective is killing one particular enemy commander or destroying one enemy building too.
Ogre Battle: The series makes this a way to shorten the battles via creating a Decapitated Army. Useful for ending annoying scenarios but losing items you could get via annihilating units (but doing said thing deals with the Chaos Frame, or Karma Meter if you want to see it that way.)
Tactics Ogre: Makes this trope the only way you or the enemy operates (specially in the Chaos Route Rime Battle where the Commander and a guest are in the middle of the heat and the army has to play Catch up, a really bad moment if the player has made said unit a Squishy Wizard).
A viable tactic in the Total War series. Killing the enemy general will shake the morale of the entire enemy force. Low morale units may rout and this can trigger a chain reaction of the entire force fleeing.
This is a viable tactic in the Uncharted Waters series: rushing for the enemy flagship and taking it out (with cannons or by boarding) is an instant-win condition, which helps preserve own forces and the cargo carried by other enemy ships (on the downside, you get less XP). In the second game, you can additionally challenge the enemy captain to a Combat by Champion by boarding his flagship with your own.
This is a tactic in several battles in Final Fantasy VI, notably any battle involving switching between multiple parties to prevent an enemy advance and Cyan's defense of Doma Castle.
Played straight in Supreme Commander The default victory condition in multiplayer is assassination, where to win one must kill the enemy Armored Command Unit. This is no small feat considering that the Commander usually has a full-out army and/or base protecting him, not to mention the fact that he's one of the most powerful units in the game. Some players might try to send a group of high-damage units on a suicide run to snipe the enemy commander, or if one player is too reckless with using his commander as a combat unit then they could find a surprise waiting for them.
When the victory condition isn't assassination, this trope may become inverted as one player suicides his commander into the enemy army/base so the nuclear warhead within takes out as much stuff as possible.
In No Need for Bushido, part of Yukizane's backstory involves ending a war by engaging the enemy commander in a one-on-one battle... in a game of chess.
In the first battle for Earth in Exosquad, the Able Squad is able to turn the tide of battle in Terran favor by assaulting the enemy flagship, buying the Terran fleet time to escape the massacre more or less intact.
In the season 1 finale of Ben 10: Alien Force, the heroes, failing to stop the Hightbreed invasion, end up using their portails to reach the Hightbreed Supreme himself. Played with in that they don't end up killing him, but rather finding a peaceful solution to end the conflict.
In modern times, concern about snipers using this very tactic has led to the phasing out of identifying marks for officers, with inconspicuous rank insignia, and salutes by soldiers of lower rank expressly discouraged. So, Bling of War is now non-existent in real life.
King Richard III attempted this at the Battle of Bosworth Field. With the battle starting to tip against him, Richard spotted Henry Tudor and his party riding off towards the army of Lord Stanley, which at this point of the battle was hanging off to the side, neutral. Richard took the men around him and went after Henry. Henry's bodyguards fought Richard's men off, Stanley's army finally interceded on behalf of Henry Tudor, and Richard was cornered and killed. Tudor became King Henry VII.
This was a frequent strategy of Alexander the Great. He would hold his personal forces and bodyguards in reserve until an opening appeared wherein he could go straight in and kill the enemy general. He used this quite effectively against the Persians, scaring Emperor Darius III into fleeing the field.
In the last battle of "el Cid Campeador" / "el mio Cid" this was the fear of his wife as she prepped the corpse so the soldiers wouldn't lose morale by learning that their commander was down.
This is also payed with in the historical context as by the fact of the Commander being as such had access to better armor, or heck only the one outside his honor guard to have armor depending on the historical moment, it meant they were the ones that were harder to kill off.
Averted in the fall of Constantinople when the king tore down the distinction that would make him identifiable and charged towards with his men making this approach impossible.
In 1943 U.S. military intelligence intercepted a message stating that Admiral Isoruku Yamamoto, commander of the Imperial Japanese Navy, would be flying from point A to point B at a certain time. The Americans successfully intercepted the plane and shot it down, killing Yamamoto, the architect of the attack on Pearl Harbor.
From the Wars of the Roses: The First Battle of St. Albans was a battle between armies of thousands, but ended as a decisive Yorkist victory when the Duke of York's men went straight for the Duke of Somserset and killed him. The total number of casualties was less than 100.
Five hats means that five tropers think it is ready to publish.
You are saying that you think this draft is ready to be published. That means the description is not ambiguous,
it doesn't duplicate an existing trope, there are at least three examples, and the title makes sense.
Is that what you meant to do?
You are saying this draft has a ready-to-publish hat it does not deserve and you are taking it back.