History UsefulNotes / WorldWarI

10th Aug '16 10:57:22 AM brianify
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The Southern Polish/Galician Front was one of the few fronts where fighting continued through the winter. The Russians focused on taking the fortress-city of Przemyśl to take pressure off Serbia and establish a defensive perimeter at the Carpathian mountains. Once this was accomplished, the Germans and Austro-Hungarians struck back at the Russian forces which had depleted themselves in attacking. The Austro-Hungarian offensive resulted in horrible losses caused in large part by insufficient logistical preparations and strength, which resulted in poor care for the wounded and high rates of frostbite and disease. Continued German and Austro-Hungarian attacks sapped the cohesion of the Russians' Southern Front, which was given no respite in which to integrate its reinforcements, and prevented its strength from growing. This was because the Russian state-owned armaments industry and trusted private companies could only produce enough machine guns to keep pace with the losses (though this would change when in late 1915 the state began awarding armaments contracts to progressively less trustworthy manufacturers).

In what is now Georgia, an Ottoman winter offensive was initiated against all common sense and logistical possibility. Operating across difficult terrain more than a hundred kilometres from their railheads, the force was utterly crushed by the Russian Caucasian Front. Unfortunately for the Entente, and the Ottomans' christian subjects (who were accused of sabotaging the offensive), the Russians did not have the logistical support to follow up this success due to the ongoing operations in Galicia. It therefore fell to the western Entente to take take advantage of this opportunity.

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The Southern Polish/Galician Front was one of the few fronts where fighting continued through the winter. The Russians focused on taking the fortress-city of Przemyśl to take pressure off Serbia and establish a defensive perimeter at the Carpathian mountains. Once this was accomplished, the Germans and Austro-Hungarians struck back at the Russian forces which had depleted themselves in attacking. The Austro-Hungarian offensive resulted in horrible losses caused in large part by insufficient logistical preparations and strength, which resulted in poor care for the wounded and high rates of frostbite and disease. Continued German and Austro-Hungarian attacks sapped the cohesion of the Russians' Southern Front, which was given no respite in which to integrate its reinforcements, and prevented its strength from growing. This was because the Russian state-owned armaments industry and trusted private companies could only produce enough machine guns to keep pace with the losses (though this would change when in late 1915 the state began awarding armaments contracts to progressively less trustworthy manufacturers).

In what is now Georgia, an Ottoman winter offensive was initiated against all common sense and logistical possibility. Operating across difficult terrain more than a hundred kilometres from their railheads, the force was utterly crushed by the Russian Caucasian Front. Unfortunately for the Entente, and the Ottomans' christian Christian subjects (who were accused of sabotaging the offensive), the Russians did not have the logistical support to follow up this success due to the ongoing operations in Galicia. It therefore fell to Galicia.

By
the western end of 1914 the situation on the Eastern Front had settled into an odd equilibrium. The Eastern Entente to take take had been totally beaten by the Germans, but had beaten the Austrians and Ottomans, meaning that no one really held the advantage as they geared up for 1915. Unfortunately for the Entente, the situation wouldn't persist for long: with the Western Front stalemated, Germany was sending ever-greater forces to the Eastern Front, while Serbia remained isolated from her allies. Worse, the war was beginning to expose Russia's relative economic weakness compared to her foes: Russia had been left behind by the Industrial Revolution (serfdom had only been abolished in 1861), and couldn't keep up with the logistical demands of a war on three fronts. Essentially, Russia had plenty of manpower, but not the means to keep them adequately armed and fed, and the closure of the Turkish straits meant that Russia was cut off from trade and resupply by its more industrially-advanced allies. If this opportunity.
situation were allowed to persist, the Entente recognized that Russia's war effort would enter a death spiral until defeat or revolution knocked them out of the war (in the event, this is exactly what happened). The British and French wracked their brains over what they could do to help.
7th Aug '16 12:37:44 PM NWolfman
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* The two film adaptations of ''Literature/AllQuietOnTheWesternFront''. The UsefulNotes/AcademyAward-winning 1930s version directed by Lewis Milestone is more famous than the 1970s TV movie.

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* The two film adaptations of ''Literature/AllQuietOnTheWesternFront''. The UsefulNotes/AcademyAward-winning 1930s version directed by Lewis Milestone is more famous than the 1970s TV movie. [[WeirdAlEffect Later became known for]] it's mentioning in a Creator/MontyPython skit.
7th Aug '16 12:35:42 PM NWolfman
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[[caption-width-right:350:The War To End All Wars. [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII Well...]]]]

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[[caption-width-right:350:The War To End All Wars. [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII Well...Or so we thought.]]]]
3rd Aug '16 5:35:20 PM Zelot
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->''"You will be home before the leaves have fallen from the trees"''.

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->''"You ->''[[HomeByChristmas "You will be home before the leaves have fallen from the trees"''.trees"]]''.
30th Jul '16 1:40:59 PM freesefan
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Added DiffLines:

* ''Film/HeartsOfTheWorld'' (1918) is a propaganda film encouraging the American war effort, made while the war was still raging.
28th Jul '16 10:21:11 AM MAI742
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Fighting also occurred in the Middle East by a mix of British-Indian-Australian forces, the revolting Arabs, and the crumbling Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire, being the "sick man of Europe" that is was, failed to put up a lot of meaningful resistance in these campaigns, as the British trained and supplied Arabs were able to harass them with guerrilla tactics while the British and Egyptians did the bulk of the actual fighting. Although German forces would be sent to bolster Ottoman ranks, it was clearly not enough, and the Kaiser knew that full well. The Ottomans had made many enemies and were already struggling internally before the war. After the Allied victory the Ottoman Empire disintegrated entirely, losing its territory to the Allies, then being overthrown by Mustafa Kemal's nationalists.

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Fighting also occurred in the Middle East by a mix of British-Indian-Australian forces, the revolting Arabs, and the crumbling Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire, being the "sick man of Europe" that is was, failed to put up a lot of meaningful resistance in these campaigns, as the British trained and supplied Arabs were able to harass them with guerrilla tactics while the British and Egyptians did the bulk of the actual fighting. Although German forces would be sent to bolster Ottoman ranks, it was clearly not enough, and the Kaiser knew that full well. The Ottomans had made many enemies and were already struggling internally before the war. After the Allied Entente victory the Ottoman Empire disintegrated entirely, losing its territory to the Allies, Entente, then being overthrown by Mustafa Kemal's nationalists.



This was not helped by the way that the Germans' commanders did their usual thing and ''abandoned the nominal aim of the offensive'' when their progress started to slow, moving instead to attack the French and try to advance on Paris. This was due in part to a hesitancy to take more casualties, as Germany was on the verge of falling apart from the sustained attrition of four years of two-fronted war. Unfortunately, this resulted, if anything, in more casualties later on when the Germans failed to make any kind of substantial headway. By striking out where opportunity offered, the Germans ''did'' gain territory, but territory that was mostly useless and exposed their troops to Allied counterattacks. This culminated in the Second Battle of the Marne. The initial part of the battle was, as the previous parts of the offensive had been, a limited success for the Germans, who managed to cross the river itself and set up positions. However, they encountered heavy resistance, particularly from American units like the 3rd US Infantry Division, nicknamed forever after "The Rock of the Marne" for their steadfast resistance. More reinforcements, mostly American but some British, stalled the German advance before they could consolidate their gains on the other side of the river. Casualty-wise, the Entente suffered a few more but the Germans were weakening from attrition, and the Entente could now call on virtually limitless American troops. The end was near. Yet despite the setbacks and general failure of ''Operation Michael'', it was still the closest the Germans would ever come since 1914 to ending the war on favorable terms.

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This was not helped by the way that the Germans' commanders did their usual thing and ''abandoned the nominal aim of the offensive'' when their progress started to slow, moving instead to attack the French and try to advance on Paris. This was due in part to a hesitancy to take more casualties, as Germany was on the verge of falling apart from the sustained attrition of four years of two-fronted war. Unfortunately, this resulted, if anything, in more casualties later on when the Germans failed to make any kind of substantial headway. By striking out where opportunity offered, the Germans ''did'' gain territory, but territory that was mostly useless and exposed their troops to Allied Entente counterattacks. This culminated in the Second Battle of the Marne. The initial part of the battle was, as the previous parts of the offensive had been, a limited success for the Germans, who managed to cross the river itself and set up positions. However, they encountered heavy resistance, particularly from American units like the 3rd US Infantry Division, nicknamed forever after "The Rock of the Marne" for their steadfast resistance. More reinforcements, mostly American but some British, stalled the German advance before they could consolidate their gains on the other side of the river. Casualty-wise, the Entente suffered a few more but the Germans were weakening from attrition, and the Entente could now call on virtually limitless American troops. The end was near. Yet despite the setbacks and general failure of ''Operation Michael'', it was still the closest the Germans would ever come since 1914 to ending the war on favorable terms.
28th Jul '16 10:18:24 AM MAI742
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* '''1914'''—On June 28, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Imperial throne of Austria-Hungary, is assassinated in Sarajevo by Bosnian separatists.
* July 28—Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia[[note]] as means of ending Serbian support for the Bosnian revolutionaries[[/note]], Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary[[note]] to check Austro-Hungarian influence in the Balkans (and hopefully make gains there for herself)[[/note]], on 26 July Russia begins secret mobilization of her reserve-troops[[note]] mobilization (of reserve-troops) is important, and basically the same thing as declaring war because reserve-troops make up so much of the troop totals (between a third to half) of each of the Great Powers involved. Although Russian mobilization is closely modeled on and just as if not more efficient than French mobilization (13 days, give or take a day), Russia is a much bigger country than France and so it takes a few days on top of that to move the last of those shiny new units to wherever you want them.

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* '''1914'''—On June 28, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Imperial throne of Austria-Hungary, is assassinated in Sarajevo by Bosnian separatists.
Serbian terrorists.
* July 28—Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia[[note]] as means of ending Serbian support for the Bosnian revolutionaries[[/note]], state sponsorship of terrorist groups within Austria-Hungary [[/note]], Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary[[note]] to check Austro-Hungarian influence in the Balkans (and hopefully make gains there for herself)[[/note]], on 26 July Russia begins secret mobilization of her reserve-troops[[note]] mobilization (of reserve-troops) is important, and basically the same thing as declaring war because reserve-troops make up so much of the troop totals (between a third to half) of each of the Great Powers involved. Although Russian mobilization is closely modeled on and just as if not more efficient than French mobilization (13 days, give or take a day), Russia is a much bigger country than France and so it takes a few days on top of that to move the last of those shiny new units to wherever you want them.



Austria-Hungary by all means at this point wanted to go to war, but feared retaliation by Serbia's Russian allies. They believed, however, that they could be secure against Russian attack if Germany had their back. Germany was and had been for some time the greatest military power on earth. It had the best discipline, the best weapons, the best officers, and the second best fleet in the world. All they lacked were powerful allies. Instead, Germany was surrounded by powerful enemies with only a few weak allies.

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Austria-Hungary by all means at this point wanted to go to war, but feared retaliation by Serbia's Russian allies.ally. They believed, however, that they could be secure against Russian attack if Germany had their back. Germany was and had been for some time the greatest military power on earth. It had the best discipline, the best weapons, the best officers, and the second best fleet in the world. world, and the most powerful enemies (Russia and France). All they lacked were powerful allies. Instead, Germany was surrounded by powerful enemies with only a few weak or committed allies.



Although the share of bad tactical decisions did not belong only to Potiorek. The Serbs were pressured by their allies (Russia, in particular) to launch an offensive into Austria-Hungary. This idea was very bad, as the under-supplied and under-equipped Serbs could barely manage a defensive war, let alone an offensive one. Potiorek decided to take the chance to attack the less defended Serbian homeland, and he crossed the Drina River with his troops. The Serbs were indeed caught off guard, but the river crossing was perilous enough that the Austro-Hungarian armies lost the initial engagements. But before long, the Serbs were beaten back and withdrew into the hills, and the Austro-Hungarians gained a toe-hold across the river. The Serbians set up for trench warfare, but they were outmatched in this regard because the artillery advantage of the Austro-Hungarians.

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Although the share of bad tactical decisions did not belong only to Potiorek. The Serbs were pressured by their allies the Entente (Russia, in particular) to launch an offensive into Austria-Hungary. This idea was very bad, as the under-supplied and under-equipped Serbs could barely manage a defensive war, let alone an offensive one. Potiorek decided to take the chance to attack the less defended Serbian homeland, and he crossed the Drina River with his troops. The Serbs were indeed caught off guard, but the river crossing was perilous enough that the Austro-Hungarian armies lost the initial engagements. But before long, the Serbs were beaten back and withdrew into the hills, and the Austro-Hungarians gained a toe-hold across the river. The Serbians set up for trench warfare, but they were outmatched in this regard because the artillery advantage of the Austro-Hungarians.



By the end of 1914 the situation on the Eastern Front had settled into an odd equilibrium. The Eastern Allies had been totally beaten by the Germans, but had beaten the Austrians and Ottomans, meaning that no one really held the advantage as they geared up for 1915. Unfortunately for the Allies, the situation wouldn't persist for long: Russia had been left behind by the Industrial Revolution (serfdom had only been abolished in 1861), and couldn't keep up with the logistical demands of a war of this scale. Essentially, Russia had plenty of manpower, but not the means to keep them armed and fed. Moreover, the closure of the Turkish straits meant that Russia was cut off from money and resupply by its more industrially-advanced Allies. If this situation were allowed to persist, the Allies recognized that Russia would grow weaker and weaker, until it was finally knocked out of the war. The Western Allies wracked their brains over what they could do to help.

to:

By the end of 1914 the situation on the Eastern The Southern Polish/Galician Front was one of the few fronts where fighting continued through the winter. The Russians focused on taking the fortress-city of Przemyśl to take pressure off Serbia and establish a defensive perimeter at the Carpathian mountains. Once this was accomplished, the Germans and Austro-Hungarians struck back at the Russian forces which had settled into an odd equilibrium. depleted themselves in attacking. The Eastern Allies had been totally beaten Austro-Hungarian offensive resulted in horrible losses caused in large part by insufficient logistical preparations and strength, which resulted in poor care for the wounded and high rates of frostbite and disease. Continued German and Austro-Hungarian attacks sapped the cohesion of the Russians' Southern Front, which was given no respite in which to integrate its reinforcements, and prevented its strength from growing. This was because the Russian state-owned armaments industry and trusted private companies could only produce enough machine guns to keep pace with the losses (though this would change when in late 1915 the state began awarding armaments contracts to progressively less trustworthy manufacturers).

In what is now Georgia, an Ottoman winter offensive was initiated against all common sense and logistical possibility. Operating across difficult terrain more than a hundred kilometres from their railheads, the force was utterly crushed
by the Germans, but had beaten the Austrians and Ottomans, meaning that no one really held the advantage as they geared up for 1915. Russian Caucasian Front. Unfortunately for the Allies, Entente, and the situation wouldn't persist for long: Russia had been left behind by Ottomans' christian subjects (who were accused of sabotaging the Industrial Revolution (serfdom had only been abolished in 1861), and couldn't keep up with offensive), the Russians did not have the logistical demands of a war support to follow up this success due to the ongoing operations in Galicia. It therefore fell to the western Entente to take take advantage of this scale. Essentially, Russia had plenty of manpower, but not the means to keep them armed and fed. Moreover, the closure of the Turkish straits meant that Russia was cut off from money and resupply by its more industrially-advanced Allies. If this situation were allowed to persist, the Allies recognized that Russia would grow weaker and weaker, until it was finally knocked out of the war. The Western Allies wracked their brains over what they could do to help.
opportunity.



Except the Ottoman Army wasn't quite gone, and the people the Entente assigned to command the operation proved to be extremely uninspired choices. The all-naval attempt faltered on the capitol's guns and initial landing attempts blundered about until the Turks could get organized enough to defend themselves. Increasing the size of the Entente force to take the strait didn't help, because their supply problems (they lacked a proper port, railways, and proper roads) meant they weren't able to field a force big enough to overcome that of the Ottomans. The Russians weren't able to help as much as they'd hoped, either, because Austria-Hungary and Germany went on the offensive against Russia that year (in part to help the Ottomans, but largely because France was just too tough a nut to crack until German industry had started churning out adequate ammo). Australian and New Zealander national consciousness were given a certain kick-start as a result of the whole debacle, what with their ANZAC troops facing their first major campaign in it.

By then the war looked bleak for Russia. With the failure of Gallipoli, they had little hope to get relief from the Ottomans or to get supplies through the Black Sea. The Russians resumed the Offensive at the Battle of Malazgirt. The conditions in the hills were rough, and in the end neither side was ready. The Russians may have "won", but in the end the line changed very little and both sides sustained casualties. Furthermore, the Ottomans regrouped and reorganized efficiently following the battle.

Needless to say the front was going poorly, and by 1916 things were slowing down. The Russians may have been advancing, albeit slowly, but both sides were taking huge losses and the Russians were facing strategic troubles from the north. They had managed to drive them out with key battles at Erzican and Van, which was a siege by the Ottomans not against the Russians, but against the Armenian resistance.

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Except the Ottoman Army wasn't quite gone, and the people the Entente assigned to command the operation proved to be extremely uninspired choices. The all-naval attempt faltered on against the capitol's guns straits' coastal fortifications and initial landing attempts blundered about until the Turks could get organized enough to defend themselves. figured out what was happening and counter-attacked, establishing a solid front. Increasing the size of the Entente force to take the strait didn't help, because their supply problems constraints (they lacked a proper port, railways, and proper roads) meant they weren't able to field a force big large enough to overcome that of the Ottomans. The Russians weren't able to help as much as they'd hoped, either, because Austria-Hungary and Germany went on the offensive against Russia that year (in part to help summer (starting by hammering away at the Ottomans, but largely because France was just too tough a nut to crack until German industry had started churning out adequate ammo).Southern Polish Front again). Australian and New Zealander national consciousness were given a certain kick-start as a result of the whole debacle, what with their ANZAC troops facing their first major campaign in it.

By then the war looked bleak for Russia. With the failure of Gallipoli, they had little hope to get relief from the Ottomans or to get supplies through the Black Sea. The Russians resumed the Offensive at the Battle of Malazgirt. The conditions in the hills were rough, and in the end neither side was ready. The Russians may have "won", but in the end the line changed very little and both sides sustained casualties. Furthermore, the Ottomans regrouped and reorganized efficiently following the battle.

battle. Needless to say the front was going poorly, and by 1916 things were slowing down. The Russians may have been advancing, albeit slowly, but both sides were taking huge losses and the Russians were facing strategic troubles from the north. They had managed to drive them out with key battles at Erzican and Van, which was a siege by the Ottomans not against the Russians, but against the Armenian resistance.



* ''I defended the Young Bosnia'' (Serbian: ''Branio sam Mladu Bosnu''): 2014 movie about the Austrian lawyer Rudolf Zistler who did his professional best to defend Gavrilo Princip and other members of the Young Bosnia movement. The story is centered around the KangarooCourt trial set by the Austrians, while the war itself is looming in the background.

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* ''I defended the Young Bosnia'' (Serbian: ''Branio sam Mladu Bosnu''): 2014 Serbian movie about the Austrian lawyer Rudolf Zistler who did his professional best to defend Gavrilo Princip and other members of the Young Bosnia movement. 'Unification [of the entire Balkans under Serbian Rule] or Death' terrorist group. The story pointedly uses the larger social movement which 'Unification or Death' was a part of, the 'Young Bosnia Movement', and is centered around the KangarooCourt trial set by the Austrians, Austrians while the war itself is looming in the background.
28th Jul '16 6:36:14 AM dangerdan97
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* '''1914'''—in July Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia[[note]] as means of ending Serbian support for Austro-Hungarian revolutionaries[[/note]], Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary[[note]] to check Austro-Hungarian influence in the Balkans and hopefully make gains there for herself[[/note]], on 26 July Russia begins secret mobilization of her reserve-troops[[note]] mobilization (of reserve-troops) is important, and basically the same thing as declaring war because reserve-troops make up so much of the troop totals (between a third to half) of each of the Great Powers involved. Although Russian mobilization is closely modeled on and just as if not more efficient than French mobilization (13 days, give or take a day), Russia is a much bigger country than France and so it takes a few days on top of that to move the last of those shiny new units to wherever you want them.

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\n* '''1914'''—in '''1914'''—On June 28, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Imperial throne of Austria-Hungary, is assassinated in Sarajevo by Bosnian separatists.
*
July Austria-Hungary 28—Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia[[note]] as means of ending Serbian support for Austro-Hungarian the Bosnian revolutionaries[[/note]], Russia declares war on Austria-Hungary[[note]] to check Austro-Hungarian influence in the Balkans and (and hopefully make gains there for herself[[/note]], herself)[[/note]], on 26 July Russia begins secret mobilization of her reserve-troops[[note]] mobilization (of reserve-troops) is important, and basically the same thing as declaring war because reserve-troops make up so much of the troop totals (between a third to half) of each of the Great Powers involved. Although Russian mobilization is closely modeled on and just as if not more efficient than French mobilization (13 days, give or take a day), Russia is a much bigger country than France and so it takes a few days on top of that to move the last of those shiny new units to wherever you want them.



* Germany declares war on Russia in support of Austria-Hungary because Kaiser Wilhelm had promized to support Austria-Hungary no matter what. On 1 August France and Germany mobilise their reserves simultaneously, Germany's mobilization coming with a formal declaration of war (upon France, Belgium, and Luxembourg). Britain declares war upon Germany[[note]] because the Cabinet had agreed that they would go to war if Germany declared war on Belgium. There was a group of hardliners who wanted war with Germany no matter what, but the Cabinet as a whole felt that entering a war and formally joining the Entente Cordiale would be deeply unpopular unless it was done in response to an invasion of Belgium. Unspoken was the way the war was a marvellous opportunity to submerge internal dissent (chiefly Irish devolution, safe working conditions and livable pay, and womens' rights) and cripple the German economy [[/note]], and members of the British Commonwealth - India, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, among others - follow suit.
* Russia launches East Prussian offensive with 400k, France executes ''Plan XVII'' with c.600k—French offensive into Germany, Luxembourg, and southern Belgium to pre-empt Germany's ''Aufmarsch I''[[note]] ''Aufmarsch I'', Deployment Plan I, calls for deployment of c. 80% of German army against France and c.15% (c.200k) against Russia. The plan is flexible, so deployed troops can be used for offensive or counter-offensive actions. Under Chief-of-Staff Schlieffen (retired 1905) counter-offensive was preferred as it combined best features of defense (greater tactical effectiveness due to superior intelligence, cover, and machine-guns) and offense (ability to mass superior forces against inferior enemy ones and thereby defeat them with minimal losses). But his successor Chief of Staff Moltke advocated offensive instead on grounds that the tactical efficiency of the defense was only marginal and (thus) always being the attacker was crucial to victory in any battle (as 'proved', inverted commas, in Russo-Japanese War). Either way, 'Decisive Battle' only possible in west—maximum of 40% of Army could be deployed and kept supplied in East, so victory there would be neither as tactically nor strategically decisive (German force would be too small and Russian ability to replace losses very good).

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* Germany declares war on Russia in support of Austria-Hungary because Austria-Hungary, as Kaiser Wilhelm had promized promised to support Austria-Hungary no matter what. On 1 August France and Germany mobilise mobilize their reserves simultaneously, Germany's mobilization coming with a formal declaration of war (upon France, Belgium, and Luxembourg). Britain declares war upon Germany[[note]] because the Cabinet had agreed that they would go to war if Germany declared war on Belgium. There was a group of hardliners who wanted war with Germany no matter what, but the Cabinet as a whole felt that entering a war and formally joining the Entente Cordiale would be deeply unpopular unless it was done in response to an invasion of Belgium. Unspoken was the way the war was a marvellous marvelous opportunity to submerge internal dissent (chiefly Irish devolution, safe working conditions and livable pay, and womens' rights) and cripple the German economy [[/note]], and members of the British Commonwealth - India, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, among others - follow suit.
* Russia launches East Prussian offensive with 400k, France executes ''Plan XVII'' with c.600k—French offensive into Germany, Luxembourg, and southern Belgium to pre-empt Germany's ''Aufmarsch I''[[note]] ''Aufmarsch I'', Deployment Plan I, calls for deployment of c. 80% of German army against France and c.15% (c.200k) against Russia. The plan is flexible, so deployed troops can be used for offensive or counter-offensive actions. Under Chief-of-Staff Schlieffen (retired 1905) counter-offensive was preferred as it combined best features of defense (greater tactical effectiveness due to superior intelligence, cover, and machine-guns) and offense (ability to mass superior forces against inferior enemy ones and thereby defeat them with minimal losses). But his successor Chief of Staff Moltke advocated offensive instead on grounds that the tactical efficiency of the defense was only marginal and (thus) always being the attacker was crucial to victory in any battle (as 'proved', inverted commas, in Russo-Japanese War). Either way, 'Decisive Battle' only possible in west—maximum of 40% of Army could be deployed and kept supplied in East, so victory there would be neither as tactically nor strategically decisive (German force would be too small and Russian ability to replace losses very good).



* Ottoman Empire is brought into the war by opportunistic false flag operation orchestrated by Germany[[note]] Two German commerce-raider warships in the Mediterranean make a break for The Dardanelles, chased by British squadron, ask for refuge in Ottoman waters and are refused— but Ottomans agree to buy both warships. ''However'', Ottomans lack specialized crew for them so pre-existing crews are allowed to remain on them while they train Ottoman Navy personnel in use of the ships. Then, when both ships have been allowed into the Black Sea and are officially under the Ottoman flag, crews mutiny and sail off to shell Russian ports. Russia wants the greater influence over the Balkans that would come with the destruction of The Ottoman Empire and notes that Britain will be able to help out by attacking The Ottomans directly (and they might even end up doing most of the work), so this means war! [[/note]].

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* The Ottoman Empire is brought into the war by opportunistic false flag operation orchestrated by Germany[[note]] Two German commerce-raider warships in the Mediterranean make a break for The Dardanelles, chased by British squadron, ask for refuge in Ottoman waters and are refused— but Ottomans agree to buy both warships. ''However'', Ottomans lack specialized crew for them so pre-existing crews are allowed to remain on them while they train Ottoman Navy personnel in use of the ships. Then, when both ships have been allowed into the Black Sea and are officially under the Ottoman flag, crews mutiny and sail off to shell Russian ports. Russia wants the greater influence over the Balkans that would come with the destruction of The Ottoman Empire and notes that Britain will be able to help out by attacking The Ottomans directly (and they might even end up doing most of the work), so this means war! [[/note]].



* All attempts at offensive operations on Franco-German front, chiefly executed by French forces, fail due to poor artillery-infantry co-ordination and the effects of enemy artilery. Germany and Austria-Hungary make concerted effort to knock Serbia and Russia out of war within the year, but ultimately fail despite limited success in taking Serbia and Poland — poorer infrastructure of Russia (including severe shortages of bullets, guns and boots for their troops) and inferiority in horses means logistical advantage lies with Russian army, this offsetting Germans' greater combat-efficiency and poor state of Russian planning and communications. Despite heavy losses Russian forces fall back in good order from Poland to line along Dvina river and Pripyet Marshes, thereby shortening the front and also losing the 'dead weight' of ethnic-Polish forces reluctant to fight and eager to surrender. Losses of artillery assets in particular by Russian forces causes Russian government to adopt dangerously over-extensive program of mobilization exacerbated by her total economic isolation, as result of loss of virtually all international trade.

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* All attempts at offensive operations on Franco-German front, chiefly executed by French forces, fail due to poor artillery-infantry co-ordination and the effects of enemy artilery.artillery. Germany and Austria-Hungary make concerted effort to knock Serbia and Russia out of war within the year, but ultimately fail despite limited success in taking Serbia and Poland — poorer infrastructure of Russia (including severe shortages of bullets, guns and boots for their troops) and inferiority in horses means logistical advantage lies with Russian army, this offsetting Germans' greater combat-efficiency and poor state of Russian planning and communications. Despite heavy losses Russian forces fall back in good order from Poland to line along Dvina river and Pripyet Marshes, thereby shortening the front and also losing the 'dead weight' of ethnic-Polish forces reluctant to fight and eager to surrender. Losses of artillery assets in particular by Russian forces causes Russian government to adopt dangerously over-extensive program of mobilization exacerbated by her total economic isolation, as result of loss of virtually all international trade.



* Franco-Commonwealth offensive at Somme (1/7/1916-18/11/1916) also attempts to use German 'destruction' tactics, but poor infantry-artillery co-ordination by inexperienced Commonwealth forces and poor infantry tactics, training, experience, and armament, as well as superior German defenses [[note]] Assumption was that artillery would totally destroy ''all'' enemy machine guns and artillery, making the training and equipment of the infantry for tackling these things totally uncessary. The survival of a mere handful of both resulted in heavy initial losses, and the total destruction of the ground which they were attacking across drastically reduced the subsequent flow of ammunition and reinforcements. Worse, it made it impossible to move up the artillery forward into the newly captured ground before the Germans were able to build a new defensive line behind the remnants of the old, mostly-captured one. This happened six times during the ''Somme'' offensive [[/note]] result in high losses among non-French troops. [[note]] Tanks, a British invention, also make their first appearances to little acclaim as tactics and machines are faulty, flawed and basic. German troops however, are quite fearful of the war machines. [[/note]]

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* Franco-Commonwealth offensive at Somme (1/7/1916-18/11/1916) also attempts to use German 'destruction' tactics, but poor infantry-artillery co-ordination by inexperienced Commonwealth forces and poor infantry tactics, training, experience, and armament, as well as superior German defenses [[note]] Assumption was that artillery would totally destroy ''all'' enemy machine guns and artillery, making the training and equipment of the infantry for tackling these things totally uncessary.unnecessary. The survival of a mere handful of both resulted in heavy initial losses, and the total destruction of the ground which they were attacking across drastically reduced the subsequent flow of ammunition and reinforcements. Worse, it made it impossible to move up the artillery forward into the newly captured ground before the Germans were able to build a new defensive line behind the remnants of the old, mostly-captured one. This happened six times during the ''Somme'' offensive [[/note]] result in high losses among non-French troops. [[note]] Tanks, a British invention, also make their first appearances to little acclaim as tactics and machines are faulty, flawed and basic. German troops however, are quite fearful of the war machines. [[/note]]



* French Army and society also tire of demoralising 'attrition warfare' strategy and insists upon alternative—experimental 'breakthrough strategy' ''also'' promising operation/campaign breakthrough after successive tactical victories produced by 'artillery destruction' tactics championed by junior commander Nivelle, which they are promized will end war quickly. Its dismal failure with ''even worse'' losses to no effect[[note]] It didn't help that the 'new' strategy was basically an attempt to apply successful battlefield tactics to the operational/campaign level by a commander with little grasp of the differences between the two—particularly in the way artillery, engineering, and logistics work rather differently[[/note]] is deeply demoralising, causes c.45% of French Army to mutiny—units collectively refuse to do anything but hold their current positions and defend themselves until a system of 'leave' is organized, they are given safe and decent rations, and Army Command 'gets its £&$@^&£*! act together'.

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* French Army and society also tire of demoralising 'attrition warfare' strategy and insists upon alternative—experimental 'breakthrough strategy' ''also'' promising operation/campaign breakthrough after successive tactical victories produced by 'artillery destruction' tactics championed by junior commander Nivelle, which they are promized promised will end war quickly. Its dismal failure with ''even worse'' losses to no effect[[note]] It didn't help that the 'new' strategy was basically an attempt to apply successful battlefield tactics to the operational/campaign level by a commander with little grasp of the differences between the two—particularly in the way artillery, engineering, and logistics work rather differently[[/note]] is deeply demoralising, causes c.45% of French Army to mutiny—units collectively refuse to do anything but hold their current positions and defend themselves until a system of 'leave' is organized, they are given safe and decent rations, and Army Command 'gets its £&$@^&£*! act together'.



* Entente takes time for serious soul-seearching and examination of German artillery, infantry, and artillery-infantry tactics ''very'' closely. Assessment is (quite rightly) that there is not much to be learned from Germans - German Operational method woeful, tactical methods only successful due to Entente disorganisation. Entente has no intention of repeating German mistakes - unlike Germans, will only attempt what is physically possible (as defined by logistical considerations). Though the 'Learning Curve' theory is often touted here as why the Entente arrived at the understanding of combined-arms tactics and operational methods which they will display in the summer, the process of working it out was very complicated and came in many stops and starts. It's less of a Learning Curve and more of a Learning Fumble-And-Stumble-Up-A-Foggy-Incline.
* In August, Entente launches "Hundred Days' Offensive". Series of virtually non-stop attacks using combined arms - reconaissance aeroplanes, heavy artillery, medium artillery, light artillery, tractors, combat tanks, supply tanks, light railway engines, heavy trucks, light trucks, mortars, heavy machine guns, light machine guns, rifles, grenades used by men actively trying to cooperate and work together. Increasing strain upon supply services, particularly trucks, but Entente forces ''never'' let themselves outrun their supply - willing to stop combat and give supply services attention, care, resources they need to recover. 'Death of a Thousand Cuts' as German forces constantly eroded by Entente tactical/battlefield superiority, cumulative effect devastating. Still no strategic breakthroughs, no operational encirclements— but Entente winning anyway.

to:

* Entente takes time for serious soul-seearching soul-searching and examination of German artillery, infantry, and artillery-infantry tactics ''very'' closely. Assessment is (quite rightly) that there is not much to be learned from Germans - German Operational method woeful, tactical methods only successful due to Entente disorganisation. Entente has no intention of repeating German mistakes - unlike Germans, will only attempt what is physically possible (as defined by logistical considerations). Though the 'Learning Curve' theory is often touted here as why the Entente arrived at the understanding of combined-arms tactics and operational methods which they will display in the summer, the process of working it out was very complicated and came in many stops and starts. It's less of a Learning Curve and more of a Learning Fumble-And-Stumble-Up-A-Foggy-Incline.
* In August, Entente launches "Hundred Days' Offensive". Series of virtually non-stop attacks using combined arms - reconaissance reconnaissance aeroplanes, heavy artillery, medium artillery, light artillery, tractors, combat tanks, supply tanks, light railway engines, heavy trucks, light trucks, mortars, heavy machine guns, light machine guns, rifles, grenades used by men actively trying to cooperate and work together. Increasing strain upon supply services, particularly trucks, but Entente forces ''never'' let themselves outrun their supply - willing to stop combat and give supply services attention, care, resources they need to recover. 'Death of a Thousand Cuts' as German forces constantly eroded by Entente tactical/battlefield superiority, cumulative effect devastating. Still no strategic breakthroughs, no operational encirclements— but Entente winning anyway.
25th Jul '16 12:28:12 PM brianify
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Added DiffLines:

By the end of 1914 the situation on the Eastern Front had settled into an odd equilibrium. The Eastern Allies had been totally beaten by the Germans, but had beaten the Austrians and Ottomans, meaning that no one really held the advantage as they geared up for 1915. Unfortunately for the Allies, the situation wouldn't persist for long: Russia had been left behind by the Industrial Revolution (serfdom had only been abolished in 1861), and couldn't keep up with the logistical demands of a war of this scale. Essentially, Russia had plenty of manpower, but not the means to keep them armed and fed. Moreover, the closure of the Turkish straits meant that Russia was cut off from money and resupply by its more industrially-advanced Allies. If this situation were allowed to persist, the Allies recognized that Russia would grow weaker and weaker, until it was finally knocked out of the war. The Western Allies wracked their brains over what they could do to help.
24th Jul '16 5:50:55 PM nombretomado
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* ''CompanyOfHeroes'' has a total conversion GameMod for World War I—[[http://www.moddb.com/mods/the-great-war-1918 The Great War 1918]], keeping the same cover and territory-point mechanics from the base game but changing it otherwise to reflect the Great War (such as having trenches, poison gas, officer mechanics for both sides to make heavy use of, and adding melee combat). It currently includes British Expeditionary Force and the German Empire as 'Allied' and 'Axis' factions respectively, and is working to add the French Army as another 'Allied' faction.

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* ''CompanyOfHeroes'' ''VideoGame/CompanyOfHeroes'' has a total conversion GameMod for World War I—[[http://www.moddb.com/mods/the-great-war-1918 The Great War 1918]], keeping the same cover and territory-point mechanics from the base game but changing it otherwise to reflect the Great War (such as having trenches, poison gas, officer mechanics for both sides to make heavy use of, and adding melee combat). It currently includes British Expeditionary Force and the German Empire as 'Allied' and 'Axis' factions respectively, and is working to add the French Army as another 'Allied' faction.
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http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.WorldWarI