By Japanís Law for Protection of Cultural Properties, people can become certified as Preservers of Important Intangible Cultural Properties when they have attained high mastery in a specific field. These outstanding potters, sculptors, artists, craftsmen, musicians and performers are popularly called Living National Treasure (in contrast to objects). There appears to be an official box for Living National Treasures in Britain: it's called the Order of Merit (OM)
and at any one time only a limited number of people may put OM after their names - chosen by the monarch, I can't recall if it's eight or ten.
- Stephen Fry has this status in Britain... but not the OM...
- Seven Hawking kind of has this status in the scientific community.
- In Kenichi: The Mightiest Disciple, Akisame, the philosopher martial artist, is explicitly shown to be one of these. He excels in all fields of the traditional arts and craft, to a supernatural degree.
- In the manga Katana, which is about katana craftsmanship, the protagonist is the youngest son of an entire lineage of these. Currently his grandfather holds the title.
- In Toriko, Setsuno is one of these because of her gourmet expertise.
- In Naruto, the Uchiha and the Hyuuga are seen (and see themselves) as this, though they're more of a militaristic than artistic asset to their Hidden Village.
- In SherlockHolmes, Mycroft Holmes (played by Stephen Fry, and it's not the first time he played that character) could be seen to hold this status: he is indispensible to the British government, even though no one knows what he exactly does.