History UsefulNotes / WorldWarI

13th Nov '17 7:22:45 AM Rmpdc
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* One segment of an episode of ''WebOriginal/BedtimeStoriesYoutubeChannel'' tells the story of a mysterious encounter between a German U-boat crew and a sea monster, thought to be a long-extinct Mosasaur, following them sinking a British cargo ship.

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* One segment of an episode of ''WebOriginal/BedtimeStoriesYoutubeChannel'' ''WebVideo/BedtimeStoriesYoutubeChannel'' tells the story of a mysterious encounter between a German U-boat crew and a sea monster, thought to be a long-extinct Mosasaur, following them sinking a British cargo ship.
13th Nov '17 7:14:28 AM Rmpdc
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Added DiffLines:

* One segment of an episode of ''WebOriginal/BedtimeStoriesYoutubeChannel'' tells the story of a mysterious encounter between a German U-boat crew and a sea monster, thought to be a long-extinct Mosasaur, following them sinking a British cargo ship.
12th Nov '17 1:45:32 AM anonzeta
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[[caption-width-right:350:The War To End All Wars. [[ItWasHisSled It didn't.]]]]

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[[caption-width-right:350:The War To End All Wars. [[ItWasHisSled [[ForegoneConclusion It didn't.]]]]
7th Nov '17 11:46:50 AM ThomasProofreader
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Towards the end of TheEdwardianEra, between 1914-1918, a war broke out between two alliances: the French-led 'Entente Cordiale' and the German-led 'Central Powers'[[note]] Terms a lot of academic articles and books have been using lately, and which we kindly ask you to use when editing this page since it helps avoid confusion with World War Two.[[/note]]. These two power blocs comprised the richest and most powerful empires and nation-states on earth, commanding empires in Europe and abroad, leading to the biggest, bloodiest, most expensive, most disruptive, most damaging and most traumatising war the world had ever seen. It left millions dead, maimed, shell-shocked, dispossessed, impoverished, starving and bitter. It forever shattered among a good contingent of individuals across multiple political spectrums the notion that WarIsGlorious and through mechanized warfare unleashed violence on the human body and mind, on such a scale, that it could no longer be hidden, romanticized, or slid under the carpet from public eyes, the way violence in earlier wars was managed by nation states and PropagandaMachine.

The nature of the war is such that its end is usually celebrated in multiple countries as Armistice Day, or ceasefire, rather than victory. Most were grateful the war ''finally'' ended and that the ones who survived could go home, with the really lucky ones going back uninjured. The war is considered [[DawnOfAnEra to be the true beginning of]] TheTwentiethCentury, severing continuity with the conformity, stability, and in retrospect, the comforting illusions of progress and decency that people ascribed to European civilization. Four of Europe's great empires (UsefulNotes/ImperialGermany, [[UsefulNotes/TheSoundOfMartialMusic Austria-Hungary]], UsefulNotes/TsaristRussia, UsefulNotes/OttomanEmpire) cracked apart, resulting in the liberation and formation of new nations, [[UsefulNotes/RedOctober culminating in a revolution]] of a size and scale [[UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution not seen since 1789]]. The empires and nations that did come out ''status quo ante bellum'', such as UsefulNotes/TheBritishEmpire and UsefulNotes/TheFrenchColonialEmpire found their power and uncontested influence weakened and challenged, both at home, and in their colonies, marking the beginning of the end of the age of empires that had defined the 19th Century, with the United States of America taking the role of a global leader for the first time, under President UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson.

Formerly known as "The Great War" or "The World War," and poetically as, "The War to End All Wars." Perhaps surprisingly, even the term, "The First World War" was applied quite early, not in the sense of anticipation of a second, but rather as a descriptor of it being the first time something like this had happened. After [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII the sequel]] broke out, the term "The First World War" naturally became standard, this time with full reference to the second. The title, "the Great War" had previously been applied to UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars. The end of that conflict, followed by the Concert at Vienna in 1814--1815 created a BalanceOfPower that lasted for almost exactly a hundred years. The hope of the Concert was to contain the specter of revolution that they saw as a threat to national and domestic stability. The gradual fracturing of that alliance towards the end of the century ultimately led to the return of revolution and domestic and national instability that in Europe would not heal until [[UsefulNotes/HistoryOfTheColdWar the fall of the USSR]]. In the case of other parts of the world affected by the war, chiefly the Middle East, that had once formed part of the Ottoman Empire, that instability still remains and persists well into the 21st Century, with no sign of ebbing for several decades past the approaching centennial of armistice.

to:

Towards the end of TheEdwardianEra, between 1914-1918, a war broke out between two alliances: the French-led 'Entente Cordiale' and the German-led 'Central Powers'[[note]] Terms a lot of academic articles and books have been using lately, and which we kindly ask you to use when editing this page since it helps avoid confusion with World War Two.[[/note]]. These two power blocs comprised the richest and most powerful empires and nation-states on earth, commanding empires in Europe and abroad, leading to the biggest, bloodiest, most expensive, most disruptive, most damaging and most traumatising traumatizing war the world had ever seen. It left millions dead, maimed, shell-shocked, dispossessed, impoverished, starving and bitter. It forever shattered among a good contingent of individuals across multiple political spectrums the notion that WarIsGlorious and through mechanized warfare unleashed violence on the human body and mind, on such a scale, that it could no longer be hidden, romanticized, or slid under the carpet from public eyes, the way violence in earlier wars was managed by nation states and PropagandaMachine.

The nature of the war is such that its end is usually celebrated in multiple countries as Armistice Day, or ceasefire, rather than victory. Most were grateful the war ''finally'' ended and that the ones who survived could go home, with the really lucky ones going back uninjured. The war is considered [[DawnOfAnEra to be the true beginning of]] TheTwentiethCentury, severing continuity with the conformity, stability, and in retrospect, the comforting illusions of progress and decency that people ascribed to European civilization. Four of Europe's great empires (UsefulNotes/ImperialGermany, [[UsefulNotes/TheSoundOfMartialMusic Austria-Hungary]], UsefulNotes/TsaristRussia, UsefulNotes/OttomanEmpire) cracked apart, resulting in the liberation and formation of new nations, [[UsefulNotes/RedOctober culminating in a revolution]] of a size and scale [[UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution not seen since 1789]]. The empires and nations that did come out ''status quo ante bellum'', such as UsefulNotes/TheBritishEmpire and UsefulNotes/TheFrenchColonialEmpire found their power and uncontested influence weakened and challenged, both at home, and in their colonies, marking the beginning of the end of the age of empires that had defined the 19th Century, with the United States of America taking the role of a global leader for the first time, under President UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson.

UsefulNotes/WoodrowWilson.

Formerly known as "The Great War" or "The World War," and poetically as, "The War to End All Wars." Perhaps surprisingly, even the term, "The First World War" was applied quite early, not in the sense of anticipation of a second, but rather as a descriptor of it being the first time something like this had happened. After [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII the sequel]] broke out, the term "The First World War" naturally became standard, this time with full reference to the second. The title, "the Great War" had previously been applied to UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars. The end of that conflict, followed by the Concert at Vienna in 1814--1815 created a BalanceOfPower that lasted for almost exactly a hundred years. The hope of the Concert was to contain the specter of revolution that they saw as a threat to national and domestic stability. The gradual fracturing of that alliance towards the end of the century ultimately led to the return of revolution and domestic and national instability that in Europe would not heal until [[UsefulNotes/HistoryOfTheColdWar the fall of the USSR]]. In the case of other parts of the world affected by the war, chiefly the Middle East, that had once formed part of the Ottoman Empire, that instability still remains and persists well into the 21st Century, with no sign of ebbing for several decades past the approaching centennial of armistice.
armistice.



* Germany declares war on Russia in support of Austria-Hungary, as Kaiser Wilhelm had promised to support Austria-Hungary no matter what. On 1 August France and Germany mobilize their reserves simultaneously, Germany's mobilization coming with a formal declaration of war (upon France, Belgium, and Luxembourg). Britain declares war upon Germany[[note]] because the Cabinet had agreed that they would go to war if Germany declared war on Belgium. There was a group of hardliners who wanted war with Germany no matter what, but the Cabinet as a whole felt that entering a war and formally joining the Entente Cordiale would be deeply unpopular unless it was done in response to an invasion of Belgium. Unspoken was the way the war was a marvelous opportunity to submerge internal dissent (chiefly Irish devolution, safe working conditions and livable pay, and womens' rights) and cripple the German economy [[/note]], and members of the British Commonwealth - India, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, among others - follow suit.
* Russia launches its East Prussian offensive with 400k, France executes ''Plan XVII'' with c.600k—French offensive into Germany, Luxembourg, and southern Belgium to pre-empt Germany's ''Aufmarsch I''[[note]] Deployment Plan I, which calls for deployment of c. 80% of the German army against France and c.15% (c.200k) against Russia. The plan is flexible, so deployed troops can be used for offensive or counter-offensive actions. Under Chief-of-Staff Schlieffen (retired 1905) counter-offensive action was preferred as it combined the best features of defense (greater tactical effectiveness due to superior intelligence, cover, and machine-guns) and offense (ability to mass superior forces against inferior enemy ones and thereby defeat them with minimal losses). But his successor Chief of Staff Moltke advocated offensive action instead on the grounds that the tactical efficiency of the defense was only marginal - thus always being the attacker was crucial to victory in any battle (as 'proved', inverted commas, in the Russo-Japanese War). Either way, a 'decisive battle' was only possible in the west—a maximum of 40% of the Army could be deployed and kept supplied in the east, so victory there would be neither as tactically nor strategically decisive (German forces would be too small and the Russians' ability to replace losses was very good).

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* Germany declares war on Russia in support of Austria-Hungary, as Kaiser Wilhelm had promised to support Austria-Hungary no matter what. On 1 August France and Germany mobilize their reserves simultaneously, Germany's mobilization coming with a formal declaration of war (upon France, Belgium, and Luxembourg). Britain declares war upon Germany[[note]] because the Cabinet had agreed that they would go to war if Germany declared war on Belgium. There was a group of hardliners who wanted war with Germany no matter what, but the Cabinet as a whole felt that entering a war and formally joining the Entente Cordiale would be deeply unpopular unless it was done in response to an invasion of Belgium. Unspoken was the way the war was a marvelous opportunity to submerge internal dissent (chiefly Irish devolution, safe working conditions and livable pay, and womens' women's rights) and cripple the German economy [[/note]], and members of the British Commonwealth - India, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, among others - follow suit.
* Russia launches its East Prussian offensive with 400k, France executes ''Plan XVII'' with c.600k—French offensive into Germany, Luxembourg, and southern Belgium to pre-empt preempt Germany's ''Aufmarsch I''[[note]] Deployment Plan I, which calls for deployment of c. 80% of the German army against France and c.15% (c.200k) against Russia. The plan is flexible, so deployed troops can be used for offensive or counter-offensive actions. Under Chief-of-Staff Schlieffen (retired 1905) counter-offensive action was preferred as it combined the best features of defense (greater tactical effectiveness due to superior intelligence, cover, and machine-guns) and offense (ability to mass superior forces against inferior enemy ones and thereby defeat them with minimal losses). But his successor Chief of Staff Moltke advocated offensive action instead on the grounds that the tactical efficiency of the defense was only marginal - thus always being the attacker was crucial to victory in any battle (as 'proved', inverted commas, in the Russo-Japanese War). Either way, a 'decisive battle' was only possible in the west—a maximum of 40% of the Army could be deployed and kept supplied in the east, so victory there would be neither as tactically nor strategically decisive (German forces would be too small and the Russians' ability to replace losses was very good).



* In Prussia a dedicated German defence force of 200k makes use of railways (as per meticulous pre-war planning and training) to mass against a Russian Army of 200k advancing north from Russian Poland and attack it at Tannenburg—the Russian force takes heavy losses. The German force then uses the rail network to re-group and meet up with 20k troops transferred from France, mass, and launch counter-offensive against a second Russian force of 200k advancing west from Lithuania at Masurian Lakes. After the battle, though, German forces were too weak and exhausted to pursue them into Lithuania proper, where the freshly-mobilized Russian Reserve Army of c.200k is on the defensive.
* Note that under Schlieffen, the plan had been to transfer 100k troops from France to enable proper pursuit and thus greater destruction of this second Russian force—but Moltke prioritized a second, follow-on offensive in France instead [[/note]]. The German army opportunistically hounds the southward retreat of French forces, until their pursuit grinds to a halt east of Paris on river Marne [[note]] This second offensive is most definitely premature and unwise—the Belgian rail lines are still not repaired at the time, meaning the German right wing is ''over 120km'' and the centre ''more than 200 km'' from the nearest working railhead (meaning a week-plus round trip for supplies). The lack of supplies includes fodder for the very horses used to draw the transport wagons (in the short-term meaning weakness as well as exhaustion, which contributes to crippling rates of sickness among the poor creatures, and in the long-term meaning death).
* German logistics-horses in general are exhausted and overworked, in need of rest and treatment to check their exponentially increasing death-rate. The German army is not as well-equipped with non-rail transport as the French, as the assumption of pre-war planning was that Germany would be on the defensive in at least the initial stage of a war with France and Russia. Conversely, the French army is well-equipped with non-rail transport due to a provision of Plan XVII for the invasion of Belgian and German territory in support of Russia [[/note]].

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* In Prussia a dedicated German defence defense force of 200k makes use of railways (as per meticulous pre-war prewar planning and training) to mass against a Russian Army of 200k advancing north from Russian Poland and attack it at Tannenburg—the Russian force takes heavy losses. The German force then uses the rail network to re-group and meet up with 20k troops transferred from France, mass, and launch counter-offensive against a second Russian force of 200k advancing west from Lithuania at Masurian Lakes. After the battle, though, German forces were too weak and exhausted to pursue them into Lithuania proper, where the freshly-mobilized Russian Reserve Army of c.200k is on the defensive.
* Note that under Schlieffen, the plan had been to transfer 100k troops from France to enable proper pursuit and thus greater destruction of this second Russian force—but Moltke prioritized a second, follow-on offensive in France instead [[/note]]. The German army opportunistically hounds the southward retreat of French forces, until their pursuit grinds to a halt east of Paris on river Marne [[note]] This second offensive is most definitely premature and unwise—the Belgian rail lines are still not repaired at the time, meaning the German right wing is ''over 120km'' and the centre center ''more than 200 km'' from the nearest working railhead rail head (meaning a week-plus round trip for supplies). The lack of supplies includes fodder for the very horses used to draw the transport wagons (in the short-term meaning weakness as well as exhaustion, which contributes to crippling rates of sickness among the poor creatures, and in the long-term meaning death).
* German logistics-horses in general are exhausted and overworked, in need of rest and treatment to check their exponentially increasing death-rate. The German army is not as well-equipped with non-rail transport as the French, as the assumption of pre-war prewar planning was that Germany would be on the defensive in at least the initial stage of a war with France and Russia. Conversely, the French army is well-equipped with non-rail transport due to a provision of Plan XVII for the invasion of Belgian and German territory in support of Russia [[/note]].



* Chaos on the stock markets and in the general European economy as half of the continent stops trading with itself. German surface-raiders—many disguized as fast merchant ships[[note]] Merchant ships are (much) faster than (heavily-armoured, heavily-armed, and slow) 'battle-ships' and have much greater range than torpedo-boats (tiny boats everyone uses for riverine and coastal defense) and 'torpedo-boat-destroyers' (small ships with light, rapid-fire armament designed to destroy the unarmoured torpedo-boats in defense of battleships). Emptying the holds of a merchant ship and giving it some guns is child's play, and something pretty much everyone had thought of. Britain built a very large 'cruiser' (lightly-armoured, fast, and moderately-well-armed warships) force to hunt down other cruisers and these armed merchant ships. Britain also built a handful of 'battlecruisers' (ships with the armament of battleships and the armour and speed of cruisers) to serve as flagships for hunter-killer squadrons of British cruisers (when hunting other cruisers). This two-decade-old, ''very'' large cruiser-battlecruiser force was tailor-made to counter the French navy (which fielded an ominously large force of extra-fast merchant-ship-hunting cruisers)[[/note]]—wreak minor havoc among Entente shipping.

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* Chaos on the stock markets and in the general European economy as half of the continent stops trading with itself. German surface-raiders—many disguized disguised as fast merchant ships[[note]] Merchant ships are (much) faster than (heavily-armoured, (heavily-armored, heavily-armed, and slow) 'battle-ships' and have much greater range than torpedo-boats (tiny boats everyone uses for riverine and coastal defense) and 'torpedo-boat-destroyers' (small ships with light, rapid-fire armament designed to destroy the unarmoured unarmored torpedo-boats in defense of battleships). Emptying the holds of a merchant ship and giving it some guns is child's play, and something pretty much everyone had thought of. Britain built a very large 'cruiser' (lightly-armoured, (lightly-armored, fast, and moderately-well-armed warships) force to hunt down other cruisers and these armed merchant ships. Britain also built a handful of 'battlecruisers' (ships with the armament of battleships and the armour armor and speed of cruisers) to serve as flagships for hunter-killer squadrons of British cruisers (when hunting other cruisers). This two-decade-old, ''very'' large cruiser-battlecruiser force was tailor-made to counter the French navy (which fielded an ominously large force of extra-fast merchant-ship-hunting cruisers)[[/note]]—wreak minor havoc among Entente shipping.



* '''1916'''—Germany recognises need to 'break' France before Russia and The Commonwealth can fully mobilise their resources, as Germany has reached limits of own manpower+industrial mobilization and Austria-Hungarian society and government visibly disintegrating under strain of war. Under Chief of Staff Falkenhayn, strategy of simply exhausting France's manpower reserves by using Germany's artillery superiority to decimate them with minimal German losses ('artillery destruction' tactics) decided upon, employed in battle at Verdun starting 21/2/1916—sector of front where French rail-supply poor, and German good. Not as effective as hoped— German Fifth Army under Crown Prince Wilhelm decides of own initiative to attempt to ''capture'' Verdun "regardless of losses" and so battle turns into a battle of attrition, an indecisive back-and-forth slug-fest[[note]] Wilhelm had experimented with new small-unit tactics including concerted attacks against weak points in the enemy line instead of attacks across the entire width of it ('infiltration tactics') and the use of 'flame-throwing-liquid-projector' devices. Somewhat ironically, these device were first employed by Volunteer Fire Department members. These gave him false confidence that capturing the ground was possible, though the actual merits of doing so (glory for himself and his men, without aiding Germany's wider war effort) were every bit as bankrupt as they appeared [[/note]]. French Army also has world's largest pool of motor-transport, not as reliant on rail-supply as expected.
* Entente had already agreed upon simultaneous summer offensives in summer of 1916 to cover entry of Rumania and Italy into war on Entente's side, but French insist these be launched as soon as possible to take pressure off Verdun. Russian Northern Front's ''Lake Naroch'' offensive (18/3/1916-30/3/1916) attempts to copy German 'artillery destruction' tactics to destroy enemy tactical defenses but fails horribly, drawing no German forces from Verdun. Russian Southern Front under Brusilov (4/6/1916-20/9/1916) makes effective concentration and use of forces, and light 'suppressive' artillery bombardments to break through Austro-Hungarian lines and effectively exhaust Austro-Hungarian reserves for lesser relative cost to Russian Army, but Russian Army logistics (despite greater resources) badly-managed and offensive cannot be sustained—success in that German reserves needed to stabilise front.

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* '''1916'''—Germany recognises recognizes need to 'break' France before Russia and The Commonwealth can fully mobilise mobilize their resources, as Germany has reached limits of own manpower+industrial mobilization and Austria-Hungarian society and government visibly disintegrating under strain of war. Under Chief of Staff Falkenhayn, strategy of simply exhausting France's manpower reserves by using Germany's artillery superiority to decimate them with minimal German losses ('artillery destruction' tactics) decided upon, employed in battle at Verdun starting 21/2/1916—sector of front where French rail-supply poor, and German good. Not as effective as hoped— German Fifth Army under Crown Prince Wilhelm decides of own initiative to attempt to ''capture'' Verdun "regardless of losses" and so battle turns into a battle of attrition, an indecisive back-and-forth slug-fest[[note]] Wilhelm had experimented with new small-unit tactics including concerted attacks against weak points in the enemy line instead of attacks across the entire width of it ('infiltration tactics') and the use of 'flame-throwing-liquid-projector' devices. Somewhat ironically, these device were first employed by Volunteer Fire Department members. These gave him false confidence that capturing the ground was possible, though the actual merits of doing so (glory for himself and his men, without aiding Germany's wider war effort) were every bit as bankrupt as they appeared [[/note]]. French Army also has world's largest pool of motor-transport, not as reliant on rail-supply as expected.
* Entente had already agreed upon simultaneous summer offensives in summer of 1916 to cover entry of Rumania and Italy into war on Entente's side, but French insist these be launched as soon as possible to take pressure off Verdun. Russian Northern Front's ''Lake Naroch'' offensive (18/3/1916-30/3/1916) attempts to copy German 'artillery destruction' tactics to destroy enemy tactical defenses but fails horribly, drawing no German forces from Verdun. Russian Southern Front under Brusilov (4/6/1916-20/9/1916) makes effective concentration and use of forces, and light 'suppressive' artillery bombardments to break through Austro-Hungarian lines and effectively exhaust Austro-Hungarian reserves for lesser relative cost to Russian Army, but Russian Army logistics (despite greater resources) badly-managed and offensive cannot be sustained—success in that German reserves needed to stabilise stabilize front.



* Offensive still succeeds in diverting German reserves, aiding success of small French counter-offensive at ''Verdun'' which makes successful use of 'destruction' tactics. German counter-offensive stabilises front opposite Brusilov and Germany assumes command over all Austro-Hungarian forces in the east. German Fleet's[[note]] The brief pre-war Anglo-German arms race (ended 1913) concerned an abortive German attempt to build up a 'battleship' fleet that could challenge Britain's own, which ended when Kaiser Wilhelm realized that Britain would do whatever it took to stop that from happening—in 1914 the British still had more than twice as many battleships and were also building twice as many as Germany was.[[/note]] attempt to break blockade and/or destroy British Fleet in decisive battle fails—31/5 to

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* Offensive still succeeds in diverting German reserves, aiding success of small French counter-offensive at ''Verdun'' which makes successful use of 'destruction' tactics. German counter-offensive stabilises stabilizes front opposite Brusilov and Germany assumes command over all Austro-Hungarian forces in the east. German Fleet's[[note]] The brief pre-war prewar Anglo-German arms race (ended 1913) concerned an abortive German attempt to build up a 'battleship' fleet that could challenge Britain's own, which ended when Kaiser Wilhelm realized that Britain would do whatever it took to stop that from happening—in 1914 the British still had more than twice as many battleships and were also building twice as many as Germany was.[[/note]] attempt to break blockade and/or destroy British Fleet in decisive battle fails—31/5 to



* '''1917'''—In March, Urban famine in St Petersburg and Moscow causes coup against Tsar, self-governing communes rise up in Russian urban centres and middle class+elite establish unelected 'Provisional Government'—uneasy alliance between two, but both agree to mutually piss off when they elect a government by universal vote at a later date. Germany decides to use submarine fleet against 'all' shipping, USA uses this as ''casus belli'' and joins the Entente, but needs almost a year to build up and train an Expeditionary Force. German forces adopt 'defence in depth' tactics first experimented with during ''Somme'' offensive, abandoning 'trench lines' in favour of scattered 'strong points' and 'outposts' throughout a much deeper (6km vs 3km) defence zone and using 'reverse slopes' to reduce vulnerability to artillery fire — also moving artillery back and concealing it to protect it from enemy artillery fire.

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* '''1917'''—In March, Urban famine in St St. Petersburg and Moscow causes coup against Tsar, self-governing communes rise up in Russian urban centres and middle class+elite establish unelected 'Provisional Government'—uneasy alliance between two, but both agree to mutually piss off when they elect a government by universal vote at a later date. Germany decides to use submarine fleet against 'all' shipping, USA uses this as ''casus belli'' and joins the Entente, but needs almost a year to build up and train an Expeditionary Force. German forces adopt 'defence in depth' tactics first experimented with during ''Somme'' offensive, abandoning 'trench lines' in favour favor of scattered 'strong points' and 'outposts' throughout a much deeper (6km vs 3km) defence defense zone and using 'reverse slopes' to reduce vulnerability to artillery fire — also moving artillery back and concealing it to protect it from enemy artillery fire.



* French Army and society also tire of demoralising 'attrition warfare' strategy and insists upon alternative—experimental 'breakthrough strategy' ''also'' promising operation/campaign breakthrough after successive tactical victories produced by 'artillery destruction' tactics championed by junior commander Nivelle, which they are promised will end war quickly. Its dismal failure with ''even worse'' losses to no effect[[note]] It didn't help that the 'new' strategy was basically an attempt to apply successful battlefield tactics to the operational/campaign level by a commander with little grasp of the differences between the two—particularly in the way artillery, engineering, and logistics work rather differently[[/note]] is deeply demoralising, causes c.45% of French Army to mutiny—units collectively refuse to do anything but hold their current positions and defend themselves until a system of 'leave' is organized, they are given safe and decent rations, and Army Command 'gets its £&$@^&£*! act together'.
* Italian Army of 400k suffers devastating tactical defeat by Central Powers army of 350k at Caporetto—Commonwealth offensives aborted as forces rushed to help stabilise Italian front, defeat triggers re-structuring of Italian Army at tactical/battlefield level.

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* French Army and society also tire of demoralising demoralizing 'attrition warfare' strategy and insists upon alternative—experimental 'breakthrough strategy' ''also'' promising operation/campaign breakthrough after successive tactical victories produced by 'artillery destruction' tactics championed by junior commander Nivelle, which they are promised will end war quickly. Its dismal failure with ''even worse'' losses to no effect[[note]] It didn't help that the 'new' strategy was basically an attempt to apply successful battlefield tactics to the operational/campaign level by a commander with little grasp of the differences between the two—particularly in the way artillery, engineering, and logistics work rather differently[[/note]] is deeply demoralising, demoralizing, causes c.45% of French Army to mutiny—units collectively refuse to do anything but hold their current positions and defend themselves until a system of 'leave' is organized, they are given safe and decent rations, and Army Command 'gets its £&$@^&£*! act together'.
* Italian Army of 400k suffers devastating tactical defeat by Central Powers army of 350k at Caporetto—Commonwealth offensives aborted as forces rushed to help stabilise stabilize Italian front, defeat triggers re-structuring of Italian Army at tactical/battlefield level.



* Commonwealth performance relatively poor due to focus on defending logistically-critical coastal sector (instead of British southern sector, where British and French forces overlap), utter inexperience in defensive operations (have not conducted a single defensive campaign in the entire war), and incomplete copying of German 'defence in depth' tactics (defensive works only half-built and most units do not understand how to use them). German offensives a total failure by 5/4/1918 though sporadic attacks continue for further two months, French 5th Army also successfully countering German attacks through adoption of 'defence in depth' and resulting in said tactics' adoption by all French forces by October. Urban famine in Austria-Hungary and Germany as energy value of official daily ration drops below 1600 calories (versus 800 for occupied Russia inc. Poland)—anti-war demonstrations appear, increase despite repression.
* Entente takes time for serious soul-searching and examination of German artillery, infantry, and artillery-infantry tactics ''very'' closely. Assessment is (quite rightly) that there is not much to be learned from Germans - German Operational method woeful, tactical methods only successful due to Entente disorganisation. Entente has no intention of repeating German mistakes - unlike Germans, will only attempt what is physically possible (as defined by logistical considerations). Though the 'Learning Curve' theory is often touted here as why the Entente arrived at the understanding of combined-arms tactics and operational methods which they will display in the summer, the process of working it out was very complicated and came in many stops and starts. It's less of a Learning Curve and more of a Learning Fumble-And-Stumble-Up-A-Foggy-Incline.
* In August, Entente launches "Hundred Days' Offensive". Series of virtually non-stop attacks using combined arms - reconnaissance aeroplanes, heavy artillery, medium artillery, light artillery, tractors, combat tanks, supply tanks, light railway engines, heavy trucks, light trucks, mortars, heavy machine guns, light machine guns, rifles, grenades used by men actively trying to cooperate and work together. Increasing strain upon supply services, particularly trucks, but Entente forces ''never'' let themselves outrun their supply - willing to stop combat and give supply services attention, care, resources they need to recover. 'Death of a Thousand Cuts' as German forces constantly eroded by Entente tactical/battlefield superiority, cumulative effect devastating. Still no strategic breakthroughs, no operational encirclements— but Entente winning anyway.
* German strength failing as reinforcements are of progressively worse quality - prime manpower long since expended. German defenses weakening as German support services begin to fail under strain of ceaseless construction of new defences. Larger and larger tactical encirclements (pockets less than 1km across) being made and more and more German troops surrendering. "Black Day of the German Army" (Ludendorff's words) on 8th of August as tactical encirclements result in surrender of c.50,000 German troops to American-Australian-British-Canadian Army under British command - irrecoverable loss of a twentieth of German frontline strength in just three days, at minimal cost to Entente. Writing is very much on the wall.

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* Commonwealth performance relatively poor due to focus on defending logistically-critical coastal sector (instead of British southern sector, where British and French forces overlap), utter inexperience in defensive operations (have not conducted a single defensive campaign in the entire war), and incomplete copying of German 'defence 'defense in depth' tactics (defensive works only half-built and most units do not understand how to use them). German offensives a total failure by 5/4/1918 though sporadic attacks continue for further two months, French 5th Army also successfully countering German attacks through adoption of 'defence 'defense in depth' and resulting in said tactics' adoption by all French forces by October. Urban famine in Austria-Hungary and Germany as energy value of official daily ration drops below 1600 calories (versus 800 for occupied Russia inc. Poland)—anti-war demonstrations appear, increase despite repression.
* Entente takes time for serious soul-searching and examination of German artillery, infantry, and artillery-infantry tactics ''very'' closely. Assessment is (quite rightly) that there is not much to be learned from Germans - German Operational method woeful, tactical methods only successful due to Entente disorganisation.disorganization. Entente has no intention of repeating German mistakes - unlike Germans, will only attempt what is physically possible (as defined by logistical considerations). Though the 'Learning Curve' theory is often touted here as why the Entente arrived at the understanding of combined-arms tactics and operational methods which they will display in the summer, the process of working it out was very complicated and came in many stops and starts. It's less of a Learning Curve and more of a Learning Fumble-And-Stumble-Up-A-Foggy-Incline.
* In August, Entente launches "Hundred Days' Offensive". Series of virtually non-stop attacks using combined arms - reconnaissance aeroplanes, airplanes, heavy artillery, medium artillery, light artillery, tractors, combat tanks, supply tanks, light railway engines, heavy trucks, light trucks, mortars, heavy machine guns, light machine guns, rifles, grenades used by men actively trying to cooperate and work together. Increasing strain upon supply services, particularly trucks, but Entente forces ''never'' let themselves outrun their supply - willing to stop combat and give supply services attention, care, resources they need to recover. 'Death of a Thousand Cuts' as German forces constantly eroded by Entente tactical/battlefield superiority, cumulative effect devastating. Still no strategic breakthroughs, no operational encirclements— but Entente winning anyway.
* German strength failing as reinforcements are of progressively worse quality - prime manpower long since expended. German defenses weakening as German support services begin to fail under strain of ceaseless construction of new defences.defenses. Larger and larger tactical encirclements (pockets less than 1km across) being made and more and more German troops surrendering. "Black Day of the German Army" (Ludendorff's words) on 8th of August as tactical encirclements result in surrender of c.50,000 German troops to American-Australian-British-Canadian Army under British command - irrecoverable loss of a twentieth of German frontline front line strength in just three days, at minimal cost to Entente. Writing is very much on the wall.



The major problem for Germany in the coming decades was UsefulNotes/TsaristRussia, where industrialization had arrived later then Europe. The social upheaval that followed industrialization, namely the development of a skilled urban working class, and the growth of a middle-class was feared by the autocratic nature of the Tsarist state, which tried to divert problems by entering into a war with Japan, only to lose. Yet a stable Russia that achieved industrialization would be unbeatable for Germany, threatening its military hegemony in Eastern Europe, where it nurtured plans for settlement and expansionism in the borderland states. Vulnerability to any nation on its East or its West, left them open to invasion and partition. To this end, a few German planners such as the Chief of the General Staff, Moltke the Younger, proposed plans to start a war and cripple and weaken Russia, and destabilize its Empire before it completes and achieves industrialization. This crisis of encroaching modernization and the threat it could pose to pre-existing hegemony, operated behind the scenes over a series of diplomatic struggles between European powers in the decades leading up to war. These diplomatic struggles was accompanied by secret treaties and other deals, leading to the formation of an alliance between England-France and Russia on one hand, and an alliance between the Germans, the Ottomans, the Austrians, and briefly, the Italians on the other hand. Accompanying this diplomacy was a massive scheme of industrialization and armament, an arms race, between the great powers as each sought to match and/or check the advantage of the other.

Emerging nationalism was a cynical tool that both sides took advantage of, even if either Power Bloc was comprised of massive empires that denied the rights of basic sovereignty to many of its subjects. The idea was to promote and nurture nationalism in a way that would destabilize and distract the other side. To that end, Imperial Germany supported and nurtured the nationalistic aspirations in multiple nations, from Poland to Finland to Ireland, while the other sides did the same, including supporting their very own partition of Poland against others, while the British and French encouraged Arab Nationalism as a means to break the UsefulNotes/OttomanEmpire. This climate of micro-nationalism had deadly consequences in the Ottoman Empire, where the emerging modernizing state-builders, the Three Pashas, created and promoted Turkish hegemony by directing and mobilizing hatred and violence to the Greek, Kurdish, Assyrian and Armenian minorities. The height of this cynicism would be the famous gesture made by Imperial German officials, to allow UsefulNotes/VladimirLenin to pass from Switzerland to Russia in a sealed train, in te hopes that it would add to the destabilization of Tsarist-Russia towards the end of the war. The war finally broke out over the issue of the Balkans. Tsarist Russian support of the Orthodox-worshipping nations of Greece, Yugoslavia, Serbia, Montenegro against the Ottomans and the Austro-Hungarian empires. Russia's sense of itself as the defender of the Orthodox faith sparked the Crimean War, and this recurred again in a series of conflicts in the Balkan region. The first of this destabilized the Ottoman Empire's European hegemony, which in turn enlarged Russian hegemony and which in turn panicked Germans, who leaned on the weak Austro-Hungarian Empire to pick up the slack in the regional BalanceOfPower, which in turn made the Austro-Hungarians the enemies of Serbia, which now saw itself as the new emerging great nation in Europe. This informed the background of the Assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which was carried out by agents supported by the Serbian government, and the diplomatic tussle that followed led Russia to support the Serbians, and the Germans to support the Austro-Hungarians.

On 8th December 1912, Kaiser Wilhelm II summoned [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Imperial_War_Council_of_8_December_1912 a cabinet meeting of the Imperial Council]] where they noted that the present situation could not be allowed to continue, since accompanied by Russian industrialization, it would in time erode their advantages and gains. The Kaiser's generals agreed that if a war was inevitable, then it was best it broke out sooner rather than later. If it happened soon, then Imperial Germany could press and defend its position and advantage. These were the only options available to Imperial Germany for it to persist and remain in the same form and the same system of government. These were also the options for Tsarist Russia which was destabilizing at home, weakened by military defeats, and facing many problems that the autocratic state either didn't want to deal with, or were incapable of dealing with: chiefly the tensions of class levelling and the specter of revolution and the greater gains of the worker's movement and their desire to convert it into political gains. It was common practice for everyone at that time to deal with these problems by ''Sammlungspolitik''. World War I was a war of empires, and a war to defend the concept of empire and imperialism, in a world that was already becoming so interconnected by transport and communication, that it has come to be defined as "the first globalization". Economic theorists of the time harboured under what Norman Angell called "The Great Illusion" (which inspired the title of [[Film/TheGrandIllusion the famous World War I film]]). The idea that a world of economic competition ended the need of war automatically cancelled the possibility of war. Angell, contrary to general opinions, argued that a political order needed to be established to prevent war, and that war could be practised, and continued to be practised for political expediency. That Great Illusion would be replaced by the illusion of "the war to end all wars".

to:

The major problem for Germany in the coming decades was UsefulNotes/TsaristRussia, where industrialization had arrived later then Europe. The social upheaval that followed industrialization, namely the development of a skilled urban working class, and the growth of a middle-class was feared by the autocratic nature of the Tsarist state, which tried to divert problems by entering into a war with Japan, only to lose. Yet a stable Russia that achieved industrialization would be unbeatable for Germany, threatening its military hegemony in Eastern Europe, where it nurtured plans for settlement and expansionism in the borderland states. Vulnerability to any nation on its East or its West, left them open to invasion and partition. To this end, a few German planners such as the Chief of the General Staff, Moltke the Younger, proposed plans to start a war and cripple and weaken Russia, and destabilize its Empire before it completes and achieves industrialization. This crisis of encroaching modernization and the threat it could pose to pre-existing preexisting hegemony, operated behind the scenes over a series of diplomatic struggles between European powers in the decades leading up to war. These diplomatic struggles was accompanied by secret treaties and other deals, leading to the formation of an alliance between England-France and Russia on one hand, and an alliance between the Germans, the Ottomans, the Austrians, and briefly, the Italians on the other hand. Accompanying this diplomacy was a massive scheme of industrialization and armament, an arms race, between the great powers as each sought to match and/or check the advantage of the other.

Emerging nationalism was a cynical tool that both sides took advantage of, even if either Power Bloc was comprised of massive empires that denied the rights of basic sovereignty to many of its subjects. The idea was to promote and nurture nationalism in a way that would destabilize and distract the other side. To that end, Imperial Germany supported and nurtured the nationalistic aspirations in multiple nations, from Poland to Finland to Ireland, while the other sides did the same, including supporting their very own partition of Poland against others, while the British and French encouraged Arab Nationalism as a means to break the UsefulNotes/OttomanEmpire. This climate of micro-nationalism had deadly consequences in the Ottoman Empire, where the emerging modernizing state-builders, the Three Pashas, created and promoted Turkish hegemony by directing and mobilizing hatred and violence to the Greek, Kurdish, Assyrian and Armenian minorities. The height of this cynicism would be the famous gesture made by Imperial German officials, to allow UsefulNotes/VladimirLenin to pass from Switzerland to Russia in a sealed train, in te the hopes that it would add to the destabilization of Tsarist-Russia towards the end of the war. The war finally broke out over the issue of the Balkans. Tsarist Russian support of the Orthodox-worshipping nations of Greece, Yugoslavia, Serbia, Montenegro against the Ottomans and the Austro-Hungarian empires. Russia's sense of itself as the defender of the Orthodox faith sparked the Crimean War, and this recurred again in a series of conflicts in the Balkan region. The first of this destabilized the Ottoman Empire's European hegemony, which in turn enlarged Russian hegemony and which in turn panicked Germans, who leaned on the weak Austro-Hungarian Empire to pick up the slack in the regional BalanceOfPower, which in turn made the Austro-Hungarians the enemies of Serbia, which now saw itself as the new emerging great nation in Europe. This informed the background of the Assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, which was carried out by agents supported by the Serbian government, and the diplomatic tussle that followed led Russia to support the Serbians, and the Germans to support the Austro-Hungarians.

On 8th December 1912, Kaiser Wilhelm II summoned [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Imperial_War_Council_of_8_December_1912 a cabinet meeting of the Imperial Council]] where they noted that the present situation could not be allowed to continue, since accompanied by Russian industrialization, it would in time erode their advantages and gains. The Kaiser's generals agreed that if a war was inevitable, then it was best it broke out sooner rather than later. If it happened soon, then Imperial Germany could press and defend its position and advantage. These were the only options available to Imperial Germany for it to persist and remain in the same form and the same system of government. These were also the options for Tsarist Russia which was destabilizing at home, weakened by military defeats, and facing many problems that the autocratic state either didn't want to deal with, or were incapable of dealing with: chiefly the tensions of class levelling leveling and the specter of revolution and the greater gains of the worker's movement and their desire to convert it into political gains. It was common practice for everyone at that time to deal with these problems by ''Sammlungspolitik''. World War I was a war of empires, and a war to defend the concept of empire and imperialism, in a world that was already becoming so interconnected by transport and communication, that it has come to be defined as "the first globalization". Economic theorists of the time harboured harbored under what Norman Angell called "The Great Illusion" (which inspired the title of [[Film/TheGrandIllusion the famous World War I film]]). The idea that a world of economic competition ended the need of war automatically cancelled the possibility of war. Angell, contrary to general opinions, argued that a political order needed to be established to prevent war, and that war could be practised, practiced, and continued to be practised practiced for political expediency. That Great Illusion would be replaced by the illusion of "the war to end all wars".



The war on the ground is a depressing morass of mud, barbed wire and certain death—but chivalry and bravery still count for something in the air. ThoseMagnificentMenInTheirFlyingMachines take to the skies in flimsy biplanes to duel with the Germans. Most of these pilots are chivalrous, except for that [[Film/{{Flyboys}} one evil bastard in the black plane]] and that [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mick_Mannock Britisher]] who repeatedly guns down his already-defeated enemy on the ground. Their German counterpart is Bruno Stachel, a ruthless functioning alcoholic with equally little patience for chivalrous dueling, who takes to the skies in ''Film/TheBlueMax''.

to:

The war on the ground is a depressing morass of mud, barbed wire and certain death—but chivalry and bravery still count for something in the air. ThoseMagnificentMenInTheirFlyingMachines Film/ThoseMagnificentMenInTheirFlyingMachines take to the skies in flimsy biplanes to duel with the Germans. Most of these pilots are chivalrous, except for that [[Film/{{Flyboys}} one evil bastard in the black plane]] and that [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mick_Mannock Britisher]] who repeatedly guns down his already-defeated enemy on the ground. Their German counterpart is Bruno Stachel, a ruthless functioning alcoholic with equally little patience for chivalrous dueling, who takes to the skies in ''Film/TheBlueMax''.



Even after the smarter generals—and there were several—realized they didn't have the technology to break through the other side's defences, the politicians insisted on more futile charges. Eventually, the tank was invented, and new strategies devized. The Entente battle plans for 1919 were apparently very close to blitzkrieg, but the war ended first. The Entente General Staffs then were wracked by infighting over claiming credit for which service arm actually won the war—largely ignoring the fact that all of them working together is what in fact decided the conflict—and as a result dropped much of what they'd learned about combined arms warfare, aircraft, and tanks down the back of the filing cabinet... not their best moment.

to:

Even after the smarter generals—and there were several—realized they didn't have the technology to break through the other side's defences, defenses, the politicians insisted on more futile charges. Eventually, the tank was invented, and new strategies devized.devised. The Entente battle plans for 1919 were apparently very close to blitzkrieg, but the war ended first. The Entente General Staffs then were wracked by infighting over claiming credit for which service arm actually won the war—largely ignoring the fact that all of them working together is what in fact decided the conflict—and as a result dropped much of what they'd learned about combined arms warfare, aircraft, and tanks down the back of the filing cabinet... not their best moment.



* ''VideoGame/ValiantHearts'' is set on the Western Front from 1914 to late 1917 (ending roughly when the USA enters the war). Notable for being a cartoony sidescrolling puzzle-adventure game and yet probably treating the war with more seriousness and respect than basically any video game for any war ever has.

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* ''VideoGame/ValiantHearts'' is set on the Western Front from 1914 to late 1917 (ending roughly when the USA enters the war). Notable for being a cartoony sidescrolling side-scrolling puzzle-adventure game and yet probably treating the war with more seriousness and respect than basically any video game for any war ever has.



* ''[[http://www.moddb.com/mods/the-great-war-mod The Great War]]'' [[GameMod mod]] for ''VideoGame/NapoleonTotalWar'', which basically is about the European theather of World War One with the TurnBasedStrategy[=/=]RealTimeStrategy hybrid system of the ''VideoGame/TotalWar'' series, including some AlternateHistory features. While most of the factions are historical World War One belligerants (United Kingdom, Germany, France, Russia, Belgium, Italy, Serbia, etc.)[[note]]USA isn't playable in campaign, but is available in skirmish and multiplayer mod[[/note]], some of the playable factions are historically neutral countries (Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, etc.). At campaign start, an option allows to choose whether the AI will try to stay true to the historical alliances or will go in full AlternateHistory mode. Also, winning the campaign requires that the country did far better in the war than it historically did (victory conditions for France or UK include controlling territories in the German heartland).

to:

* ''[[http://www.moddb.com/mods/the-great-war-mod The Great War]]'' [[GameMod mod]] for ''VideoGame/NapoleonTotalWar'', which basically is about the European theather theater of World War One with the TurnBasedStrategy[=/=]RealTimeStrategy hybrid system of the ''VideoGame/TotalWar'' series, including some AlternateHistory features. While most of the factions are historical World War One belligerants belligerents (United Kingdom, Germany, France, Russia, Belgium, Italy, Serbia, etc.)[[note]]USA isn't playable in campaign, but is available in skirmish and multiplayer mod[[/note]], some of the playable factions are historically neutral countries (Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, etc.). At campaign start, an option allows to choose whether the AI will try to stay true to the historical alliances or will go in full AlternateHistory mode. Also, winning the campaign requires that the country did far better in the war than it historically did (victory conditions for France or UK include controlling territories in the German heartland).
1st Nov '17 1:58:51 AM Jormungar
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Formerly known as "The Great War" or "The World War," and poetically as, "The War to End All Wars." Perhaps surprisingly, even the term, "The First World War" was applied quite early, not in the sense of anticipation of a second, but rather as a descriptor of it being the first time something like this had happened. After [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII the sequel]] broke out, the term "The First World War" naturally became standard, this time will full reference to the second. The title, "the Great War" had previously been applied to UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars. The end of that conflict, followed by the Concert at Vienna in 1814--1815 created a BalanceOfPower that lasted for almost exactly a hundred years. The hope of the Concert was to contain the specter of revolution that they saw as a threat to national and domestic stability. The gradual fracturing of that alliance towards the end of the century ultimately led to the return of revolution and domestic and national instability that in Europe would not heal until [[UsefulNotes/HistoryOfTheColdWar the fall of the USSR]]. In the case of other parts of the world affected by the war, chiefly the Middle East, that had once formed part of the Ottoman Empire, that instability still remains and persists well into the 21st Century, with no sign of ebbing for several decades past the approaching centennial of armistice.

to:

Formerly known as "The Great War" or "The World War," and poetically as, "The War to End All Wars." Perhaps surprisingly, even the term, "The First World War" was applied quite early, not in the sense of anticipation of a second, but rather as a descriptor of it being the first time something like this had happened. After [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII the sequel]] broke out, the term "The First World War" naturally became standard, this time will with full reference to the second. The title, "the Great War" had previously been applied to UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars. The end of that conflict, followed by the Concert at Vienna in 1814--1815 created a BalanceOfPower that lasted for almost exactly a hundred years. The hope of the Concert was to contain the specter of revolution that they saw as a threat to national and domestic stability. The gradual fracturing of that alliance towards the end of the century ultimately led to the return of revolution and domestic and national instability that in Europe would not heal until [[UsefulNotes/HistoryOfTheColdWar the fall of the USSR]]. In the case of other parts of the world affected by the war, chiefly the Middle East, that had once formed part of the Ottoman Empire, that instability still remains and persists well into the 21st Century, with no sign of ebbing for several decades past the approaching centennial of armistice.
1st Nov '17 1:58:13 AM Jormungar
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Formerly known as "The Great War", or as "The War to End All Wars" or even "The World War" until [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII the sequel]] broke out. The title, "the Great War" had previously been applied to UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars. The end of that conflict, followed by the Concert at Vienna in 1814--1815 created a BalanceOfPower that lasted for almost exactly a hundred years. The hope of the Concert was to contain the specter of revolution that they saw as a threat to national and domestic stability. The gradual fracturing of that alliance towards the end of the century, [[ShootTheShaggyDog ultimately led to the return of revolution]] and domestic and national instability that in Europe would not heal until [[UsefulNotes/HistoryOfTheColdWar the fall of the USSR]]. In the case of other parts of the world affected by the war, chiefly the Middle East, that had once formed part of the Ottoman Empire, that instability still remains and persists well into the 21st Century, with no sign of ebbing for several decades past the approaching centennial of armistice.

to:

Formerly known as "The Great War", War" or as "The World War," and poetically as, "The War to End All Wars" or Wars." Perhaps surprisingly, even the term, "The First World War" until was applied quite early, not in the sense of anticipation of a second, but rather as a descriptor of it being the first time something like this had happened. After [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII the sequel]] broke out.out, the term "The First World War" naturally became standard, this time will full reference to the second. The title, "the Great War" had previously been applied to UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars. The end of that conflict, followed by the Concert at Vienna in 1814--1815 created a BalanceOfPower that lasted for almost exactly a hundred years. The hope of the Concert was to contain the specter of revolution that they saw as a threat to national and domestic stability. The gradual fracturing of that alliance towards the end of the century, [[ShootTheShaggyDog century ultimately led to the return of revolution]] revolution and domestic and national instability that in Europe would not heal until [[UsefulNotes/HistoryOfTheColdWar the fall of the USSR]]. In the case of other parts of the world affected by the war, chiefly the Middle East, that had once formed part of the Ottoman Empire, that instability still remains and persists well into the 21st Century, with no sign of ebbing for several decades past the approaching centennial of armistice.
10th Oct '17 6:47:10 PM TheBigBopper
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->''"You will be home before the leaves have fallen from the trees"''.
-->-- '''Kaiser Wilhelm II''', watching German troops marching off to war in summer 1914. (As usual, [[HomeByChristmas not quite accurate.]])
2nd Oct '17 8:50:16 PM AHI-3000
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Added DiffLines:

[[foldercontrol]]
30th Sep '17 5:29:05 PM nombretomado
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The Entente was not exempt from this selfishness though. The British were worried about German expansionism abroad. Germany was the first power in decades that actually had a chance of beating the British. Prior to the war, both sides had a naval arms race of sorts, but it petered out by 1912. Britain also wanted to support its ally, France. The two had definitely hated each other throughout the 18th century and some of the 19th century, and even at the start of the war it was entirely possible for the British to have sided ''with Germany''. However, the various wars and crises of the late 19th century had bonded the two nations closer together, and Britain didn't want to see the balance of power in Continental Europe fall to the Germans, mostly because [[CheeseEatingSurrenderMonkeys they viewed the Germans as far more threatening than the French]]. The French, for their part, had a bitter nationalist rivalry with the Germans. The Germans had made a mockery of them during the [[CurbStompBattle Franco-Prussian War]] and had also annexed Alasce-Lorraine on the border, territory which they considered rightfully French. France had to recoup its lost prestige, and was also facing a wave of nationalism following the Franco-Prussian War. The RussianEmpire was also buckling under internal pressure. Some of this was nationalist/ethnic motivations, as with the Poles and Ukrainians, but most of it stemmed from Russia's haphazard integration into the new world. Its modernization left something to be desired, and the working classes felt exploited. The change of course from a very agrarian, feudal state to a modern industrial one angered a lot of people, ranging from nobility who lost privileges to small farmers who found their farms being gobbled up by mechanized agriculture. Czar Nicholas II hoped to direct some of this anger towards the Germans and also unite the Slavic peoples of the Balkans behind his cause. His ambitions in the Balkans become pretty evident because at one point, Russia was promised the city of Istanbul. Czar Nicholas II, like many Czars before him, considered himself the inheritor of the ByzantineEmpire, so his desire for influence in the Balkans MakessenseInContext.

to:

The Entente was not exempt from this selfishness though. The British were worried about German expansionism abroad. Germany was the first power in decades that actually had a chance of beating the British. Prior to the war, both sides had a naval arms race of sorts, but it petered out by 1912. Britain also wanted to support its ally, France. The two had definitely hated each other throughout the 18th century and some of the 19th century, and even at the start of the war it was entirely possible for the British to have sided ''with Germany''. However, the various wars and crises of the late 19th century had bonded the two nations closer together, and Britain didn't want to see the balance of power in Continental Europe fall to the Germans, mostly because [[CheeseEatingSurrenderMonkeys they viewed the Germans as far more threatening than the French]]. The French, for their part, had a bitter nationalist rivalry with the Germans. The Germans had made a mockery of them during the [[CurbStompBattle Franco-Prussian War]] and had also annexed Alasce-Lorraine on the border, territory which they considered rightfully French. France had to recoup its lost prestige, and was also facing a wave of nationalism following the Franco-Prussian War. The RussianEmpire was also buckling under internal pressure. Some of this was nationalist/ethnic motivations, as with the Poles and Ukrainians, but most of it stemmed from Russia's haphazard integration into the new world. Its modernization left something to be desired, and the working classes felt exploited. The change of course from a very agrarian, feudal state to a modern industrial one angered a lot of people, ranging from nobility who lost privileges to small farmers who found their farms being gobbled up by mechanized agriculture. Czar Nicholas II hoped to direct some of this anger towards the Germans and also unite the Slavic peoples of the Balkans behind his cause. His ambitions in the Balkans become pretty evident because at one point, Russia was promised the city of Istanbul. Czar Nicholas II, like many Czars before him, considered himself the inheritor of the ByzantineEmpire, UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire, so his desire for influence in the Balkans MakessenseInContext.
13th Sep '17 7:28:09 PM nombretomado
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* British author Pat Barker has written three award-winning novels that form her World War I trilogy, TheRegenerationTrilogy (1991-1995): ''Regeneration,'' ''The Eye in the Door,'' and ''The Ghost Road.'' The novels are chock full of history and real-life characters, including the poets Siegfried Sassoon, Wilfred Owen, and Robert Graves. The first novel was turned into a movie, released in 1997 and known as ''Regeneration'' in the UK and ''Behind the Lines'' in the US.

to:

* British author Pat Barker has written three award-winning novels that form her World War I trilogy, TheRegenerationTrilogy ''Literature/TheRegenerationTrilogy'' (1991-1995): ''Regeneration,'' ''The Eye in the Door,'' and ''The Ghost Road.'' The novels are chock full of history and real-life characters, including the poets Siegfried Sassoon, Wilfred Owen, and Robert Graves. The first novel was turned into a movie, released in 1997 and known as ''Regeneration'' in the UK and ''Behind the Lines'' in the US.
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