The shoulder is the safest, most non-lethal ans effective way of neutralizing someone. Except it is not.
In a lot of cop shows and movies, a character with Improbable Aiming Skills
will shoot a bad guy in a supposedly none-lethal area as a way to stop him without killing him.
As awesome as that is, it is impractical
and cops would never do this for various reasons.
Most people aren't trained to fire at any body part other than the chest. This is because the chest is the largest and easiest target. This is why nobody goes for head shoots, because the head is a very small body part and very difficult to hit. Other body parts are even more difficult. The idea of shooting a person in an area you are more than likely to miss in a situation where missing is not an option is bad.
"But the cop has awesome skills. He can defiantly hit the shoulder if he had to." Maybe, but that doesn't mean the shot isn't lethal. Getting shot in the leg doesn't stop you from bleeding to death, dying from shock, or having your leg amputated. Bullets from rifles such as the M16 tumble, and causes a lot of internal damage upon impact.
This is the main reason you never point a weapon at anything you do not intend to kill, and neither cops nor military service members fire there weapons and anything unless they are shooting to kill.
Not that this happens in fiction, where you never die from a shot in the leg.