History UsefulNotes / WorldWarI

9th Jul '17 10:55:33 AM nombretomado
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The ‘War at Sea’ is probably the front of World War One that has received the least focus. Unlike WorldWarII, which featured massive naval battles in the Pacific that capture the idealized view of the war, World War I’s naval combat was not as glamorous nor as interesting. Pitched battles were uncommon and those that did happen were often smaller than those of WorldWarII. Still, it was crucial to the Entente success of the late war and indeed the War at Sea may have been the only thing that stopped the Central Powers from winning.

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The ‘War at Sea’ is probably the front of World War One that has received the least focus. Unlike WorldWarII, UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, which featured massive naval battles in the Pacific that capture the idealized view of the war, World War I’s naval combat was not as glamorous nor as interesting. Pitched battles were uncommon and those that did happen were often smaller than those of WorldWarII.World War II. Still, it was crucial to the Entente success of the late war and indeed the War at Sea may have been the only thing that stopped the Central Powers from winning.



It is important to note that this war has almost always been called some form of "The World War" for a reason. Participants from all 6 inhabited continents of the globe would fight in the war, directly or indirectly. The ANZAC (Australia and New Zealand Army Corps) fought in Gallipoli, Europe, and would also occupy German Samoa and New Guinea. Japan and Britain worked to take Germany's Micronesian colonies, as well as fight at the important battle of Tsingtao, seizing the German colonies in China along with British support. Japan had operated under the idea that they would be rewarded for their efforts by basically being given these territories. In fact, the Japanese had grand plans of Empire-building in the Pacific and uniting the Asian peoples under one flag pretty much since the Boshin War and their start as UsefulNotes/ImperialJapan. However, Japan was given very little compensation in the end and, much like Italy, they switched to the opposing side in WorldWarII. By 1914, all German colonies in the Pacific were seized.

to:

It is important to note that this war has almost always been called some form of "The World War" for a reason. Participants from all 6 inhabited continents of the globe would fight in the war, directly or indirectly. The ANZAC (Australia and New Zealand Army Corps) fought in Gallipoli, Europe, and would also occupy German Samoa and New Guinea. Japan and Britain worked to take Germany's Micronesian colonies, as well as fight at the important battle of Tsingtao, seizing the German colonies in China along with British support. Japan had operated under the idea that they would be rewarded for their efforts by basically being given these territories. In fact, the Japanese had grand plans of Empire-building in the Pacific and uniting the Asian peoples under one flag pretty much since the Boshin War and their start as UsefulNotes/ImperialJapan. However, Japan was given very little compensation in the end and, much like Italy, they switched to the opposing side in WorldWarII.UsefulNotes/WorldWarII. By 1914, all German colonies in the Pacific were seized.



During the war, the Young Turk government organised a series of deportations and massacres against Anatolian Armenians, Pontic Greeks and Assyrians, killing at least a million people. The logic behind this was that Serbia, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Greece had greatly improved their own claims to certain territories and removed many potential spies by executing pogroms against their Muslim populations (of up to 10% of the total) and driving them into Austro-Hungarian Bosnia, Italian Albania, and the Ottoman Empire. Interestingly this genocide was extremely 'hands-off', with the Ottoman government maintaining a high degree of PlausibleDeniability through careful control of the paper trail and employing mercenaries and militias to take away the food and valuables of the deported people at the arrival points (to ensure that they would die of starvation and exposure in the Syrian desert). To this very day the Turkish government [[ShownTheirWork can rightfully claim that official government documentation of the time portrays a programme of civilised and genteel deportation]]. This evidence is at the heart of [[FanonDiscontinuity their claim that the Armenian Genocide didn't happen]]. Interestingly or disturbingly enough, the very best evidence which proves that the Armenian Genocide did happen (including the only photographs) actually comes from the German advisors to the Ottoman government and military... who were, to a man, utterly horrified and disgusted by it. German perception of the Armenian Genocide and the much smaller 1907 German colonial genocide against the Namaqua and Herero people in German South-West Africa (which killed less than 100,000) changed during the 1920s and '30s. While 'leftists' remained disgusted with them, 'rightists' came to appreciate the logic of 'preventative security' behind eliminating troublesome demographics even if they didn't necessarily approve of the 'uncivilised' and 'barbaric' nature of the elimination itself. The success of these genocides in addressing national security issues was later cited (to good effect) [[UsefulNotes/NaziGermany in various discussions]] about [[UsefulNotes/TheHolocaust doing likewise]] immediately before and during WorldWarTwo although the consensus of a direct link between the two genocides remains elusive. As it happens, one of the plotters behind the genocide, Talaat Pasha, was assassinated in Berlin in 1921 by Armenian rebel and agent Soghomon Tehlirian. Tehlririan turned himself in, and submitted to trial in German courts, and admitted his crime to better publicize the crimes against his people and to attain martyrdom. Instead the German courts released him and found him innocent on grounds of temporary insanity[[note]]Which is hard to buy for a crime as premeditated as a political assassination and obviously reflects the general sympathy and approval observers at the trial had for his act of revenge.

to:

During the war, the Young Turk government organised a series of deportations and massacres against Anatolian Armenians, Pontic Greeks and Assyrians, killing at least a million people. The logic behind this was that Serbia, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Greece had greatly improved their own claims to certain territories and removed many potential spies by executing pogroms against their Muslim populations (of up to 10% of the total) and driving them into Austro-Hungarian Bosnia, Italian Albania, and the Ottoman Empire. Interestingly this genocide was extremely 'hands-off', with the Ottoman government maintaining a high degree of PlausibleDeniability through careful control of the paper trail and employing mercenaries and militias to take away the food and valuables of the deported people at the arrival points (to ensure that they would die of starvation and exposure in the Syrian desert). To this very day the Turkish government [[ShownTheirWork can rightfully claim that official government documentation of the time portrays a programme of civilised and genteel deportation]]. This evidence is at the heart of [[FanonDiscontinuity their claim that the Armenian Genocide didn't happen]]. Interestingly or disturbingly enough, the very best evidence which proves that the Armenian Genocide did happen (including the only photographs) actually comes from the German advisors to the Ottoman government and military... who were, to a man, utterly horrified and disgusted by it. German perception of the Armenian Genocide and the much smaller 1907 German colonial genocide against the Namaqua and Herero people in German South-West Africa (which killed less than 100,000) changed during the 1920s and '30s. While 'leftists' remained disgusted with them, 'rightists' came to appreciate the logic of 'preventative security' behind eliminating troublesome demographics even if they didn't necessarily approve of the 'uncivilised' and 'barbaric' nature of the elimination itself. The success of these genocides in addressing national security issues was later cited (to good effect) [[UsefulNotes/NaziGermany in various discussions]] about [[UsefulNotes/TheHolocaust doing likewise]] immediately before and during WorldWarTwo UsefulNotes/WorldWarII although the consensus of a direct link between the two genocides remains elusive. As it happens, one of the plotters behind the genocide, Talaat Pasha, was assassinated in Berlin in 1921 by Armenian rebel and agent Soghomon Tehlirian. Tehlririan turned himself in, and submitted to trial in German courts, and admitted his crime to better publicize the crimes against his people and to attain martyrdom. Instead the German courts released him and found him innocent on grounds of temporary insanity[[note]]Which is hard to buy for a crime as premeditated as a political assassination and obviously reflects the general sympathy and approval observers at the trial had for his act of revenge.
3rd Jul '17 2:37:11 AM tlegall
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A thing about the representation of WWI is that it's not as common as UsefulNotes/WorldWarII. The most commercially successful films about the war is the ''Film/TheBigParade'' (Creator/KingVidor's silent EpicMovie), followed by Lewis Milestone's adaptation of ''Film/AllQuietOnTheWesternFront'', Renoir's ''Grand Illusion'', while in the fifties, there was Creator/StanleyKubrick's ''Film/PathsOfGlory'' with its iconic tracking shots following soldiers around the trenches, which defined most people's image of the war. Since [[LawrenceOfArabia]](1962), there hasn't been a film on the war as successful critically and commercially and even in these cases, [[TheGreatestHistoryNeverTold the focus is solely on the Western Front rather than other parts of the war]]. In games there aren't many WWI titles in general and as compared with the more numerous representations in other media. Some gamers and game critics blame this on the somewhat more static nature of the war and the greater remoteness of the politics, societies and values, and the ignorance of developers and most gamers, who often assume that "WWI = muddy and "unmoving" western front". This situation is changing recently, with a whole slew of strategy games being released on the centennial anniversary of the war's outbreak in 2014 and the extraordinarily unforgiving (in the ''VideoGame/{{ARMA}}''-mold) online multiplayer shooter game ''VideoGame/{{Verdun}}'' having been released in April 2015. The ''VideoGame/{{Battlefield}}'' franchise also entered this era with the October 2016 release of ''VideoGame/Battlefield1''. WWI also sees some renewed interest in mainstream Hollywood, with 2017's ''Film/WonderWoman'' being probably one of the more prominent examples.

to:

A thing about the representation of WWI is that it's not as common as UsefulNotes/WorldWarII. The most commercially successful films about the war is the ''Film/TheBigParade'' (Creator/KingVidor's silent EpicMovie), followed by Lewis Milestone's adaptation of ''Film/AllQuietOnTheWesternFront'', Renoir's ''Grand Illusion'', while in the fifties, there was Creator/StanleyKubrick's ''Film/PathsOfGlory'' with its iconic tracking shots following soldiers around the trenches, which defined most people's image of the war. Since [[LawrenceOfArabia]](1962), ''FILM/LawrenceOfArabia''(1962), there hasn't been a film on the war as successful critically and commercially and even in these cases, [[TheGreatestHistoryNeverTold the focus is solely on the Western Front rather than other parts of the war]]. In games there aren't many WWI titles in general and as compared with the more numerous representations in other media. Some gamers and game critics blame this on the somewhat more static nature of the war and the greater remoteness of the politics, societies and values, and the ignorance of developers and most gamers, who often assume that "WWI = muddy and "unmoving" western front". This situation is changing recently, with a whole slew of strategy games being released on the centennial anniversary of the war's outbreak in 2014 and the extraordinarily unforgiving (in the ''VideoGame/{{ARMA}}''-mold) online multiplayer shooter game ''VideoGame/{{Verdun}}'' having been released in April 2015. The ''VideoGame/{{Battlefield}}'' franchise also entered this era with the October 2016 release of ''VideoGame/Battlefield1''. WWI also sees some renewed interest in mainstream Hollywood, with 2017's ''Film/WonderWoman'' being probably one of the more prominent examples.
3rd Jul '17 2:36:18 AM tlegall
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A thing about the representation of WWI is that it's not as common as UsefulNotes/WorldWarII. The most commercially successful films about the war is the ''Film/TheBigParade'' (Creator/KingVidor's silent EpicMovie), followed by Lewis Milestone's adaptation of ''Film/AllQuietOnTheWesternFront'', Renoir's ''Grand Illusion'', while in the fifties, there was Creator/StanleyKubrick's ''Film/PathsOfGlory'' with its iconic tracking shots following soldiers around the trenches, which defined most people's image of the war. Since 1957, there hasn't been a film on the war as successful critically and commercially and even in these cases, [[TheGreatestHistoryNeverTold the focus is solely on the Western Front rather than other parts of the war]]. In games there aren't many WWI titles in general and as compared with the more numerous representations in other media. Some gamers and game critics blame this on the somewhat more static nature of the war and the greater remoteness of the politics, societies and values, and the ignorance of developers and most gamers, who often assume that "WWI = muddy and "unmoving" western front". This situation is changing recently, with a whole slew of strategy games being released on the centennial anniversary of the war's outbreak in 2014 and the extraordinarily unforgiving (in the ''VideoGame/{{ARMA}}''-mold) online multiplayer shooter game ''VideoGame/{{Verdun}}'' having been released in April 2015. The ''VideoGame/{{Battlefield}}'' franchise also entered this era with the October 2016 release of ''VideoGame/Battlefield1''. WWI also sees some renewed interest in mainstream Hollywood, with 2017's ''Film/WonderWoman'' being probably one of the more prominent examples.

to:

A thing about the representation of WWI is that it's not as common as UsefulNotes/WorldWarII. The most commercially successful films about the war is the ''Film/TheBigParade'' (Creator/KingVidor's silent EpicMovie), followed by Lewis Milestone's adaptation of ''Film/AllQuietOnTheWesternFront'', Renoir's ''Grand Illusion'', while in the fifties, there was Creator/StanleyKubrick's ''Film/PathsOfGlory'' with its iconic tracking shots following soldiers around the trenches, which defined most people's image of the war. Since 1957, [[LawrenceOfArabia]](1962), there hasn't been a film on the war as successful critically and commercially and even in these cases, [[TheGreatestHistoryNeverTold the focus is solely on the Western Front rather than other parts of the war]]. In games there aren't many WWI titles in general and as compared with the more numerous representations in other media. Some gamers and game critics blame this on the somewhat more static nature of the war and the greater remoteness of the politics, societies and values, and the ignorance of developers and most gamers, who often assume that "WWI = muddy and "unmoving" western front". This situation is changing recently, with a whole slew of strategy games being released on the centennial anniversary of the war's outbreak in 2014 and the extraordinarily unforgiving (in the ''VideoGame/{{ARMA}}''-mold) online multiplayer shooter game ''VideoGame/{{Verdun}}'' having been released in April 2015. The ''VideoGame/{{Battlefield}}'' franchise also entered this era with the October 2016 release of ''VideoGame/Battlefield1''. WWI also sees some renewed interest in mainstream Hollywood, with 2017's ''Film/WonderWoman'' being probably one of the more prominent examples.
23rd Jun '17 1:59:26 AM YZQ
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It's not easy to pinpoint the exact reason why people are focusing on this particular conflict all of a sudden aside from the 2014-2018 period marking its 100th anniversary. Among historians, the reason cited is the availability of archives in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, which allows them to access and study archives of the war not available earlier. Since East Germany was largely comprised of UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}} who were the region in charge of the war, historians are only now getting a bigger clarity of the other side. Other commentators, such as Christopher Clark, likewise cite the emergence of the multi-polar world and globalization, as analogous to the period of 1870-1914 (called "the first globalization" by some commentators), while some suggest ongoing problems in the Middle East and the Arab Spring and the Sytian Civil War, which has brought further attention to the Sykes-Picot treaty in international-relations, highlighting the continuing impact of the war well into the 21st Century.

to:

It's not easy to pinpoint the exact reason why people are focusing on this particular conflict all of a sudden aside from the 2014-2018 period marking its 100th anniversary. Among historians, the reason cited is the availability of archives in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, which allows them to access and study archives of the war not available earlier. Since East Germany was largely comprised of UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}} who were the region in charge of the war, historians are only now getting a bigger clarity of the other side. Other commentators, such as Christopher Clark, likewise cite the emergence of the multi-polar world and globalization, as analogous to the period of 1870-1914 (called "the first globalization" by some commentators), while some suggest ongoing problems in the Middle East and the Arab Spring and the Sytian Syrian Civil War, which has brought further attention to the Sykes-Picot treaty in international-relations, highlighting the continuing impact of the war well into the 21st Century.
22nd Jun '17 9:23:11 PM bobwolf
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* ''Film/WonderWoman'' has the titular heroine exploring the world of Man during the time period of WWI.

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* ''Film/WonderWoman'' has the titular heroine exploring the world of Man during the time period of WWI. It's by far the [[http://www.boxofficemojo.com/genres/chart/?id=worldwari.htm highest grossing movie]] set in WWI.
18th Jun '17 11:27:20 PM JulianLapostat
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On 8th December 1912, Kaiser Wilhelm II summoned [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Imperial_War_Council_of_8_December_1912 a cabinet meeting of the Imperial Council]] where they noted that the present situation could not be allowed to continue, since accompanied by Russian industrialization, it would in time erode their advantages and gains. The Kaiser's generals agreed that if a war was inevitable, then it was best it broke out sooner rather than later. If it happened soon, then Imperial Germany could press and defend its position and advantage. These were the only options available to Imperial Germany for it to persist and remain in the same form and the same system of government. These were also the options for Tsarist Russia which was destabilizing at home, weakened by military defeats, and facing many problems that the autocratic state either didn't want to deal with, or were incapable of dealing with: chiefly the tensions of class levelling and the specter of revolution and the greater gains of the worker's movement and their desire to convert it into political gains. It was common practice for everyone at that time to deal with these problems by ''Sammlungspolitik''. World War I was a war of empires, and a war to defend the concept of empire and imperialism, in a world that was already becoming so interconnected by transport and communication, that it has come to be defined as "the first globalization". Economic theorists of the time harboured under what Norman Angell called "The Great Illusion" (which inspired the title of the famous World War I film, ''Film/GrandIllusion''). The idea that a world of economic competition ended the need of war automatically cancelled the possibility of war. Angell, contrary to general opinions, argued that a political order needed to be established to prevent war, and that war could be practised, and continued to be practised for political expediency. That Great Illusion would be replaced by the illusion of "the war to end all wars".

to:

On 8th December 1912, Kaiser Wilhelm II summoned [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Imperial_War_Council_of_8_December_1912 a cabinet meeting of the Imperial Council]] where they noted that the present situation could not be allowed to continue, since accompanied by Russian industrialization, it would in time erode their advantages and gains. The Kaiser's generals agreed that if a war was inevitable, then it was best it broke out sooner rather than later. If it happened soon, then Imperial Germany could press and defend its position and advantage. These were the only options available to Imperial Germany for it to persist and remain in the same form and the same system of government. These were also the options for Tsarist Russia which was destabilizing at home, weakened by military defeats, and facing many problems that the autocratic state either didn't want to deal with, or were incapable of dealing with: chiefly the tensions of class levelling and the specter of revolution and the greater gains of the worker's movement and their desire to convert it into political gains. It was common practice for everyone at that time to deal with these problems by ''Sammlungspolitik''. World War I was a war of empires, and a war to defend the concept of empire and imperialism, in a world that was already becoming so interconnected by transport and communication, that it has come to be defined as "the first globalization". Economic theorists of the time harboured under what Norman Angell called "The Great Illusion" (which inspired the title of [[Film/TheGrandIllusion the famous World War I film, ''Film/GrandIllusion'').film]]). The idea that a world of economic competition ended the need of war automatically cancelled the possibility of war. Angell, contrary to general opinions, argued that a political order needed to be established to prevent war, and that war could be practised, and continued to be practised for political expediency. That Great Illusion would be replaced by the illusion of "the war to end all wars".
18th Jun '17 11:16:21 PM JulianLapostat
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The origins of the first world war involve so many nations in so many languages, that historians are still trying to piece it together. The conflict was so horrific and destructive in scale that it ended up destroying the foundations of many of the leading states of the conflict. At the beginning of the war, Kaiser Wilhelm II was among the most famous figures in the world, by the end, he became, overnight, [[DemotedToExtra a mere footnote]] as a result of a revolution which broke out in UsefulNotes/ImperialGermany and the start of UsefulNotes/TheWeimarRepublic. The dramatic collapse, the sudden revolution, and rapid changes in governments, states, borders that followed the peace further overshadowed and buried the circumstances that led to this conflict. Likewise the new states that emerged had various political agendas. The Soviet Union for instance argued that the war was caused by UsefulNotes/{{Capitalism}} and Imperialism, and of course it suited their agendas to blame everyone including Tsarist Russia and claim that the only option is to end all nationalism and join the international brotherhood of Communism, and welcome Communist cadres and parties in all nations[[note]]It wouldn't of course make them wrong necessarily but it's a line of argument that needs more groundwork than they put into it, and of course the idea of Capitalism inherently causing war is subject to criticism and dispute for many people, for a variety of reasons[[/note]]. Towards the end of the war, politicians in Imperial Germany actually doctored their archives and destroyed some evidence and forged other documents. During TheTwenties, the Weimar Republic directly promoted the "collective guilt" or that "Germany was a victim of the Entente" and supported and promoted historians with views that served their ideas while discouraging others like Hermann Kantorowicz, in a manner not dissimilar to the way the Confederate States manufactured and promulgated the "Lost Cause" thesis[[note]]Which would prove that the Germans wanted to hide their guilt or were ashamed of statements made by their leaders that could justify reparations but which wouldn't in itself prove that Germany's imperialism and expansionist agenda was unique and exceptional and outside the norms in relation to the context of the time[[/note]]. As such there is no total consensus on why the war occurred or what the motives of different groups involved in the war were, and this means that the "lessons" drawn from World War I are among the most contentious and debated fields of contemporary history. The debate about the war was politicized in the decades leading to UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, and while it isn't as politicized and deadly today, and mercifully a more academic issue than it used to be, it's still something with a lot of views and opinions.

to:

The origins of the first world war involve so many nations in so many languages, that historians are still trying to piece it together. The conflict was so horrific and destructive in scale that it ended up destroying the foundations of many of the leading states of the conflict. At the beginning of the war, Kaiser Wilhelm II was among the most famous figures in the world, by the end, he became, overnight, [[DemotedToExtra a mere footnote]] as a result of a revolution which broke out in UsefulNotes/ImperialGermany and the start of UsefulNotes/TheWeimarRepublic. The dramatic collapse, the sudden revolution, and rapid changes in governments, states, borders that followed the peace further overshadowed and buried the circumstances that led to this conflict. Likewise the new states that emerged had various political agendas. The Soviet Union for instance argued that the war was caused by UsefulNotes/{{Capitalism}} and Imperialism, and of course it suited their agendas to blame everyone including Tsarist Russia Russia, obviously, [[CommieLand and claim that the only option is to end all nationalism nationalism]] and join the international brotherhood of Communism, and welcome Communist cadres and parties in all nations[[note]]It wouldn't of course make them wrong necessarily but it's a line of argument that needs more groundwork than they put into it, and of course nations. On the idea of Capitalism inherently causing war is subject to criticism and dispute for many people, for a variety of reasons[[/note]]. Towards the end of the war, other side, politicians in Imperial Germany actually doctored their archives and destroyed some evidence and forged other documents. During TheTwenties, the Weimar Republic directly promoted either the "collective guilt" idea or that "Germany was a victim of the Entente" and supported was fighting defensively ([[BlatantLies even if they declared war and promoted historians invaded first]]) and that the other nations were jealous of Germany's rise and progress. Historians with similar views that served their ideas (even, or especially from, America) were encouraged and directly funded in some cases, while discouraging others like Hermann Kantorowicz, those who questioned it were stifled and ignored, [[UsefulNotes/TheAmericanCivilWar in a manner not dissimilar dissimilar]] to the way the Confederate States manufactured and promulgated the "Lost Cause" thesis[[note]]Which would prove that the Germans wanted to hide their guilt or were ashamed of statements made by their leaders that could justify reparations but which wouldn't in itself prove that Germany's imperialism and expansionist agenda was unique and exceptional and outside the norms in relation to the context of the time[[/note]]. As such there is no total consensus on why the war occurred or what the motives of different groups involved in the war were, and this means that the "lessons" drawn from World War I are among the most contentious and debated fields of contemporary history. thesis. The debate about the war was politicized in the decades years leading to UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, and while it isn't as politicized and deadly today, and mercifully a more academic issue than it used to be, it's still something with that sparks a lot lively debate. The irony in academic history is that, these days, among German academic historians, the consensus is that Imperial Germany knowingly launched into a war of views and opinions.aggression in 1914 while non-German historians believe that the war was a case of PoorCommunicationKills, bad diplomacy, or collective guilt.
18th Jun '17 8:54:12 PM JulianLapostat
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A thing about the representation of WWI in games is that there aren't many WWI titles in general and as compared with the more numerous representations in other media. Some gamers and game critics blame this on the somewhat more static nature of the war or the ignorance of developers and most gamers, who often assume that "WWI = muddy and "unmoving" western front". This situation is slowly changing, with a whole slew of strategy games being released on the centennial anniversary of the war's outbreak in 2014 and the extraordinarily unforgiving (in the ''VideoGame/{{ARMA}}''-mold) online multiplayer shooter game ''VideoGame/{{Verdun}}'' having been released in April 2015. The ''VideoGame/{{Battlefield}}'' franchise also entered this era with the October 2016 release of ''VideoGame/Battlefield1''. WWI also sees some renewed interest in mainstream Hollywood, with 2017's ''Film/WonderWoman'' being probably one of the more prominent examples.

It's not easy to pinpoint the exact reason why people are focusing on this particular conflict all of a sudden aside from the 2014-2018 period marking its 100th anniversary. The current political, social and economical instability in Europe might have contributed to it and the [[GrayAndGreyMorality lack of an easily distinguishable villain]] surely makes it an interesting setting in an era when successful TV shows increasingly explore GreyAndGrayMorality.

to:


A thing about the representation of WWI in games is that it's not as common as UsefulNotes/WorldWarII. The most commercially successful films about the war is the ''Film/TheBigParade'' (Creator/KingVidor's silent EpicMovie), followed by Lewis Milestone's adaptation of ''Film/AllQuietOnTheWesternFront'', Renoir's ''Grand Illusion'', while in the fifties, there was Creator/StanleyKubrick's ''Film/PathsOfGlory'' with its iconic tracking shots following soldiers around the trenches, which defined most people's image of the war. Since 1957, there hasn't been a film on the war as successful critically and commercially and even in these cases, [[TheGreatestHistoryNeverTold the focus is solely on the Western Front rather than other parts of the war]]. In games there aren't many WWI titles in general and as compared with the more numerous representations in other media. Some gamers and game critics blame this on the somewhat more static nature of the war or and the greater remoteness of the politics, societies and values, and the ignorance of developers and most gamers, who often assume that "WWI = muddy and "unmoving" western front". This situation is slowly changing, changing recently, with a whole slew of strategy games being released on the centennial anniversary of the war's outbreak in 2014 and the extraordinarily unforgiving (in the ''VideoGame/{{ARMA}}''-mold) online multiplayer shooter game ''VideoGame/{{Verdun}}'' having been released in April 2015. The ''VideoGame/{{Battlefield}}'' franchise also entered this era with the October 2016 release of ''VideoGame/Battlefield1''. WWI also sees some renewed interest in mainstream Hollywood, with 2017's ''Film/WonderWoman'' being probably one of the more prominent examples.

It's not easy to pinpoint the exact reason why people are focusing on this particular conflict all of a sudden aside from the 2014-2018 period marking its 100th anniversary. The current political, social and economical instability Among historians, the reason cited is the availability of archives in Eastern Europe might have contributed to it and the [[GrayAndGreyMorality lack former Soviet Union, which allows them to access and study archives of an easily distinguishable villain]] surely makes it an interesting setting the war not available earlier. Since East Germany was largely comprised of UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}} who were the region in an era when successful TV shows increasingly explore GreyAndGrayMorality.
charge of the war, historians are only now getting a bigger clarity of the other side. Other commentators, such as Christopher Clark, likewise cite the emergence of the multi-polar world and globalization, as analogous to the period of 1870-1914 (called "the first globalization" by some commentators), while some suggest ongoing problems in the Middle East and the Arab Spring and the Sytian Civil War, which has brought further attention to the Sykes-Picot treaty in international-relations, highlighting the continuing impact of the war well into the 21st Century.
18th Jun '17 8:41:45 PM JulianLapostat
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There were many future writers in the trenches: notably, Creator/JRRTolkien and Creator/AAMilne served in the British infantry, while Creator/ErnestHemingway and Creator/WaltDisney volunteered to serve as Red Cross ambulance drivers; on the other side, philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein served in the Austrian artillery. One who did not survive his service was Creator/WilliamHopeHodgson, author of ''Literature/TheNightLand'', who was killed by a shell in 1918; the accomplished BlackComedy writer Creator/{{Saki}} was also killed, shot by a German sniper after yelling at another soldier to put out his cigarette (he was discovered because of his yell). The famous German painter and founding member of "''The Blue Rider"'', FranzMarc, was killed by a grenade at Verdun. And sadly, there was at least one young, promising scientist in the trenches: the physicist Henry Moseley, who discovered the principle underlying atomic number, establishing the periodic law, was killed at Gallipoli, just as his career was getting off the ground. The French lost André Durkheim, a promising young linguist and the son and protégé of the notable sociologist Emile Durkheim. Sent to the Belgian front in late 1915, André Durkheim was declared missing in January, and declared dead in April of 1916. The elder Durkheim never quite recovered from the loss of his son, dying himself in 1917. The loss of many of his other protégés and friends in the trenches didn't exactly help. Future film-makers Creator/FriedrichWilhelmMurnau and Creator/FritzLang also fought in the trenches, as did Creator/JeanRenoir (who later made what many considered the definitive film about the war with ''Film/TheGrandIllusion''), while Creator/WilliamAWellman volunteered before America's entry into the war as a pilot for the Lafayette Escadrille. The French poets Charles Peguy died in 1914 in the Battle of the Marne, Guillaume Apollinaire, forerunner of surrealism survived the war only to die in the Spanish Flu academic. Among the English, the story of Wilfred Owen, among the most famous of war poets, was rather heartbreaking. He died in battle one week before the signing of the armistice. His compatriot and friend, Robert Graves, future author of HistoricalFiction and translator of Latin prose, wrote a memoir titled ''Goodbye to All That''. Fighting on the German side was another physicist, Karl Schwarzschild, who was the first to use UsefulNotes/AlbertEinstein's new General Theory of Relativity to predict black holes. He died on the Russian front.

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There were many future writers in the trenches: notably, Creator/JRRTolkien and Creator/AAMilne served in the British infantry, while Creator/ErnestHemingway and Creator/WaltDisney volunteered to serve as Red Cross ambulance drivers; on the other side, philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein served in the Austrian artillery. One who did not survive his service was Creator/WilliamHopeHodgson, author of ''Literature/TheNightLand'', who was killed by a shell in 1918; the accomplished BlackComedy writer Creator/{{Saki}} was also killed, shot by a German sniper after yelling at another soldier to put out his cigarette (he was discovered because of his yell). The famous German painter and founding member of "''The Blue Rider"'', FranzMarc, was killed by a grenade at Verdun. And sadly, there was at least one young, promising scientist in the trenches: the physicist Henry Moseley, who discovered the principle underlying atomic number, establishing the periodic law, was killed at Gallipoli, just as his career was getting off the ground. The French lost André Durkheim, a promising young linguist and the son and protégé of the notable sociologist Emile Durkheim. Sent to the Belgian front in late 1915, André Durkheim was declared missing in January, and declared dead in April of 1916. The elder Durkheim never quite recovered from the loss of his son, dying himself in 1917. The loss of many of his other protégés and friends in the trenches didn't exactly help. Future film-makers Creator/FriedrichWilhelmMurnau and Creator/FritzLang also fought in the trenches, as did Creator/JeanRenoir (who later made what many considered the definitive film about the war with ''Film/TheGrandIllusion''), while Creator/WilliamAWellman volunteered before America's entry into the war as a pilot for the Lafayette Escadrille. The French poets Charles Peguy died in 1914 in the Battle of the Marne, Guillaume Apollinaire, forerunner of surrealism survived the war only to die in the Spanish Flu academic.epidemic. Among the English, the story of Wilfred Owen, among the most famous of war poets, was rather heartbreaking. He died in battle one week before the signing of the armistice. His compatriot and friend, Robert Graves, future author of HistoricalFiction and translator of Latin prose, wrote a memoir titled ''Goodbye to All That''. Fighting on the German side was another physicist, Karl Schwarzschild, who was the first to use UsefulNotes/AlbertEinstein's new General Theory of Relativity to predict black holes. He died on the Russian front.
18th Jun '17 8:38:08 PM JulianLapostat
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Four empires were toppled (Russian, German, Austrian-Hungarian and Ottoman; indeed, it could be argued that in November 1918, there was not a ''single'' functional government between the Rhine and the Dnieper rivers!) and the winners took the opportunity in the Treaty of Versailles to redraw the map of Europe along what were supposed to be ethnic lines but in fact just stored up more problems for the future (Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Danzig, to name the biggest). The treaty terms were really harsh on the Germans (including the Austrians, who voted to join Germany and were told to stuff it... until 1938, anyway) and the Hungarians (who lost two thirds of their country) storing up lots of resentment that would come back to haunt the Entente later—though some modern historians now believe they were actually not hard ''enough'' and served the worst of both worlds in angering Germany but not substantially weakening her. Additionally, it's been argued that—if the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk negotiated by the Germans and the new Bolshevik government in Russia was any indicator—whatever treaty the victorious Germans might have come up with could have been even harsher.

Russia became the first Communist country late in this war, although that was only because of the wartime starvation itself. Similarly, the Treaty of Versailles completely ignored the pleas from imperial colonies like French Indochina or disadvantaged countries like China to reform the European policies in said countries; this lead to anger and mistrust throughout the 20s and 30s that contributed to said countries later becoming Communist.

Two of the most iconic German symbols of the war—the spiked "Pickelhaube" helmet and the bright red Fokker Triplane—were relatively short-lived. The Pickelhaube looked cool (sort of) but was useless for keeping the wearer's head safe so was quickly replaced by the end of 1915 by the Stahlhelm, "coal-scuttle" helmet, whose improved version became the symbol of the German forces in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII. The Triplane was never that successful and quickly withdrawn after April 1917. The only red ones were flown by the RedBaron, Manfred von Richthofen, and his younger brother Lothar—the iconic image simply stuck.

The war also ushered in modern espionage, to say nothing of modern spy fiction (although it had already had a leg up from Erskine Childer's ''The Riddle of the Sands'', which was actually semi-predicting the war at the beginning of the 20th century).

Interestingly, the Young Turk government organised a series of deportations and massacres against Anatolian Armenians, Pontic Greeks and Assyrians, killing at least a million people. The logic behind this was that Serbia, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Greece had greatly improved their own claims to certain territories and removed many potential spies by executing pogroms against their Muslim populations (of up to 10% of the total) and driving them into Austro-Hungarian Bosnia, Italian Albania, and the Ottoman Empire. Interestingly this genocide was extremely 'hands-off', with the Ottoman government maintaining a high degree of PlausibleDeniability through careful control of the paper trail and employing mercenaries and militias to take away the food and valuables of the deported people at the arrival points (to ensure that they would die of starvation and exposure in the Syrian desert). To this very day the Turkish government [[ShownTheirWork can rightfully claim that official government documentation of the time portrays a programme of civilised and genteel deportation]]. This evidence is at the heart of [[FanonDiscontinuity their claim that the Armenian Genocide didn't happen]].

More interestingly still, the very best evidence which proves that the Armenian Genocide did happen (including the only photographs) actually comes from the German advisors to the Ottoman government and military... who were, to a man, utterly horrified and disgusted by it. German perception of the Armenian Genocide and the much smaller 1907 German colonial genocide against the Namaqua and Herero people in German South-West Africa (which killed less than 100,000) changed during the 1920s and '30s. While 'leftists' remained disgusted with them, 'rightists' came to appreciate the logic of 'preventative security' behind eliminating troublesome demographics even if they didn't necessarily approve of the 'uncivilised' and 'barbaric' nature of the elimination itself. The success of these genocides in addressing national security issues was later cited (to good effect) [[UsefulNotes/NaziGermany in various discussions]] about [[UsefulNotes/TheHolocaust doing likewise]] immediately before and during WorldWarTwo

There were many future writers in the trenches: notably, Creator/JRRTolkien and Creator/AAMilne served in the British infantry, while Creator/ErnestHemingway and Creator/WaltDisney volunteered to serve as Red Cross ambulance drivers; on the other side, philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein served in the Austrian artillery. One who did not survive his service was Creator/WilliamHopeHodgson, author of ''Literature/TheNightLand'', who was killed by a shell in 1918; the accomplished BlackComedy writer Creator/{{Saki}} was also killed, shot by a German sniper after yelling at another soldier to put out his cigarette (he was discovered because of his yell). The famous German painter and founding member of "''The Blue Rider"'', FranzMarc, was killed by a grenade at Verdun. And sadly, there was at least one young, promising scientist in the trenches: the physicist Henry Moseley, who discovered the principle underlying atomic number, establishing the periodic law, was killed at Gallipoli, just as his career was getting off the ground. The French lost André Durkheim, a promising young linguist and the son and protégé of the notable sociologist Emile Durkheim. Sent to the Belgian front in late 1915, André Durkheim was declared missing in January, and declared dead in April of 1916. The elder Durkheim never quite recovered from the loss of his son, dying himself in 1917. The loss of many of his other protégés and friends in the trenches didn't exactly help. Fighting on the German side was another physicist, Karl Schwarzschild, who was the first to use UsefulNotes/AlbertEinstein's new General Theory of Relativity to predict black holes. He died on the Russian front.

to:

Four empires were toppled (Russian, German, Austrian-Hungarian and Ottoman; indeed, it could be argued that in November 1918, there was not a ''single'' functional government between the Rhine and the Dnieper rivers!) rivers!). With the downfall of these governments, the whole landmass of Central and the winners took the opportunity in the Treaty of Versailles to redraw the map of Eastern Europe along what were supposed needed to be ethnic lines but redrawn on the map. Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points encouraged national self-determination and nationality based on ethnicity. This in fact just stored up more problems for the future (Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, Danzig, to name the biggest). biggest) since it created ethno-nationalist states in regions which had German populations or which had historically been contested territory. The treaty terms newly formed state of UsefulNotes/{{Poland}} disputed some of its territory going to Czechoslovakia since there was a strong Polish minority in that region, while Pre-War Poland also included areas (especially to the East) where Poles were really harsh minorities among Ukrainians. The Italians were unhappy that despite fighting on the Germans (including side of the Austrians, who voted to join Allies they didn't get the parts of Austria-Hungary they wanted.

In the case of Germany, the big dispute and point of contention, then and likely forever, is the issue of reparations and the clause of "war guilt". This is known as [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Article_231_of_the_Treaty_of_Versailles#Writing_of_the_article Article 231]] that was authored by British and American diplomats, Norman Davis and John Foster Dulles respectively. The French were quite insistent, citing the disproportionate devastation of France and Belgium occupied by German forces (where their industries, mines and other resources were destroyed) that
Germany should pay for the damages they caused, given that the war had not made such a big impact on their turf. The French cited the reparations inflicted after the Franco-Prussian War, and were told likewise compared it in relation to stuff it... until 1938, anyway) the Brest-Litovsk treaty which they inflicted on Lenin's Russia, that it was not as harsh a settlement. The "treaty" became symbolic real estate in the eyes of many observers, removed far from the context of its framers and writers. The likes of J. M. Keynes and Vladimir Lenin whatever they disagreed on in other matters, agreed that Germany was being treated unfairly, and the Hungarians (who lost two thirds newly formed Government of their country) storing up lots of resentment that would come back to haunt the Entente later—though some modern historians now believe they were actually not hard ''enough'' Weimar Republic and served the worst of both worlds in angering Imperial Germany but not substantially weakening her. Additionally, it's been argued that—if itself were seen as being made into scapegoats.

Later observers qualify this assessment. Everyone agrees that
the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk negotiated Versailles is a political and diplomatic failure. It clearly did not articulate and build a lasting peace, and on that level it is an incontestable failure. The question is merely if it was a failure of kind or failure of degree. The middle view is that it was a GoldenMeanFallacy that stoked political resentment while leaving Germany in a position that was still able to act on it. Etienne Mantoux, the French economist and later historians argued that the Treaty was truly lenient on Germany and that by the Germans mid-20s, the Weimar Republic was on the road to recovery. Furthermore the calls to demobilize and reduce the size of the German army, cut the defense budget and allowed for more investment in civilian sector. The true failure some argue is the inadequacy of the League of Nations and other organizations to truly sustain and hold Germany to task. Likewise, by the middle of the 1920s, the Weimar Republic's great statesman, Gustav Stresemann won a Nobel Peace Prize for rebuilding foreign alliances and making the terms imposed by the Treaty even more lenient than it was. The prominence of the treaty in German and international media was seen by later historians as a means of delegitimising the Weimar Republic itself, with claims that the new Bolshevik republican government in Russia was any indicator—whatever by accepting such an unfair treaty allowed the victorious Germans might have come up with could have been even harsher.

Russia became the first Communist country late in this war, although
brave spotless German Army to be "stabbed-in-the-back"[[note]]A demonstrable falsehood given that was only because the German War Ministry agreed to the surrender before the formation of the wartime starvation itself. Similarly, new republic for the plain fact that they were about to lose[[/note]].

A larger point made today is the fact that
the Treaty of Versailles completely ignored the pleas from imperial colonies like French Indochina or disadvantaged countries like China to reform the European policies in said countries; this lead to anger and mistrust throughout the 20s and 30s that contributed to said countries later becoming Communist.

Two
Communist. The fact that the British government promised Indian soldiers and leaders dominion status and greater representation in exchange for enlistment and then did not deliver on those promises played a major part in the Indian Independence Movement which really caught gear after the war. Furthermore, if one of the most iconic German symbols of causes for the war—the spiked "Pickelhaube" helmet war was the secret alliances and treaties, then the Sykes-Picot treaty, a secret agreement between the French and the bright red Fokker Triplane—were relatively short-lived. English to carve out the Ottoman Empire among themselves while ignoring the pleas of their Arab allies, is considerably more damning in highlighting the general hypocrisy of the Entente. The Pickelhaube looked cool (sort of) but Sykes-Picot agreement incidentally was useless for keeping the wearer's head safe so was quickly replaced discovered by the end of 1915 by Bolsheviks in the Stahlhelm, "coal-scuttle" helmet, whose improved version became the symbol of the German forces in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII. The Triplane was never that successful and quickly withdrawn Russian Imperial archives after April 1917. The only red ones were flown by their seizure of government, and they saw fit to leak it for the RedBaron, Manfred von Richthofen, and his younger brother Lothar—the iconic image simply stuck.

The war also ushered in modern espionage,
whole world to say nothing of modern spy fiction (although it had already had a leg up from Erskine Childer's ''The Riddle of see.

During
the Sands'', which was actually semi-predicting the war at the beginning of the 20th century).

Interestingly,
war, the Young Turk government organised a series of deportations and massacres against Anatolian Armenians, Pontic Greeks and Assyrians, killing at least a million people. The logic behind this was that Serbia, Rumania, Bulgaria, and Greece had greatly improved their own claims to certain territories and removed many potential spies by executing pogroms against their Muslim populations (of up to 10% of the total) and driving them into Austro-Hungarian Bosnia, Italian Albania, and the Ottoman Empire. Interestingly this genocide was extremely 'hands-off', with the Ottoman government maintaining a high degree of PlausibleDeniability through careful control of the paper trail and employing mercenaries and militias to take away the food and valuables of the deported people at the arrival points (to ensure that they would die of starvation and exposure in the Syrian desert). To this very day the Turkish government [[ShownTheirWork can rightfully claim that official government documentation of the time portrays a programme of civilised and genteel deportation]]. This evidence is at the heart of [[FanonDiscontinuity their claim that the Armenian Genocide didn't happen]].

More interestingly still,
happen]]. Interestingly or disturbingly enough, the very best evidence which proves that the Armenian Genocide did happen (including the only photographs) actually comes from the German advisors to the Ottoman government and military... who were, to a man, utterly horrified and disgusted by it. German perception of the Armenian Genocide and the much smaller 1907 German colonial genocide against the Namaqua and Herero people in German South-West Africa (which killed less than 100,000) changed during the 1920s and '30s. While 'leftists' remained disgusted with them, 'rightists' came to appreciate the logic of 'preventative security' behind eliminating troublesome demographics even if they didn't necessarily approve of the 'uncivilised' and 'barbaric' nature of the elimination itself. The success of these genocides in addressing national security issues was later cited (to good effect) [[UsefulNotes/NaziGermany in various discussions]] about [[UsefulNotes/TheHolocaust doing likewise]] immediately before and during WorldWarTwo

WorldWarTwo although the consensus of a direct link between the two genocides remains elusive. As it happens, one of the plotters behind the genocide, Talaat Pasha, was assassinated in Berlin in 1921 by Armenian rebel and agent Soghomon Tehlirian. Tehlririan turned himself in, and submitted to trial in German courts, and admitted his crime to better publicize the crimes against his people and to attain martyrdom. Instead the German courts released him and found him innocent on grounds of temporary insanity[[note]]Which is hard to buy for a crime as premeditated as a political assassination and obviously reflects the general sympathy and approval observers at the trial had for his act of revenge.
[[/note]].

Two of the most iconic German symbols of the war—the spiked "Pickelhaube" helmet and the bright red Fokker Triplane—were relatively short-lived. The Pickelhaube looked cool (sort of) but was useless for keeping the wearer's head safe so was quickly replaced by the end of 1915 by the Stahlhelm, "coal-scuttle" helmet, whose improved version became the symbol of the German forces in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII. The Triplane was never that successful and quickly withdrawn after April 1917. The only red ones were flown by the RedBaron, Manfred von Richthofen, and his younger brother Lothar—the iconic image simply stuck. The war also ushered in modern espionage, to say nothing of modern spy fiction (although it had already had a leg up from Erskine Childer's ''The Riddle of the Sands'', which was actually semi-predicting the war at the beginning of the 20th century). The most famous spy was of course the Dutch courtesan known as UsefulNotes/MataHari who was arguably the most famous spy (real and fictional) until the UsefulNotes/ColdWar era and the advent of ''Literature/JamesBond''. Modern history confirms alas, that she was most definitely guilty.

There were many future writers in the trenches: notably, Creator/JRRTolkien and Creator/AAMilne served in the British infantry, while Creator/ErnestHemingway and Creator/WaltDisney volunteered to serve as Red Cross ambulance drivers; on the other side, philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein served in the Austrian artillery. One who did not survive his service was Creator/WilliamHopeHodgson, author of ''Literature/TheNightLand'', who was killed by a shell in 1918; the accomplished BlackComedy writer Creator/{{Saki}} was also killed, shot by a German sniper after yelling at another soldier to put out his cigarette (he was discovered because of his yell). The famous German painter and founding member of "''The Blue Rider"'', FranzMarc, was killed by a grenade at Verdun. And sadly, there was at least one young, promising scientist in the trenches: the physicist Henry Moseley, who discovered the principle underlying atomic number, establishing the periodic law, was killed at Gallipoli, just as his career was getting off the ground. The French lost André Durkheim, a promising young linguist and the son and protégé of the notable sociologist Emile Durkheim. Sent to the Belgian front in late 1915, André Durkheim was declared missing in January, and declared dead in April of 1916. The elder Durkheim never quite recovered from the loss of his son, dying himself in 1917. The loss of many of his other protégés and friends in the trenches didn't exactly help. Future film-makers Creator/FriedrichWilhelmMurnau and Creator/FritzLang also fought in the trenches, as did Creator/JeanRenoir (who later made what many considered the definitive film about the war with ''Film/TheGrandIllusion''), while Creator/WilliamAWellman volunteered before America's entry into the war as a pilot for the Lafayette Escadrille. The French poets Charles Peguy died in 1914 in the Battle of the Marne, Guillaume Apollinaire, forerunner of surrealism survived the war only to die in the Spanish Flu academic. Among the English, the story of Wilfred Owen, among the most famous of war poets, was rather heartbreaking. He died in battle one week before the signing of the armistice. His compatriot and friend, Robert Graves, future author of HistoricalFiction and translator of Latin prose, wrote a memoir titled ''Goodbye to All That''. Fighting on the German side was another physicist, Karl Schwarzschild, who was the first to use UsefulNotes/AlbertEinstein's new General Theory of Relativity to predict black holes. He died on the Russian front.
front.


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