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A trope appearing in certain science fiction works set in futures with lots of human-looking robots and androids. This is when characters have to test to determine if a given character is one or the other. Usually done by looking for clues in mannerisms and other tell-tale signs that someone is not quite human. Also can be done by asking questions only a human or a machine would be able to answer.
A classic example is the Voight-Kampff test from Blade Runner
, used to differentiate between humans and replicants.