At the end of Constantine, the titular character dies and his soul is finally judged worthy of entering heaven, but the devil is so annoyed at being cheated out of his soul that he brings Constantine back to life and cures his cancer so that he has at least a few more years to screw up and get himself damned to hell.
A joke recycled every time a celebrity gets caught in a sex scandal: X and the Pope die at the same time, but there's an error and they go to the wrong afterlife. The error is fixed, and they cross each other going down/back up. The Pope asks X if he met the Virgin Mary, X smirks and says they don't call her that anymore.
An Evil Lawyer Joke uses this as the setup, where a guy gets sent to hell when he should have gone to heaven. When the Devil refuses to give him back, God threatens to sue, countered by "And where do you think the lawyers are?"
In Ghost Story, Harry Dresden encounters an angel sent to a critically wounded Father Forthill to escort him safely to Heaven if he dies. She explains that Hell would steal even the souls of saints if they could get away with it. And the nether zone of the afterlife is unsafe enough that the souls working there need an angel security guard.
In the Incarnations of Immortality series, the system for processing souls is rather messed up, due to God slacking off. Zane, the new Death, is unsatisfied with babies going to Purgatory, and manages to get the system adjusted to send them to Heaven instead. Later on, when Parry takes over running hell in For Love Of Evil, he realizes a large portion of souls arriving there don't deserve it, and tries to show the A Hell of a Time instead. Eventually he instigates a Plan to get God replaced.
The Detective Inspector Chen novel Snake Agent begins when a young woman scheduled to go to Heaven is photographed by a brothel in Hell. Turns out that she's not the only one, and the villains plan involves doing it wholesale.
In Mark Twain's story, "Captain Stormfield's Visit to Heaven", Captain Stormfield initially winds up in the "wrong" heaven, an alien one.
In The Salvation War, Heaven has been closed off for centuries. Everyone who otherwise would have gone there has gone to Hell instead, no matter how Faithful they were.
Subverted (or Inverted?) in Buffy the Vampire Slayer season 6. At the end of season 5 Buffy dies. At the beginning of 6 her friends are worried that her soul may have been sent to a hell dimension so they bring her back from the dead. Turns out she was in heaven. Oops.
In the Dungeons & Dragons module A Paladin In Hell, during the funeral of a powerful paladin, the entire temple hosting the service is dragged into hell to claim his soul. The players have to travel to hell, find the temple and free his soul. Oh, and the module was close to Tomb of Horrors in terms of unfair difficulty.
In the Forgotten Realms setting, souls that end up in the Fugue Plane (those that were religious but didn't devote themselves to a specific patron deity, those who betrayed their creed, and atheists) can have this happen to them courtesy of fiends. The baatezu (a.k.a. devils, Lawful Evil fiends) have an agreement with the Fugue Plane's administration that they can try to talk unclaimed souls into going with them, while the tanar'ri (a.k.a. demons, Chaotic Evil fiends) simply resort to mass kidnapping.
Kodlak in The Elder Scrolls V: Skyrim wants to go to the Nordic afterlife of Sovngarde, but since he's a werewolf, knows that the Daedra Hircine will claim his soul after death instead. Kodlak is killed when his home is attacked by werewolf hunters, but the Dovahkiin is able to break his curse after his death, freeing his soul from Hircine's realm.
Grim Fandango: Big Bad Hector is stealing tickets to the Number Nine express, a luxury train that takes the most virtuous souls directly to the next underworld, and selling them to people who don't deserve them. However, the tickets he's selling are counterfeit, he's hoarding the real ones for himself in a desperate bid to balance out a life of evil.
In Dante's Inferno, Beatrice, who is the wife of Dante is dragged into hell because Dante cheated death. Dante has to descend into hell to save Beatrice's soul.
In Final Fantasy IX, souls return to The Lifestream of the planet they came from. The Evil Plan of Garland is to reroute the souls of the entire population of Gaea through an artificial tree which will "cleanse" them (purge them of identity) and then reroute them to his planet, Terra, so that the long-dead Terrans that created him will be reborn.
pictures for sad children: Paul, after being a ghost for about a year, receives a letter admitting him to the afterlife. He should have gotten it immediately after his death, but it got lost in the mail. This causes problems when Paul decides he'd rather not pass on: since he was informed of the afterlife so late, he has much less time to fulfill the requirements to stay on Earth as a ghost.
South Park: In an early episode (later retconned?) we learn that only Mormons get into Heaven, everyone else goes to Hell. But Satan, having had it up to here with Saddam Hussein, gets God to send Hussein to Heaven along with all the Mormons (because to Hussein, that is hell).
At the end of one episode of The Simpsons, The Rapture happens and Lisa (but no other Simpson) is being lifted bodily into heaven. Homer grabs her ankle and makes her go to hell with the rest of the family.
An episode of Eek! The Cat has Eek dying and winding up in the Celestial Bureaucracy. This shouldn't have happened in the first place, because Eek hadn't used up all nine of his lives yet. Then, a damned soul asks Eek to hold his rap sheet while he "goes to the bathroom", so Eek winds up getting sent to Hell in his place. However, Eek is so optimistic that the torments of Hell don't affect him at all, and he succeeds at all the Sisyphean tasks the Devil sets for him.
Five hats means that five tropers think it is ready to publish.
You are saying that you think this draft is ready to be published. That means the description is not ambiguous,
it doesn't duplicate an existing trope, there are at least three examples, and the title makes sense.
Is that what you meant to do?
You are saying this draft has a ready-to-publish hat it does not deserve and you are taking it back.