History UsefulNotes / Socialism

6th Jan '17 12:06:25 PM Chytus
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Socialism is a political ideology that began to develop in the nineteenth century, with roots in philosophers from UsefulNotes/TheEnlightenment and UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution. Creator/KarlMarx is usually seen as the major theorist but he was merely one theorist among many and he codified and developed pre-existing ideas rather than create it out of whole cloth. To give a complete definition here is almost impossible, as, like most political ideologies, it has many internal divisions and national variations as a result of pragmatic accomodations and {{Realpolitik}}. TheOtherWiki defines it as "an economic system characterised by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy", as opposed to the present capitalist system, whereby the means of production are owned by private individuals. There is no consensus on how social ownership is to be brought about or, once brought about, how it is to be managed; for this reason, this page also describes anti-capitalist anarchism and communism.

!!'''Revolutionary or Democratic?'''

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Socialism is a political ideology that began to develop in the nineteenth century, with roots in philosophers from UsefulNotes/TheEnlightenment and UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution. Creator/KarlMarx is usually seen as the major theorist but he was merely one theorist among many and he codified and developed pre-existing ideas rather than create it out of whole cloth. To give a complete definition here is almost impossible, as, like most political ideologies, it has many internal divisions and national variations as a result of pragmatic accomodations accommodations and {{Realpolitik}}. TheOtherWiki defines it as "an economic system characterised by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy", as opposed to the present capitalist system, whereby the means of production are owned by private individuals. There is no consensus on how social ownership is to be brought about or, once brought about, how it is to be managed; for this reason, this page also describes anti-capitalist anarchism and communism.

!!'''Revolutionary [[foldercontrol]]

[[folder:Revolutionary
or Democratic?'''
Democratic?]]



Though flippant, this neatly encapsulates the difference, which comes down to whether or not one should try to bring apart socialism by changing the system from within or without. Democratic movements, such as the British Labour Party, the German SPD and ''Die Linke'', and others, seek[[note]]Or have sought in the past.[[/note]] to bring about socialism through participating in the existing democratic structures of the capitalist state; ie, by demonstrating in order to get political rights if you don't already have them, and then fighting elections and winning them. Revolutionary movements, on the other hand, hold that "bourgeois democracy" is not actually anything of the kind[[note]]Lenin famously called parliaments "the talking-shops of the bourgeoisie"; a more modern critique would focus on organizations such as the IMF, World Bank, or ECB, which, though unelected, wield colossal power.[[/note]], and so ''real'' change can only be secured by coercion. This does not necessarily mean violent coercion; anarchism in particular often advocates non-violent revolutionary means (though violence is still favoured by many), such as general strikes (where everyone stops working until they get what they want) or other direct - though pacifistic - action, such as sit-ins or occupations.

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Though flippant, this neatly encapsulates the difference, which comes down to whether or not one should try to bring apart socialism by changing the system from within or without. Democratic movements, such as the British Labour Party, the German SPD and ''Die Linke'', and others, seek[[note]]Or have sought in the past.[[/note]] to bring about socialism through participating in the existing democratic structures of the capitalist state; ie, i.e., by demonstrating in order to get political rights if you don't already have them, and then fighting elections and winning them. Revolutionary movements, on the other hand, hold that "bourgeois democracy" is not actually anything of the kind[[note]]Lenin famously called parliaments "the talking-shops of the bourgeoisie"; a more modern critique would focus on organizations such as the IMF, World Bank, or ECB, which, though unelected, wield colossal power.[[/note]], and so ''real'' change can only be secured by coercion. This does not necessarily mean violent coercion; anarchism in particular often advocates non-violent revolutionary means (though violence is still favoured by many), such as general strikes (where everyone stops working until they get what they want) or other direct - though pacifistic - action, such as sit-ins or occupations.



!!'''(Some) Tenets of (Some) Socialists'''

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!!'''(Some) [[/folder]]
[[folder:(Some)
Tenets of (Some) Socialists'''
Socialists]]



There are several political claims that generally qualify as socialist. One does not necessarily have to believe in all of them to be a socialist and some are disputed among socialists as to the actual prominence of them (eg. class analysis). Nor does believing in them necessarily make one a socialist either.

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There are several political claims that generally qualify as socialist. One does not necessarily have to believe in all of them to be a socialist and some are disputed among socialists as to the actual prominence of them (eg.(e.g. class analysis). Nor does believing in them necessarily make one a socialist either.



9. '''Social Ownership of the Means of Production''': Marx, writing at the time of the Industrial Revolution, argued that the injustice of capitalism stemmed from the anti-social minority ownership of the means of production. ''Very'' simplified: Why is it fair that the workers do all the work, but the bourgeois get the profits just because they own the factories? Socialists seek to alleviate this claimed injustice either through social mobility, redistributive taxation, and increased workers' participation with social democracy, or expropriation (violent or otherwise) with other strands. The ultimate end is collective ownership of the means of production; such as through a bureacratic state (Soviet Communism) or associations of free producers (Marx himself, anarchism).

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9. '''Social Ownership of the Means of Production''': Marx, writing at the time of the Industrial Revolution, argued that the injustice of capitalism stemmed from the anti-social minority ownership of the means of production. ''Very'' simplified: Why is it fair that the workers do all the work, but the bourgeois get the profits just because they own the factories? Socialists seek to alleviate this claimed injustice either through social mobility, redistributive taxation, and increased workers' participation with social democracy, or expropriation (violent or otherwise) with other strands. The ultimate end is collective ownership of the means of production; such as through a bureacratic bureaucratic state (Soviet Communism) or associations of free producers (Marx himself, anarchism).



!!'''Types of Socialism'''

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!!'''Types [[/folder]]
[[folder:Types
of Socialism'''
Socialism]]



Here are the [[LaconicWiki laconic versions]] of various types of Socialism. It's important to remember that while there is broad agreement among socialists that capitalism is bad and should be either abolished or at least moderated, there is little else universally agreed upon by them. The {{flame war}}s that erupt over the existence of money, the usefulness of reformism vs. revolution and the proper role of the state in guiding the development of a socialist society are not worth getting into here. It's enough to know that there are [[BrokenBase deep conflicts between different schools of thought]] and that [[WeAreStrugglingTogether at times it seems they can't cooperate on anything]].

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Here are the [[LaconicWiki laconic versions]] versions of various types of Socialism. It's important to remember that while there is broad agreement among socialists that capitalism is bad and should be either abolished or at least moderated, there is little else universally agreed upon by them. The {{flame war}}s that erupt over the existence of money, the usefulness of reformism vs. revolution and the proper role of the state in guiding the development of a socialist society are not worth getting into here. It's enough to know that there are [[BrokenBase deep conflicts between different schools of thought]] and that [[WeAreStrugglingTogether at times it seems they can't cooperate on anything]].



* '''Social Democracy''': Social democracy is a more moderate kind of socialism that seeks to use democratic rather than revolutionary means to achieve its goals. It advocates policies such as full employment and the right to work, the welfare state, and ensuring some equality of outcome through redistribution of wealth. Examples of this form include Postwar Consensus politics in Britain and the Nordic model in Scandinavia. The main difference with State Socialism is that, while the values of Socialism are there, modern Social Democracy actually has no interest in reforming Capitalism into Socialism but rather updating and modifying the Capitalist model to create a more equitable society, making its status as a ''Socialist'' ideology hotly debated. Worth noting that in Europe, where it is most popular, Social Democracy parties independent of the major Socialists groups still caucus with those socialists in domestic legislatures, and are usually members of the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_Alliance_of_Socialists_and_Democrats Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats]], which is itself under the blanket of the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Party_of_European_Socialists Party of European Socialists]] in the European Parliament. Worldwide, they also typically belong to the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialist_International Socialist International]] and the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_Alliance Progressive Alliance]]. Most modern socialist parties in practice adhere to some version of social democracy while in power, keeping some form of market economy. Still, how "socialist" social democracy acutally is is controversial with more radical socialists, especially after the neoliberal, pro-deregulation, pro-austerity turn social democratic parties have taken since the '80s.

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* '''Social Democracy''': Social democracy is a more moderate kind of socialism that seeks to use democratic rather than revolutionary means to achieve its goals. It advocates policies such as full employment and the right to work, the welfare state, and ensuring some equality of outcome through redistribution of wealth. Examples of this form include Postwar Consensus politics in Britain and the Nordic model in Scandinavia. The main difference with State Socialism is that, while the values of Socialism are there, modern Social Democracy actually has no interest in reforming Capitalism into Socialism but rather updating and modifying the Capitalist model to create a more equitable society, making its status as a ''Socialist'' ideology hotly debated. Worth noting that in Europe, where it is most popular, Social Democracy parties independent of the major Socialists groups still caucus with those socialists in domestic legislatures, and are usually members of the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_Alliance_of_Socialists_and_Democrats Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats]], which is itself under the blanket of the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Party_of_European_Socialists Party of European Socialists]] in the European Parliament. Worldwide, they also typically belong to the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Socialist_International Socialist International]] and the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_Alliance Progressive Alliance]]. Most modern socialist parties in practice adhere to some version of social democracy while in power, keeping some form of market economy. Still, how "socialist" social democracy acutally actually is is controversial with more radical socialists, especially after the neoliberal, pro-deregulation, pro-austerity turn social democratic parties have taken since the '80s.



!!'''Marxism and Communism'''

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!!'''Marxism [[/folder]]
[[folder:Marxism
and Communism'''
Communism]]



* '''Stalinism''': As mentioned above, it is under Stalin that some of Lenin's ideas and practices ([[TheThemeParkVersion but ''not'' all of them]]) were codified as Marxist-Leninism and that became the official ideology of the USSR. In the eyes of the internationalist communist movement, Stalinism was continuous with Leninism and initially it was. In his early years before he consolidated his authority, Stalin continued the NEP, maintained Lenin's progressive social policies and tended to lean to passive-aggressive bullying and exile of opponents over outright murder. Stalinism eventually evolved into a separate ideology by the late-20s and early 30s. He relied upon the idea of the vanguard party, and Lenin's legacy, for its legitimacy but backtracked heavily from world revolution, and followed a foreign policy of self-interest, referred to as "Socialism in One Country". This idea much criticized by UsefulNotes/LeonTrotsky and several others since it was an even further departure from Marx and Engels than Lenin's vanguard party. Finally, Stalinism made its grand debut with forced collectivization and mass industrialization, leading to brutal land seizures, liquidation and pruges of kulaks, wreckers, dissenters, oppositionists, Red Army militia, potential Fifth Columnists which ultimately exacerbated a drought and grain shortage into the deadly famine in 1933-34 and the Great Purges, which killed over 3 Million people (Famine) and nearly 800,000 (Purges), with further millions imprisoned for forced labour in TheGulag, where a million more would die (mostly as a result of wartime shortages).
** Stalinism is characterized by harsh ruthless pragmatism, firm discipline, collectivization and mass indutrialization, strict control by party on all levers of government and society (Executive, Military, Judiciary, Press) and central authority, [[UtopiaJustifiesTheMeans all to better achieve the highly utopian socialist ideal of course]]. Socially, Stalin's isolationism, led to [[FullCircleRevolution revival of some of Russian traditions and a reversal of many of Lenin's social policies]], finally manifesting itself in the CultOfPersonality and mass PropagandaMachine and during WorldWarII, a revival of Russian Patriotism and the Orthodox Church. Internationally, its foreign policy was inconsistent. Initially moderate compared to Lenin's and Trotsky's who both advocated world revolution, it later encouraged rapprochement between China's KMT and CCP, tried to form an early coalition against Hitler with France and England, supported the Spanish Republic against Franco, and forming a Popular Front between Communists and other social democrat and left parties, and yet on the eve of WorldWarII, it stunned everyone with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between the USSR and Nazi Germany. Early observers such as Creator/GeorgeOrwell, contend that Stalinism is essentially a twisted mirror of capitalism, since it entrenched in power the bourgeois intellectuals just as firmly as capitalism entrenched the robber-baron, the monarch, and the aristocrat, often with even greater brutality. Later observers, with access to Russian archives, see Stalin as a strongman who revived, preserved and deepened Russia's client-patronage system from the Russian Empire and a state-builder in the mode of Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great.

to:

* '''Stalinism''': As mentioned above, it is under Stalin that some of Lenin's ideas and practices ([[TheThemeParkVersion but ''not'' all of them]]) were codified as Marxist-Leninism and that became the official ideology of the USSR. In the eyes of the internationalist communist movement, Stalinism was continuous with Leninism and initially it was. In his early years before he consolidated his authority, Stalin continued the NEP, maintained Lenin's progressive social policies and tended to lean to passive-aggressive bullying and exile of opponents over outright murder. Stalinism eventually evolved into a separate ideology by the late-20s and early 30s. He relied upon the idea of the vanguard party, and Lenin's legacy, for its legitimacy but backtracked heavily from world revolution, and followed a foreign policy of self-interest, referred to as "Socialism in One Country". This idea much criticized by UsefulNotes/LeonTrotsky and several others since it was an even further departure from Marx and Engels than Lenin's vanguard party. Finally, Stalinism made its grand debut with forced collectivization and mass industrialization, leading to brutal land seizures, liquidation and pruges purges of kulaks, wreckers, dissenters, oppositionists, Red Army militia, potential Fifth Columnists which ultimately exacerbated a drought and grain shortage into the deadly famine in 1933-34 and the Great Purges, which killed over 3 Million people (Famine) and nearly 800,000 (Purges), with further millions imprisoned for forced labour in TheGulag, where a million more would die (mostly as a result of wartime shortages).
** Stalinism is characterized by harsh ruthless pragmatism, firm discipline, collectivization and mass indutrialization, strict control by party on all levers of government and society (Executive, Military, Judiciary, Press) and central authority, [[UtopiaJustifiesTheMeans all to better achieve the highly utopian socialist ideal of course]]. Socially, Stalin's isolationism, led to [[FullCircleRevolution revival of some of Russian traditions and a reversal of many of Lenin's social policies]], finally manifesting itself in the CultOfPersonality and mass PropagandaMachine and during WorldWarII, a revival of Russian Patriotism and the Orthodox Church. Internationally, its foreign policy was inconsistent. Initially moderate compared to Lenin's and Trotsky's who both advocated world revolution, it later encouraged rapprochement between China's KMT and CCP, tried to form an early coalition against Hitler with France and England, supported the Spanish Republic against Franco, and forming a Popular Front between Communists and other social democrat and left parties, and yet on the eve of WorldWarII, UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, it stunned everyone with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between the USSR and Nazi Germany. Early observers such as Creator/GeorgeOrwell, contend that Stalinism is essentially a twisted mirror of capitalism, since it entrenched in power the bourgeois intellectuals just as firmly as capitalism entrenched the robber-baron, the monarch, and the aristocrat, often with even greater brutality. Later observers, with access to Russian archives, see Stalin as a strongman who revived, preserved and deepened Russia's client-patronage system from the Russian Empire and a state-builder in the mode of Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great.



!!'''Anti-Capitalist Anarchism'''

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!!'''Anti-Capitalist Anarchism'''
[[/folder]]
[[folder:Anti-Capitalist Anarchism]]



!!'''Not Socialist'''

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!!'''Not Socialist'''
[[/folder]]
[[folder:Not Socialist]]



[[/folder]]



This section has been folderized for your convenience by the Provisional Executive Design Bureau for Revolutionary Folder Control.



There's of course the Communist bloc (which later had [[WeAreStrugglingTogether internal splits]], but we digress): The [[SovietRussiaUkraineAndSoOn Soviet Union]], and later RedChina and their various satellites in Eastern Europe and the Third World. It took off [[UsefulNotes/RedOctober in 1917 with the October Revolution]] and [[TheGreatPoliticsMessUp mostly ended in 1989]], after Gorbachev started reforms of the sclerotic system that had become necessary after the armament race drove the Soviet Union into bankruptcy.

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There's of course the Communist bloc (which later had [[WeAreStrugglingTogether internal splits]], but we digress): The [[SovietRussiaUkraineAndSoOn [[UsefulNotes/SovietRussiaUkraineAndSoOn Soviet Union]], and later RedChina and their various satellites in Eastern Europe and the Third World. It took off [[UsefulNotes/RedOctober in 1917 with the October Revolution]] and [[TheGreatPoliticsMessUp mostly ended in 1989]], after Gorbachev started reforms of the sclerotic system that had become necessary after the armament race drove the Soviet Union into bankruptcy.



For the next thirty years, both left and right and Britain believed in broadly social democratic policies toward the economy, employment, trade unions, welfare, and foreign affairs. However, in 1979, MargaretThatcher came to power and dismantled it, instituting a policy of monetarism, de-industrialization, interests-based foreign policy, and deregulation in its place, the so-called "neo-liberal consensus". The reasons for the collapse of the consensus are still hotly debated. Right-wing critics argue that socialist trade unions prevented British industry from retaining its competitiveness in the globalizing world. Left-wing ones argue that a lack of investment, right-wing ideological bias against state-owned industry (brought about by the rise of Austrian economics in the Tory Party from 1970), and malevolent class warfare on the right's part were to blame for trade union militancy, which ultimately turned the wider public against it.

Substantial nostalgia exists for the post-war consensus in Britain; when MargaretThatcher died, her end was met with partying in many of the formerly industrial regions of the UK, and employment in the UK has never been higher than in 1974, just as the consensus reached its apogee. Similarly, inequality has increased massively since the advent of the Thatcher government in '79 and remains both high and rising. [[/folder]]

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For the next thirty years, both left and right and Britain believed in broadly social democratic policies toward the economy, employment, trade unions, welfare, and foreign affairs. However, in 1979, MargaretThatcher UsefulNotes/MargaretThatcher came to power and dismantled it, instituting a policy of monetarism, de-industrialization, interests-based foreign policy, and deregulation in its place, the so-called "neo-liberal consensus". The reasons for the collapse of the consensus are still hotly debated. Right-wing critics argue that socialist trade unions prevented British industry from retaining its competitiveness in the globalizing world. Left-wing ones argue that a lack of investment, right-wing ideological bias against state-owned industry (brought about by the rise of Austrian economics in the Tory Party from 1970), and malevolent class warfare on the right's part were to blame for trade union militancy, which ultimately turned the wider public against it.

Substantial nostalgia exists for the post-war consensus in Britain; when MargaretThatcher UsefulNotes/MargaretThatcher died, her end was met with partying in many of the formerly industrial regions of the UK, and employment in the UK has never been higher than in 1974, just as the consensus reached its apogee. Similarly, inequality has increased massively since the advent of the Thatcher government in '79 and remains both high and rising. [[/folder]]



!!'''Some Famous Socialists:'''

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!!'''Some [[folder:Some Famous Socialists:'''
Socialists]]



* TheRulersOfNorthKorea

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* TheRulersOfNorthKoreaUsefulNotes/TheRulersOfNorthKorea


Added DiffLines:

[[/folder]]
10th Nov '16 9:35:44 PM LoungingInTheLobe
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* UsefulNotes/JesusChrist (if you believe the Christian Socialists)

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* UsefulNotes/JesusChrist (if you believe the Christian Socialists) Socialists and that such a figure actually existed)
3rd Oct '16 7:20:30 PM DavidDelony
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Added DiffLines:

* Jill Stein
3rd Oct '16 7:19:47 PM DavidDelony
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Added DiffLines:

* Jeremy Corbyn
20th Sep '16 10:10:03 PM JulianLapostat
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* '''Liberalism''': Mainly American Liberalism, as seen in the Democratic Party, especially during the administrations of UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt, UsefulNotes/LyndonBJohnson and recently, UsefulNotes/BarackObama. This is a huge BerserkButton for actual socialists and for that matter liberals, neither of whom are comfortable with the "S" word including them. Modern liberals are frequently Keynesians (i. e. they support some degree of government intervention in the economy, especially during times of recession) but liberalism is still a fundamentally individualist ideology, and American liberals are broadly supportive of capitalism and favor its continuation; it cannot possibly be emphasized enough that the Keynesian economic theory is ''not'' by its nature socialist or for that matter social democrat, though in the eyes of its critics (i.e neo-classical and neo-liberal economists) this would count as InsistentTerminology[[note]]Keynes himself stated: "The class war will find me on the side of the educated bourgeoisie"-in sum, his goal was to save capitalism from itself, i.e. an advocate of reform and not revolution[[/note]] since it does represent a sharp enough departure from classical economics, and the foundations of liberal theory (i.e "positive liberty" as opposed to "negative liberty" in Isaiah Berlin's phrase). During Roosevelt's administration, liberalism led to the New Deal; the development of many state corporations (such as the T.V.A.), heavy government investment so as to limit and halt unemployment, building of infrastructure and public works and providing social security for the elderly. Johnson who saw FDR as an inspiration, led the War on Poverty and other relief measures, as well as enacted progressive policies such as the Civil Rights Act, while Obama introduced and instituted Health Care, something proposed by FDR himself in his last televised speech (and later UsefulNotes/RichardNixon and UsefulNotes/BillClinton), albeit instituted by Obama in a more pragmatic fashion, covering a smaller bracket than similar policies in other developed nations and modeled, ironically enough, on programs put in place by the Republican Governor of Massachusetts, Mitt Romney.

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* '''Liberalism''': Mainly American Liberalism, as seen in the Democratic Party, especially during the administrations of UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt, UsefulNotes/LyndonBJohnson UsefulNotes/LyndonJohnson and recently, UsefulNotes/BarackObama. This is a huge BerserkButton for actual socialists and for that matter liberals, neither of whom are comfortable with the "S" word including them. Modern liberals are frequently Keynesians (i. e. they support some degree of government intervention in the economy, especially during times of recession) but liberalism is still a fundamentally individualist ideology, and American liberals are broadly supportive of capitalism and favor its continuation; it cannot possibly be emphasized enough that the Keynesian economic theory is ''not'' by its nature socialist or for that matter social democrat, though in the eyes of its critics (i.e neo-classical and neo-liberal economists) this would count as InsistentTerminology[[note]]Keynes himself stated: "The class war will find me on the side of the educated bourgeoisie"-in sum, his goal was to save capitalism from itself, i.e. an advocate of reform and not revolution[[/note]] since it does represent a sharp enough departure from classical economics, and the foundations of liberal theory (i.e "positive liberty" as opposed to "negative liberty" in Isaiah Berlin's phrase). During Roosevelt's administration, liberalism led to the New Deal; the development of many state corporations (such as the T.V.A.), heavy government investment so as to limit and halt unemployment, building of infrastructure and public works and providing social security for the elderly. Johnson who saw FDR as an inspiration, led the War on Poverty and other relief measures, as well as enacted progressive policies such as the Civil Rights Act, while Obama introduced and instituted Health Care, something proposed by FDR himself in his last televised speech (and later UsefulNotes/RichardNixon and UsefulNotes/BillClinton), albeit instituted by Obama in a more pragmatic fashion, covering a smaller bracket than similar policies in other developed nations and modeled, ironically enough, on programs put in place by the Republican Governor of Massachusetts, Mitt Romney.
20th Sep '16 10:05:53 PM JulianLapostat
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* '''Marxism''': A more scientific socialism that took the analysis of capitalism and the development of history as key points. Marx analysed the nature of capitalism, how it began, how it divides the world into the two classes of proletariat and bourgeoisie, and how it spreads across nations. Capitalism was seen as one stage of the progression of history, which would eventually collapse due to the contradictions inherent in it and would be replaced by socialism and then communism. A key idea in Marxism is that the "'''dictatorship of the bourgeoisie'''" - the ''status quo'' whereby the rich hold social, political, economic, and cultural power - must be replaced with "'''dictatorship of the proletariat'''", whereby the workers hold power. Despite modern confusion, it is ''not'' an anti-democratic theory; to Marx, "dictatorship of the proletariat" involved ground-up participatory democracy involving all the workers making their own decisions, pointing to the Paris Commune as an ideal template[[note]]Or, at least, his version of what the Paris Commune was and should have been had the bourgeois not tried - and managed - to stamp it out[[/note]]. Marx also stated that [[PragmaticHeroism he only supported and condoned revolutionary force in nation-states that were violently reactionary and lacking in pre-existing liberal infrastructures]]. In [[ReasonableAuthorityFigure the case of America, England, and maybe Holland, he encouraged peaceful engagement with political institutions as a means of achieving change]]. He also argued that true communism would only be possible in developed strongly urbanized economies and in the case of backward nations, he generally recommended bourgeois revolutions.

to:

* '''Marxism''': A more scientific socialism that took the analysis of capitalism and the development of history as key points. Marx analysed the nature of capitalism, how it began, how it divides the world into the two classes of proletariat and bourgeoisie, and how it spreads across nations. Capitalism was seen as one stage of the progression of history, which would eventually collapse due to the contradictions inherent in it and would be replaced by socialism and then communism. A key idea in Marxism is that the "'''dictatorship of the bourgeoisie'''" - the ''status quo'' whereby the rich hold social, political, economic, and cultural power - must be replaced with "'''dictatorship of the proletariat'''", whereby the workers hold power. Despite modern confusion, it is ''not'' an anti-democratic theory; to Marx, "dictatorship of the proletariat" involved ground-up participatory democracy involving all the workers making their own decisions, pointing to the Paris Commune as an ideal template[[note]]Or, at least, his version of what the Paris Commune was and should have been had the bourgeois not tried - and managed - to stamp it out[[/note]]. Marx also stated that [[PragmaticHeroism [[PragmaticHero he only supported and condoned revolutionary force in nation-states that were violently reactionary and lacking in pre-existing liberal infrastructures]]. In [[ReasonableAuthorityFigure the case of America, England, and maybe Holland, he encouraged peaceful engagement with political institutions as a means of achieving change]]. He also argued that true communism would only be possible in developed strongly urbanized economies and in the case of backward nations, he generally recommended bourgeois revolutions.
20th Sep '16 10:03:24 PM JulianLapostat
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** Stalinism is characterized by harsh ruthless pragmatism, firm discipline, collectivization and mass indutrialization, strict control by party on all levers of government and society (Executive, Military, Judiciary, Press) and central authority, [[UtopiaJustifiesTheMeans all to better achieve the highly utopian socialist ideal of course]]. Socially, Stalin's isolationism, led to [[FullCircleRevolution revival of some of Russian traditions and a reversal of many of Lenin's social policies]], finally manifesting itself in the CultOfPersonality and mass PropagandaMachine and during WorldWarII, a revival of Russian Patriotism and the Orthodox Church. Internationally, its foreign policy was inconsistent. Initially moderate compared to Lenin's and Trotsky's who both advocated world revolution, it later encouraged rapprochement between China's KMT and CCP, tried to form an early coalition against Hitler with France and England, supported the Spanish Republic against Franco, and forming a Popular Front between Communists and other social democrat and left parties, and yet on the eve of WorldWarII, it stunned everyone with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between the USSR and Nazi Germany. Early observers such as Creator/GeorgeOrwell, contend that Stalinism is essentially a twisted mirror of capitalism, since it entrenched in power the bourgeois intellectuals just as firmly as capitalism entrenched the robber-baron, the monarch, and the aristocrat, often with even greater brutality. Later observers, with access to Russian archives, see Stalin as a Russian strongman who revived, preserved and deepened Russia's client-patronage system from the Russian Empire and a state-builder in the mode of Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great.
* '''Trotskyism''': Imagine Leninism as functionally democratic and you basically have this, so it's easy to see it as a particularly hardline version of State Socialism. As Trotskyites were internationalists, they became bitter opponents of Stalinism. Trotskyism grew out of Leon Trotsky's response to the brutality meted out by the Soviet bureacracy under Stalin.

to:

** Stalinism is characterized by harsh ruthless pragmatism, firm discipline, collectivization and mass indutrialization, strict control by party on all levers of government and society (Executive, Military, Judiciary, Press) and central authority, [[UtopiaJustifiesTheMeans all to better achieve the highly utopian socialist ideal of course]]. Socially, Stalin's isolationism, led to [[FullCircleRevolution revival of some of Russian traditions and a reversal of many of Lenin's social policies]], finally manifesting itself in the CultOfPersonality and mass PropagandaMachine and during WorldWarII, a revival of Russian Patriotism and the Orthodox Church. Internationally, its foreign policy was inconsistent. Initially moderate compared to Lenin's and Trotsky's who both advocated world revolution, it later encouraged rapprochement between China's KMT and CCP, tried to form an early coalition against Hitler with France and England, supported the Spanish Republic against Franco, and forming a Popular Front between Communists and other social democrat and left parties, and yet on the eve of WorldWarII, it stunned everyone with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between the USSR and Nazi Germany. Early observers such as Creator/GeorgeOrwell, contend that Stalinism is essentially a twisted mirror of capitalism, since it entrenched in power the bourgeois intellectuals just as firmly as capitalism entrenched the robber-baron, the monarch, and the aristocrat, often with even greater brutality. Later observers, with access to Russian archives, see Stalin as a Russian strongman who revived, preserved and deepened Russia's client-patronage system from the Russian Empire and a state-builder in the mode of Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great.
* '''Trotskyism''': Imagine Leninism as functionally democratic and you basically have this, so it's easy to see it as a particularly hardline version of State Socialism. As Trotskyites were internationalists, they became bitter opponents of Stalinism. Trotskyism grew out of Leon Trotsky's response to the brutality meted out by UsefulNotes/LeonTrotsky's exile from the Soviet bureacracy under Stalin. Union, where he after some early reluctance, finally formed the Fourth International to counter Comintern and present an alternative interpretation of Red October and its achievements. [[note]]Trotsky himself was a Menshevik and then a Bolshevik who served as TheLancer to Lenin during the October Revolution. While he would later advocate democratic participation, he had strongly been in favour of harsh discipline in his time as military organizer and in turn led the suppression of the Kronstadt rebellion. He also argued in favour of collectivization, land seizures and industrialization and criticized Lenin's NEP only to oppose both when Stalin took up those ideas.[[/note]]



* '''Mao Zedong Thought''': Uniquely, MaoZedong's variant of communism focuses on the divide between the urban and the rural. Maoism argues that the agrarian peasantry, not the urban proletariat, are the truly revolutionary class that will transform the world towards socialism. It focuses on rural insurgency, anti-Confucianism, and the ending of urban oppression of rural areas. Although nominally revered by the modern Chinese Communist Party, it has practically been discarded by most modern Communists, though it still has adherents in nations undergoing rapid transformation from rural to urban, who feel their way of life is under threat. Maoist revolutionary/terrorist movements still exist in India, Nepal, and Peru.
* '''Socialism with Chinese characteristics''': The current official ideology of the Communist Party of China, first articulated by Deng Xiaoping in 1978. It blends several ideological strands of Marxism and socialism, adds some new ones, and also emphasizes Chinese nationalism. In essence, the primary argument is that China adopted socialism as a semi-feudal and semi-colonial society, thus it is still in the first stage of socialist development. In order to build communism, therefore, China must become a developed and industrialized nation; justifying the adoption of capitalist policies in order to build up the country. Critics say that this version is no more than an ideological veneer for state-capitalist development, noting the poor quality of public services in China. Others have gone so far as to claim it more resembles a watered-down fascism than socialism.

to:

* '''Mao Zedong Thought''': Uniquely, MaoZedong's UsefulNotes/MaoZedong's variant of communism focuses on the divide between the urban and the rural. Maoism argues that the agrarian peasantry, not the urban proletariat, are the truly revolutionary class that will transform the world towards socialism. It focuses on rural insurgency, anti-Confucianism, and the ending of urban oppression of rural areas.areas, as well as supporting feminism and other modernization schemes. In other words while it is based on rural peasantry it also aims to erode the traditions of rural peasantry at the same time. Other features of Maoism involves self-criticism (where long-time party members are required to analyse and publicly criticize and review their obvious mistakes in inter-party disputes), re-education via labour (where former rightists would be sent to camps to learn Maoist and Marxist ideas and become proper citizens) and during the CulturalRevolution, sending urban intellectuals and "capitalist roaders" to the countryside, while encouraging young activists to denounce intellectuals/parents/elders. Although nominally revered by the modern Chinese Communist Party, it has practically been discarded by most modern Communists, though it still has adherents in nations undergoing rapid transformation from rural to urban, who feel their way of life is under threat. Maoist revolutionary/terrorist movements still exist in India, Nepal, and Peru.
Peru.
* '''Socialism with Chinese characteristics''': The current official ideology of the Communist Party of China, first articulated by Deng Xiaoping in 1978. It blends several ideological strands of Marxism and socialism, adds some new ones, and also emphasizes Chinese nationalism. In essence, the primary argument is that China adopted socialism as a semi-feudal and semi-colonial society, thus it is still in the first stage of socialist development. In order to build communism, therefore, China must become a developed and industrialized nation; justifying the adoption of capitalist policies in order to build up the country. Critics say that this version is no more than an ideological veneer for state-capitalist development, noting the poor quality of public services in China. Others have gone so far as to claim it more resembles a watered-down fascism than socialism.socialism, and that it isn't really any ideology at all, rather it's a repackaging of traditional Confucian pragmatism to serve the interests of an elite bureaucratic class.



** There were left-wing elements in the Nazi Party's early days, but these had been expelled or marginalized by the time Hitler actually seized power. Gregor Strasser, for instance, advocated a staunchly proletariat, anti-capitalist approach to economics and social order during the Party's rise through the '20s. For this among other reasons, however, Strasser fell out with Hitler and was ultimately murdered. By 1933 (if not before) the Nazis were "socialist" in name only.

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** There were left-wing elements in the Nazi Party's early days, but these had been expelled or marginalized by the time Hitler actually seized power. Gregor Strasser, for instance, advocated a staunchly proletariat, anti-capitalist approach to economics and social order during the Party's rise through the '20s. For this among other reasons, however, Strasser fell out with Hitler and was ultimately murdered. By 1933 (if not before) the Nazis were "socialist" in name only.only and heavily relied on traditional elites, allowed acquisition and preservation of private property and likewise encouraged and attracted free market investment. The little state intervention that existed within Nazism was grounded in German conservatism, since even Otto von Bismarck favoured promotion of limited welfare measures.



* '''Liberalism''': Including the Democratic Party, and especially the administration of UsefulNotes/BarackObama. This is a huge BerserkButton for actual socialists. Modern liberals are frequently Keynesians (ie. they support some degree of government intervention in the economy, especially during times of recession) but liberalism is still a fundamentally individualist ideology, and American liberals are broadly supportive of capitalism and favor its continuation; it cannot possibly be emphasized enough that the Keynesian economic theory is ''not'' by its nature necessarily socialist. Keynes himself stated: "The class war will find me on the side of the educated bourgeoisie"-in sum, his goal was to save capitalism from itself. At most there may be some overlap with Social Democracy, but whether ''that'' deserves to be considered socialist itself ([[TakeAThirdOption or something in between]]) [[NoTrueScotsman is not widely agreed on either]]. It should be noted that outside of the US, "liberalism" has different connotations and usually means something like "moderate libertarianism" by American standards. The best way to explain why liberals are not socialists is to say that liberals want to amend the capitalist economic system to make it more fair for everyone, while socialists believe that capitalism is essentially beyond saving and want to ''replace'' it.

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* '''Liberalism''': Including Mainly American Liberalism, as seen in the Democratic Party, and especially during the administration administrations of UsefulNotes/FranklinDRoosevelt, UsefulNotes/LyndonBJohnson and recently, UsefulNotes/BarackObama. This is a huge BerserkButton for actual socialists. socialists and for that matter liberals, neither of whom are comfortable with the "S" word including them. Modern liberals are frequently Keynesians (ie. (i. e. they support some degree of government intervention in the economy, especially during times of recession) but liberalism is still a fundamentally individualist ideology, and American liberals are broadly supportive of capitalism and favor its continuation; it cannot possibly be emphasized enough that the Keynesian economic theory is ''not'' by its nature necessarily socialist. Keynes socialist or for that matter social democrat, though in the eyes of its critics (i.e neo-classical and neo-liberal economists) this would count as InsistentTerminology[[note]]Keynes himself stated: "The class war will find me on the side of the educated bourgeoisie"-in sum, his goal was to save capitalism from itself. At most there may be some overlap with Social Democracy, but whether ''that'' deserves itself, i.e. an advocate of reform and not revolution[[/note]] since it does represent a sharp enough departure from classical economics, and the foundations of liberal theory (i.e "positive liberty" as opposed to be considered socialist itself ([[TakeAThirdOption or "negative liberty" in Isaiah Berlin's phrase). During Roosevelt's administration, liberalism led to the New Deal; the development of many state corporations (such as the T.V.A.), heavy government investment so as to limit and halt unemployment, building of infrastructure and public works and providing social security for the elderly. Johnson who saw FDR as an inspiration, led the War on Poverty and other relief measures, as well as enacted progressive policies such as the Civil Rights Act, while Obama introduced and instituted Health Care, something proposed by FDR himself in between]]) [[NoTrueScotsman is not widely agreed on either]]. It should be noted that outside of the US, "liberalism" has different connotations his last televised speech (and later UsefulNotes/RichardNixon and usually means something like "moderate libertarianism" UsefulNotes/BillClinton), albeit instituted by American standards. The best way to explain why liberals are not socialists is to say that liberals want to amend the capitalist economic system to make it Obama in a more fair for everyone, while socialists believe that capitalism is essentially beyond saving pragmatic fashion, covering a smaller bracket than similar policies in other developed nations and want to ''replace'' it.
modeled, ironically enough, on programs put in place by the Republican Governor of Massachusetts, Mitt Romney.
20th Sep '16 9:10:10 PM JulianLapostat
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Socialism is a political ideology that began to develop in the nineteenth century, with roots in philosophers from the 18th and 19th centuries, particularly Creator/KarlMarx. To give a complete definition here is almost impossible, as, like most political ideologies, it has many internal divisions and national variations. TheOtherWiki defines it as "an economic system characterised by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy", as opposed to the present capitalist system, whereby the means of production are owned by private individuals. There is no consensus on how social ownership is to be brought about or, once brought about, how it is to be managed; for this reason, this page also describes anti-capitalist anarchism and communism.

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Socialism is a political ideology that began to develop in the nineteenth century, with roots in philosophers from UsefulNotes/TheEnlightenment and UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution. Creator/KarlMarx is usually seen as the 18th major theorist but he was merely one theorist among many and 19th centuries, particularly Creator/KarlMarx. he codified and developed pre-existing ideas rather than create it out of whole cloth. To give a complete definition here is almost impossible, as, like most political ideologies, it has many internal divisions and national variations.variations as a result of pragmatic accomodations and {{Realpolitik}}. TheOtherWiki defines it as "an economic system characterised by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy", as opposed to the present capitalist system, whereby the means of production are owned by private individuals. There is no consensus on how social ownership is to be brought about or, once brought about, how it is to be managed; for this reason, this page also describes anti-capitalist anarchism and communism.



* '''Marxism''': A more scientific socialism that took the analysis of capitalism and the development of history as key points. Marx analysed the nature of capitalism, how it began, how it divides the world into the two classes of proletariat and bourgeoisie, and how it spreads across nations. Capitalism was seen as one stage of the progression of history, which would eventually collapse due to the contradictions inherent in it and would be replaced by socialism and then communism. A key idea in Marxism is that the "'''dictatorship of the bourgeoisie'''" - the ''status quo'' whereby the rich hold social, political, economic, and cultural power - must be replaced with "'''dictatorship of the proletariat'''", whereby the workers hold power. Despite modern confusion, it is ''not'' an anti-democratic theory; To Marx, "dictatorship of the proletariat" involved ground-up participatory democracy involving all the workers making their own decisions, pointing to the Paris Commune as an ideal template[[note]]Or, at least, his version of what the Paris Commune was and should have been had the bourgeois not tried - and managed - to stamp it out[[/note]].
** '''Communism''': This is the general term for what is basically the Anarcho-Syndicalist period after the full revolution, dictatorship included (or skipped). Funnily enough, the importance of this part of it has really died away as many "Communists" now focus on the State Socialist period (Leninists, Stalinists, Trotskyist, etc.) and the Anarcho-Communists have frankly even ''less'' influence than the other strains.
* '''Leninism''': The socialist transitional period between capitalism and communism is a period of state socialism, which in the case of the first socialist revolution, Russia, was the totalitarian USSR. Leninism is the version of Marxism developed by V.I Lenin during the run-up and aftermath of the Russian Revolution. Because Russia was viewed as too backwards for true Marxism, Lenin saw education through violence and terror as an accepted and necessary means of building socialism, and of a certain supremacy of intellectuals who must educate the servile masses. Lenin thus developed the idea of a "vanguard party": nominally an organically arising organization of the most politically active and educated of the proletariat who will take the idea of socialism to the rest of the masses, in practice Lenin and his clique. [[MeetTheNewBoss Dictatorship of the vanguard party" replaces "dictatorship of the proletariat"]]. Funny that. Later Leninist movements have sometimes claimed themselves to be the revolutionary vanguard. Leninism emphasizes so-called "democratic centralism", a strictly majoritarian means of intra-party organization, violent dismantling of the old regime, punishing former capitalist oppressors, and a cultural shift to a proletarian culture, such as through SocialistRealism.
* '''Stalinism''': To be extremely basic, Leninism is internationalist in outlook while Stalinism is isolationist ("Socialism in One Country" being a popular slogan). Previously Leninist states often became Stalinist over time, and never reached anything close to the ideal of stateless communism, though whether this is an inevitable process or a result of Soviet hegemony is debatable. Stalinism relied upon the idea of the vanguard party for its legitimacy; after all, if the vanguard is the most intelligent and adept section of society, who could possibly question its wisdom? It's modern adherents (yes, they exist) generally encourage socialist insolationism, rapid industrialization (or re-industrialization), a strong central state, and the entrenched authority of the vanguard party. Many, such as Creator/GeorgeOrwell, contend that Stalinism is essentially a twisted mirror of capitalism, since it entrenched in power the bourgeois intellectuals just as firmly as capitalism entrenched the robber-baron, the monarch, and the aristocrat, often with even greater brutality.

to:

* '''Marxism''': A more scientific socialism that took the analysis of capitalism and the development of history as key points. Marx analysed the nature of capitalism, how it began, how it divides the world into the two classes of proletariat and bourgeoisie, and how it spreads across nations. Capitalism was seen as one stage of the progression of history, which would eventually collapse due to the contradictions inherent in it and would be replaced by socialism and then communism. A key idea in Marxism is that the "'''dictatorship of the bourgeoisie'''" - the ''status quo'' whereby the rich hold social, political, economic, and cultural power - must be replaced with "'''dictatorship of the proletariat'''", whereby the workers hold power. Despite modern confusion, it is ''not'' an anti-democratic theory; To to Marx, "dictatorship of the proletariat" involved ground-up participatory democracy involving all the workers making their own decisions, pointing to the Paris Commune as an ideal template[[note]]Or, at least, his version of what the Paris Commune was and should have been had the bourgeois not tried - and managed - to stamp it out[[/note]].
out[[/note]]. Marx also stated that [[PragmaticHeroism he only supported and condoned revolutionary force in nation-states that were violently reactionary and lacking in pre-existing liberal infrastructures]]. In [[ReasonableAuthorityFigure the case of America, England, and maybe Holland, he encouraged peaceful engagement with political institutions as a means of achieving change]]. He also argued that true communism would only be possible in developed strongly urbanized economies and in the case of backward nations, he generally recommended bourgeois revolutions.
** '''Communism''': This Marx often defined "pure Communism" is the general term for what is basically projected end-state of socialism where the Anarcho-Syndicalist period after "state would wither away" creating a classless society with only technocratic self-regulating bureaucracy. None of the full revolution, dictatorship included (or skipped). Funnily enough, self-calling communist nations ever came close to achieving this. They were state socialist and still very much in Phase 1 (Dictatorship of the importance of this part of it has really died away as many Proletariat) and nowadays "Communists" now focus on the State Socialist period (Leninists, Stalinists, Trotskyist, etc.) ).
** '''Orthodox Marxism''': Coined after UsefulNotes/RedOctober, it referred to the Second International, who while differing from the Social Democrats (for [[WhatTheHellHero the logical reason]] that many of them supported UsefulNotes/WorldWarI) also regarded Lenin
and the Anarcho-Communists have frankly even ''less'' influence than the other strains.
Bolsheviks with scorn, seeing them as deviating sharply from Marxism and tending to authoritarianism with "vanguard party" and tending to utopianism with trying to achieve socialism in a country that was not entirely urbanized and lacking bourgeois infrastructure.
* '''Leninism''': The socialist transitional period between capitalism and communism is a period of state socialism, which in the case of the first socialist revolution, Russia, was the totalitarian dictatorial USSR. Leninism is the version of Marxism developed by V.I Lenin during the run-up and aftermath of the Russian Revolution. Because Russia was viewed as too backwards for true Marxism, Marxism: the Conservative forces were too entrenched, the Liberals had thin support and little consensus, Lenin eventually advocated a method by which the Russian Empire could achieve communism by triggering a world revolution in the aftermath of UsefulNotes/WorldWarI. Lenin saw education through violence and terror as an accepted and necessary means of building socialism, and of a certain supremacy of intellectuals who must educate the servile masses.intellectuals. Lenin thus developed the idea of a "vanguard party": nominally an organically arising organization of the most politically active and educated of the proletariat who will take the idea of socialism to the rest of the masses, in practice Lenin and his clique. [[MeetTheNewBoss Dictatorship of the vanguard party" replaces "dictatorship of the proletariat"]]. Funny that. Later Leninist movements have sometimes claimed themselves to be the revolutionary vanguard. Leninism emphasizes so-called "democratic centralism", a strictly majoritarian means of intra-party organization, organization whereby internally there can be free debate and exchanges, but externally there can only be party unity even by those who disagree. Open dissent was not allowed, strictly frowned upon (under Lenin and Trotsky) and violently stamped out (under Stalin). They generally recommend violent dismantling of the old regime, punishing former capitalist oppressors, aggressive land reform, and a cultural shift world revolution.
** One must place Lenin's theories in light of his intentions and later practice. Lenin's [[MissingStepsPlan grand plan was
to trigger a proletarian culture, revolution in Germany, and by extension other developed nations and economies on the Continent and internationally, and Russia was merely a detonator of global revolution]]. With the crushing of the Bavarian Republic and the setbacks of the Russian Civil War and the failure of the Polish-Soviet War, [[DidntThinkThisThrough this grand plan faced a temporary (and as it turned out, permanent) retreat]]. After this Lenin instituted the New Economic Policy (NEP), instituting a mixed economy allowing market forces to return to Russia, he also returned to some Orthodox Marxist positions such as through SocialistRealism.recommending German and British Communists to participate in bourgeois politics. At the period before his onset of dementia and his deathbed, he also recommended separating [[WhatCouldHaveBeen various revolutionary institutions with independent authority to serve as checks-and-balances]]. It is only with his death, that [[NonIndicativeName the ideology of Marxist-Leninism was coined]], mainly by the Stalin-led Politburo, who grounded their legitimacy with Lenin's vanguard-party ideology to better justify, to themselves and to the people, the nature of a single-party state and why oppositionist parties on both the Right and Left were deviations.
* '''Stalinism''': To be extremely basic, Leninism As mentioned above, it is under Stalin that some of Lenin's ideas and practices ([[TheThemeParkVersion but ''not'' all of them]]) were codified as Marxist-Leninism and that became the official ideology of the USSR. In the eyes of the internationalist in outlook while communist movement, Stalinism is isolationist ("Socialism in One Country" being a popular slogan). Previously Leninist states often became Stalinist was continuous with Leninism and initially it was. In his early years before he consolidated his authority, Stalin continued the NEP, maintained Lenin's progressive social policies and tended to lean to passive-aggressive bullying and exile of opponents over time, and never reached anything close to the ideal of stateless communism, though whether this is an inevitable process or a result of Soviet hegemony is debatable. outright murder. Stalinism eventually evolved into a separate ideology by the late-20s and early 30s. He relied upon the idea of the vanguard party party, and Lenin's legacy, for its legitimacy; after all, if the vanguard is the most intelligent legitimacy but backtracked heavily from world revolution, and adept section followed a foreign policy of society, who could possibly question its wisdom? It's modern adherents (yes, they exist) generally encourage socialist insolationism, rapid industrialization (or re-industrialization), a strong central state, self-interest, referred to as "Socialism in One Country". This idea much criticized by UsefulNotes/LeonTrotsky and the entrenched authority of the several others since it was an even further departure from Marx and Engels than Lenin's vanguard party. Many, Finally, Stalinism made its grand debut with forced collectivization and mass industrialization, leading to brutal land seizures, liquidation and pruges of kulaks, wreckers, dissenters, oppositionists, Red Army militia, potential Fifth Columnists which ultimately exacerbated a drought and grain shortage into the deadly famine in 1933-34 and the Great Purges, which killed over 3 Million people (Famine) and nearly 800,000 (Purges), with further millions imprisoned for forced labour in TheGulag, where a million more would die (mostly as a result of wartime shortages).
** Stalinism is characterized by harsh ruthless pragmatism, firm discipline, collectivization and mass indutrialization, strict control by party on all levers of government and society (Executive, Military, Judiciary, Press) and central authority, [[UtopiaJustifiesTheMeans all to better achieve the highly utopian socialist ideal of course]]. Socially, Stalin's isolationism, led to [[FullCircleRevolution revival of some of Russian traditions and a reversal of many of Lenin's social policies]], finally manifesting itself in the CultOfPersonality and mass PropagandaMachine and during WorldWarII, a revival of Russian Patriotism and the Orthodox Church. Internationally, its foreign policy was inconsistent. Initially moderate compared to Lenin's and Trotsky's who both advocated world revolution, it later encouraged rapprochement between China's KMT and CCP, tried to form an early coalition against Hitler with France and England, supported the Spanish Republic against Franco, and forming a Popular Front between Communists and other social democrat and left parties, and yet on the eve of WorldWarII, it stunned everyone with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between the USSR and Nazi Germany. Early observers
such as Creator/GeorgeOrwell, contend that Stalinism is essentially a twisted mirror of capitalism, since it entrenched in power the bourgeois intellectuals just as firmly as capitalism entrenched the robber-baron, the monarch, and the aristocrat, often with even greater brutality.brutality. Later observers, with access to Russian archives, see Stalin as a Russian strongman who revived, preserved and deepened Russia's client-patronage system from the Russian Empire and a state-builder in the mode of Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great.
20th Sep '16 6:32:27 PM DavidDelony
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Added DiffLines:

* [[Radio/DemocracyNow Amy Goodman]]
16th Jun '16 6:46:27 PM Fireblood
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While the numbers of mined coal, produced steel etc. looked good (at least on paper), in practice certain problems cropped up again and again. Since the people in production had no real incentive to work harder (as long as they could avoid punishment), they would instead look for ways to "fulfill the plan" in a way that saved work. (As explained below: Even when they received more money for more work, this didn't automatically mean they could buy more stuff with it. On the other hand, the fact that laziness is its own reward remained true even in Socialism.) For example, if workers in a window pane factory had the order to produce X tons of panes, they would make ridiculously thick panes (less of them necessary to make a ton). If the order was like "produce X square meters of panes", they'd make panes too thin, which would be too brittle. And maybe steal some of the glass for themselves and trade it on the BlackMarket.

to:

While the numbers of mined coal, produced steel etc. looked good (at least on paper), in practice certain problems cropped up again and again. Since the people in production had no real incentive to work harder (as long as they could avoid punishment), they would instead look for ways to "fulfill the plan" in a way that saved work. (As explained below: Even when they received more money for more work, this didn't automatically mean they could buy more stuff with it. On the other hand, the fact that laziness is its own reward remained true even in Socialism.) For example, if workers in a window pane factory had the order to produce X tons of panes, they would make ridiculously thick panes (less of them necessary to make a ton). If the order was like "produce X square meters of panes", they'd make panes too thin, which would be too brittle. And maybe steal some of the glass for themselves and trade it on the BlackMarket.
BlackMarket. The relationship has been summed up as "We pretend to work, and they pretend to pay us."



--> "Three ones."

to:

--> "Three ones."Three."



--> "I have four of them, he has five ones."

to:

--> "I have four of them, he has five ones.five."



In short: Since (regular) money doesn't matter, the wares will go to [[ScrewTheRulesIHaveConnections those who have the best connections to those selling it.]] This was quite often the case, and people would have to waste hours of their life standing in a queue. Which was even worse in places where bread was sold in one store, milk in a second one and meat in a third one, [[{{Irony}} for practicality]]. Of course, if you were lucky enough to own hard currency like American dollars or [[UsefulNotes/WestGermany West German marks]], this didn't apply. Which led to another joke that Communism and Capitalism are really NotSoDifferent, because in both systems you can get everything if you only have [[ScrewTheRulesIHaveMoney enough dollars]].[[/folder]]

to:

In short: Since since (regular) money doesn't matter, the wares will go to [[ScrewTheRulesIHaveConnections those who have the best connections to those selling it.]] This was quite often the case, and people would have to waste hours of their life standing in a queue. Which was even worse in places where bread was sold in one store, milk in a second one and meat in a third one, [[{{Irony}} for practicality]]. Of course, if you were lucky enough to own hard currency like American dollars or [[UsefulNotes/WestGermany West German marks]], this didn't apply. Which led to another joke that Communism and Capitalism are really NotSoDifferent, because in both systems you can get everything if you only have [[ScrewTheRulesIHaveMoney enough dollars]].[[/folder]]



The new government set up the world's first system of socialized medicine, took into state ownership most of Britain's heavy industry, and greatly expanded the system of welfare benefits. It also negotiated the independence of India, which led to the gradual decolonization of the British Empire. These policies were widely popular; the Labour Party never lost a single by-election during its first term (which no government has since managed), won a huge majority, and was returned to office at the end of it. However, Attlee's experiment with state socialism was to be sharply curtailed; in the 1950 election, although he polled more that 1.5 million more votes than the Conservatives, he gained, due to a quirk of the British voting system, a majority of just five. He tried his best to govern with such a slim majority (which basically required his [=MPs=] to always be in Parliament to get anything done) but eventually called another election twenty months later, having done what he set out to do. Once again, he took the majority of the popular vote; but this time Britain's system fucked him even more comprehensively; he ended up 26 seats ''behind'' Winston Churchill's returning Conservatives, and Britain's first socialist government left office.

For the next thirty years, both left and right and Britain believed in broadly social democratic policies toward the economy, employment, trade unions, welfare, and foreign affairs. However, in 1979, MargaretThatcher came to power, and dismantled it, instituting a policy of monetarism, de-industrialization, interests-based foreign policy, and deregulation in its place, the so-called "neo-liberal consensus". The reasons for the collapse of the consensus are still hotly debated. Right-wing critics argue that socialist trade unions prevented British industry from retaining its competitiveness in the globalizing world. Left-wing ones argue that a lack of investment, right-wing ideological bias against state-owned industry (brought about by the rise of Austrian economics in the Tory Party from 1970), and malevolent class warfare on the right's part were to blame for Union militancy, which ultimately turned the wider public against it.

to:

The new government set up the world's first system of socialized medicine, took into state ownership most of Britain's heavy industry, and greatly expanded the system of welfare benefits. It also negotiated the independence of India, which led to the gradual decolonization of the British Empire. These policies were widely popular; the Labour Party never lost a single by-election during its first term (which no government has since managed), won a huge majority, and was returned to office at the end of it. However, Attlee's experiment with state socialism was to be sharply curtailed; in the 1950 election, although he polled more that 1.5 million more votes than the Conservatives, he gained, due to a quirk of the British voting system, a majority of just five. He tried his best to govern with such a slim majority (which basically required his [=MPs=] to always be in Parliament to get anything done) but eventually called another election twenty months later, having done what he set out to do. Once again, he took the majority of the popular vote; but this time Britain's system fucked him even more comprehensively; he comprehensively. He ended up 26 seats ''behind'' Winston Churchill's returning Conservatives, and Britain's first socialist government left office.

For the next thirty years, both left and right and Britain believed in broadly social democratic policies toward the economy, employment, trade unions, welfare, and foreign affairs. However, in 1979, MargaretThatcher came to power, power and dismantled it, instituting a policy of monetarism, de-industrialization, interests-based foreign policy, and deregulation in its place, the so-called "neo-liberal consensus". The reasons for the collapse of the consensus are still hotly debated. Right-wing critics argue that socialist trade unions prevented British industry from retaining its competitiveness in the globalizing world. Left-wing ones argue that a lack of investment, right-wing ideological bias against state-owned industry (brought about by the rise of Austrian economics in the Tory Party from 1970), and malevolent class warfare on the right's part were to blame for Union trade union militancy, which ultimately turned the wider public against it.



That said, the system is not without its critics. From the Right, ''The Economist'' has predicted the ultimate collapse of the model as unsustainable (though none of its predictions have, so far, come to pass). Libertarians have criticized it as [[DirtyCommunists excessively statist]]: while the American popular myth that the Nordics are bureaucratic and inefficient has never been anything but a myth; they ''do'' have some of the world's highest income taxes, which offends some people's conceptions of individualism. From the Left, others have criticized it for [[NoTrueScotsman not being socialist enough]], pointing to low rates of corporate taxation, high VAT, and the presence of monarchy in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway.

to:

That said, the system is not without its critics. From the Right, ''The Economist'' has predicted the ultimate collapse of the model as unsustainable (though none of its predictions have, so far, come to pass). Libertarians have criticized it as [[DirtyCommunists excessively statist]]: while the American popular myth that the Nordics are bureaucratic and inefficient has never been anything but a myth; myth, they ''do'' have some of the world's highest income taxes, which offends some people's conceptions of individualism. From the Left, others have criticized it for [[NoTrueScotsman not being socialist enough]], pointing to low rates of corporate taxation, high VAT, and the presence of monarchy in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway.
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