History UsefulNotes / Socialism

15th Nov '17 12:19:20 AM Fireblood
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* Anarcho-Communism: This form advocates that money be abolished, with free access to commonly owned goods in storehouses. They often advocate that every person in the community be given the same amount of credit to take goods out of these storehouses as well, no matter what amount of work they do.
15th Nov '17 12:13:35 AM Fireblood
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* '''Marxism''': A more scientific socialism that took the analysis of capitalism and the development of history as key points. Marx analysed the nature of capitalism, how it began, how it divides the world into the two classes of proletariat and bourgeoisie, and how it spreads across nations. Capitalism was seen as one stage of the progression of history, which would eventually collapse due to the contradictions inherent in it and would be replaced by socialism and then communism. A key idea in Marxism is that the "'''dictatorship of the bourgeoisie'''" - the ''status quo'' whereby the rich hold social, political, economic, and cultural power - must be replaced with "'''dictatorship of the proletariat'''", whereby the workers hold power. Despite modern confusion, it is ''not'' an anti-democratic theory; to Marx, "dictatorship of the proletariat" involved ground-up participatory democracy involving all the workers making their own decisions, pointing to the Paris Commune as an ideal template[[note]]Or, at least, his version of what the Paris Commune was and should have been had the bourgeois not tried - and managed - to stamp it out[[/note]]. Marx also stated that [[PragmaticHero he only supported and condoned revolutionary force in nation-states that were violently reactionary and lacking in pre-existing liberal infrastructures]]. In [[ReasonableAuthorityFigure the case of America, England, and maybe Holland, he encouraged peaceful engagement with political institutions as a means of achieving change]]. He also argued that true communism would only be possible in developed strongly urbanized economies and in the case of backward nations, he generally recommended bourgeois revolutions.
** '''Communism''': Marx often defined "pure Communism" is the projected end-state of socialism where the "state would wither away" creating a classless society with only technocratic self-regulating bureaucracy. None of the self-calling communist nations ever came close to achieving this. They were state socialist and still very much in Phase 1 (Dictatorship of the Proletariat) and nowadays "Communists" focus on the State Socialist period (Leninists, Stalinists, Trotskyist, etc.).

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* '''Marxism''': A more scientific socialism that took the analysis of capitalism and the development of history as key points. Marx analysed the nature of capitalism, how it began, how it divides the world into the two classes of proletariat and bourgeoisie, and how it spreads across nations. Capitalism was seen as one stage of the progression of history, which would eventually collapse due to the contradictions inherent in it and would be replaced by socialism and then communism. A key idea in Marxism is that the "'''dictatorship of the bourgeoisie'''" - the ''status quo'' whereby the rich hold social, political, economic, and cultural power - must be replaced with "'''dictatorship of the proletariat'''", whereby the workers hold power. Despite modern confusion, it is ''not'' an anti-democratic theory; to Marx, "dictatorship of the proletariat" involved ground-up participatory democracy involving all the workers making their own decisions, pointing to the Paris Commune as an ideal template[[note]]Or, template.[[note]]Or, at least, his version of what the Paris Commune was and should have been had the bourgeois not tried - and managed - to stamp it out[[/note]]. out.[[/note]] Marx also stated that [[PragmaticHero he only supported and condoned revolutionary force in nation-states that were violently reactionary and lacking in pre-existing liberal infrastructures]]. In [[ReasonableAuthorityFigure the case of America, England, and maybe Holland, he encouraged peaceful engagement with political institutions as a means of achieving change]]. He also argued that true communism would only be possible in developed strongly urbanized economies and in the case of backward nations, he generally recommended bourgeois revolutions.
** '''Communism''': Marx often defined "pure Communism" is as the projected end-state of socialism where the "state would wither away" creating a classless society with only technocratic self-regulating bureaucracy. None of the self-calling communist nations ever came close to achieving this. They were state socialist and still very much in Phase 1 (Dictatorship of the Proletariat) and nowadays "Communists" focus on the State Socialist period (Leninists, Stalinists, Trotskyist, etc.).



* '''Leninism''': The socialist transitional period between capitalism and communism is a period of state socialism, which in the case of the first socialist revolution, Russia, was the dictatorial USSR. Leninism is the version of Marxism developed by V.I Lenin during the run-up and aftermath of the Russian Revolution. Because Russia was viewed as too backwards for true Marxism: the Conservative forces were too entrenched, the Liberals had thin support and little consensus, Lenin eventually advocated a method by which the Russian Empire could achieve communism by triggering a world revolution in the aftermath of UsefulNotes/WorldWarI. Lenin saw education through violence and terror as an accepted and necessary means of building socialism, and of a certain supremacy of intellectuals. Lenin thus developed the idea of a "vanguard party": nominally an organically arising organization of the most politically active and educated of the proletariat who will take the idea of socialism to the rest of the masses, in practice Lenin and his clique. [[MeetTheNewBoss Dictatorship of the vanguard party" replaces "dictatorship of the proletariat"]]. Leninism emphasizes so-called "democratic centralism", a strictly majoritarian means of intra-party organization whereby internally there can be free debate and exchanges, but externally there can only be party unity even by those who disagree. Open dissent was not allowed, strictly frowned upon (under Lenin and Trotsky) and violently stamped out (under Stalin). They generally recommend violent dismantling of the old regime, punishing former capitalist oppressors, aggressive land reform, and world revolution.
** One must place Lenin's theories in light of his intentions and later practice. Lenin's [[MissingStepsPlan grand plan was to trigger a revolution in Germany, and by extension other developed nations and economies on the Continent and internationally, and Russia was merely a detonator of global revolution]]. With the crushing of the Bavarian Republic and the setbacks of the Russian Civil War and the failure of the Polish-Soviet War, [[DidntThinkThisThrough this grand plan faced a temporary (and as it turned out, permanent) retreat]]. After this Lenin instituted the New Economic Policy (NEP), instituting a mixed economy allowing market forces to return to Russia, he also returned to some Orthodox Marxist positions such as recommending German and British Communists to participate in bourgeois politics. At the period before his onset of dementia and his deathbed, he also recommended separating [[WhatCouldHaveBeen various revolutionary institutions with independent authority to serve as checks-and-balances]]. It is only with his death, that [[NonIndicativeName the ideology of Marxist-Leninism was coined]], mainly by the Stalin-led Politburo, who grounded their legitimacy with Lenin's vanguard-party ideology to better justify, to themselves and to the people, the nature of a single-party state and why oppositionist parties on both the Right and Left were deviations.
* '''Stalinism''': As mentioned above, it is under Stalin that some of Lenin's ideas and practices ([[TheThemeParkVersion but ''not'' all of them]]) were codified as Marxist-Leninism and that became the official ideology of the USSR. In the eyes of the internationalist communist movement, Stalinism was continuous with Leninism and initially it was. In his early years before he consolidated his authority, Stalin continued the NEP, maintained Lenin's progressive social policies and tended to lean to passive-aggressive bullying and exile of opponents over outright murder. Stalinism eventually evolved into a separate ideology by the late-20s and early 30s. He relied upon the idea of the vanguard party, and Lenin's legacy, for its legitimacy but backtracked heavily from world revolution, and followed a foreign policy of self-interest, referred to as "Socialism in One Country". This idea much criticized by UsefulNotes/LeonTrotsky and several others since it was an even further departure from Marx and Engels than Lenin's vanguard party. Finally, Stalinism made its grand debut with forced collectivization and mass industrialization, leading to brutal land seizures, liquidation and purges of kulaks, wreckers, dissenters, oppositionists, Red Army militia, potential Fifth Columnists which ultimately exacerbated a drought and grain shortage into the deadly famine in 1933-34 and the Great Purges, which killed over 3 Million people (Famine) and nearly 800,000 (Purges), with further millions imprisoned for forced labour in TheGulag, where a million more would die (mostly as a result of wartime shortages).
** Stalinism is characterized by harsh ruthless pragmatism, firm discipline, collectivization and mass indutrialization, strict control by party on all levers of government and society (Executive, Military, Judiciary, Press) and central authority, [[UtopiaJustifiesTheMeans all to better achieve the highly utopian socialist ideal of course]]. Socially, Stalin's isolationism, led to [[FullCircleRevolution revival of some of Russian traditions and a reversal of many of Lenin's social policies]], finally manifesting itself in the CultOfPersonality and mass PropagandaMachine and during UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, a revival of Russian Patriotism and the Orthodox Church. Internationally, its foreign policy was inconsistent. Initially moderate compared to Lenin's and Trotsky's who both advocated world revolution, it later encouraged rapprochement between China's KMT and CCP, tried to form an early coalition against Hitler with France and England, supported the Spanish Republic against Franco, and forming a Popular Front between Communists and other social democrat and left parties, and yet on the eve of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, it stunned everyone with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between the USSR and Nazi Germany. Early observers such as Creator/GeorgeOrwell, contend that Stalinism is essentially a twisted mirror of capitalism, since it entrenched in power the bourgeois intellectuals just as firmly as capitalism entrenched the robber-baron, the monarch, and the aristocrat, often with even greater brutality. Later observers, with access to Russian archives, see Stalin as a strongman who revived, preserved and deepened Russia's client-patronage system from the Russian Empire and a state-builder in the mode of Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great.

to:

* '''Leninism''': The socialist transitional period between capitalism and communism is a period of state socialism, which in the case of the first socialist revolution, Russia, was the dictatorial USSR. Leninism is the version of Marxism developed by V.I Lenin during the run-up and aftermath of the Russian Revolution. Because Russia was viewed as too backwards for true Marxism: the Marxism (the Conservative forces were too entrenched, the Liberals had thin support and little consensus, consensus), Lenin eventually advocated a method by which the Russian Empire could achieve communism by triggering a world revolution in the aftermath of UsefulNotes/WorldWarI. Lenin saw education through violence and terror as an accepted and necessary means of building socialism, and of a certain supremacy of intellectuals. Lenin thus developed the idea of a "vanguard party": nominally an organically arising organization of the most politically active and educated of the proletariat who will take the idea of socialism to the rest of the masses, in practice Lenin and his clique. [[MeetTheNewBoss Dictatorship of the vanguard party" replaces "dictatorship of the proletariat"]]. Leninism emphasizes so-called "democratic centralism", a strictly majoritarian means of intra-party organization whereby internally there can be free debate and exchanges, but externally there can only be party unity even by those who disagree. Open dissent was not allowed, strictly frowned upon (under Lenin and Trotsky) and violently stamped out (under Stalin). They generally recommend violent dismantling of the old regime, punishing former capitalist oppressors, aggressive land reform, and world revolution.
** One must place Lenin's theories in light of his intentions and later practice. Lenin's [[MissingStepsPlan grand plan was to trigger a revolution in Germany, and by extension other developed nations and economies on the Continent and internationally, and Russia was merely a detonator of global revolution]]. With the crushing of the Bavarian Republic and the setbacks of the Russian Civil War and the failure of the Polish-Soviet War, [[DidntThinkThisThrough this grand plan faced a temporary (and as it turned out, permanent) retreat]]. After this Lenin instituted the New Economic Policy (NEP), instituting a mixed economy allowing market forces to return to Russia, he Russia. He also returned to some Orthodox Marxist positions such as recommending German and British Communists to participate in bourgeois politics. At the period before his onset of dementia and his deathbed, he also recommended separating [[WhatCouldHaveBeen various revolutionary institutions with independent authority to serve as checks-and-balances]]. It is only with his death, death that [[NonIndicativeName the ideology of Marxist-Leninism was coined]], mainly by the Stalin-led Politburo, who grounded their legitimacy with Lenin's vanguard-party ideology to better justify, to themselves and to the people, the nature of a single-party state and why oppositionist parties on both the Right and Left were deviations.
* '''Stalinism''': As mentioned above, it is under Stalin that some of Lenin's ideas and practices ([[TheThemeParkVersion but ''not'' all of them]]) were codified as Marxist-Leninism and that became the official ideology of the USSR. In the eyes of the internationalist communist movement, Stalinism was continuous with Leninism and initially it was. In his early years before he consolidated his authority, Stalin continued the NEP, maintained Lenin's progressive social policies and tended to lean to passive-aggressive bullying and exile of opponents over outright murder. Stalinism eventually evolved into a separate ideology by the late-20s and early 30s. He relied upon the idea of the vanguard party, and Lenin's legacy, for its legitimacy but backtracked heavily from world revolution, and followed a foreign policy of self-interest, referred to as "Socialism in One Country". This idea was much criticized by UsefulNotes/LeonTrotsky and several others since it was an even further departure from Marx and Engels than Lenin's vanguard party. Finally, Stalinism made its grand debut with forced collectivization and mass industrialization, leading to brutal land seizures, liquidation and purges of kulaks, wreckers, dissenters, oppositionists, Red Army militia, militia abd potential Fifth Columnists which ultimately exacerbated a drought and grain shortage into the deadly famine in 1933-34 and the Great Purges, which killed over 3 Million million people (Famine) (famine) and nearly 800,000 (Purges), (purges), with further millions imprisoned for forced labour in TheGulag, where a million more would die (mostly as a result of wartime shortages).
** Stalinism is characterized by harsh ruthless pragmatism, firm discipline, collectivization and mass indutrialization, strict control by party on all levers of government and society (Executive, Military, Judiciary, Press) (executive, military, judiciary, press) and central authority, [[UtopiaJustifiesTheMeans all to better achieve the highly utopian socialist ideal of course]]. Socially, Stalin's isolationism, led to [[FullCircleRevolution revival of some of Russian traditions and a reversal of many of Lenin's social policies]], finally manifesting itself in the CultOfPersonality and mass PropagandaMachine and during UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, a revival of Russian Patriotism and the Orthodox Church. Internationally, its foreign policy was inconsistent. Initially moderate compared to Lenin's and Trotsky's who both advocated world revolution, it later encouraged rapprochement between China's KMT and CCP, tried to form an early coalition against Hitler with France and England, supported the Spanish Republic against Franco, and forming a Popular Front between Communists and other social democrat and left parties, and yet on the eve of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, it stunned everyone with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between the USSR and Nazi Germany. Early observers such as Creator/GeorgeOrwell, Creator/GeorgeOrwell contend that Stalinism is essentially a twisted mirror of capitalism, since it entrenched in power the bourgeois intellectuals just as firmly as capitalism entrenched the robber-baron, the monarch, and the aristocrat, often with even greater brutality. Later observers, with access to Russian archives, see Stalin as a strongman who revived, preserved and deepened Russia's client-patronage system from the Russian Empire and a state-builder in the mode of Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great.



* '''Anarcho-Communism''': These are Communists that believe that the transitionary State Socialist period is completely unnecessary, that society can jump straight from capitalism with a state to the inherently anarchic communism. Anarcho-Communists generally favor revolution as the primary tactic for the downfall of capitalism, but many favor the General Strike, like the Anarcho-Syndicalists. Generally this synthesizes the anarchist belief that authority is bad, and argues that establishing a system of government to bring about a system of free association is ultimately self-defeating.

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* '''Anarcho-Communism''': These are Communists that believe that the transitionary State Socialist period is completely unnecessary, that society can jump straight from capitalism with a state to the inherently anarchic communism. Anarcho-Communists generally favor revolution as the primary tactic for the downfall of capitalism, but many favor the General Strike, general strike, like the Anarcho-Syndicalists. Generally this synthesizes the anarchist belief that authority is bad, and argues that establishing a system of government to bring about a system of free association is ultimately self-defeating.self-defeating (usually they point to the Bolshevik Revolution etc. as proof).



* '''Socialism with Chinese characteristics''': The current official ideology of the Communist Party of China, first articulated by Deng Xiaoping in 1978. It blends several ideological strands of Marxism and socialism, adds some new ones, and also emphasizes Chinese nationalism. In essence, the primary argument is that China adopted socialism as a semi-feudal and semi-colonial society, thus it is still in the first stage of socialist development. In order to build communism, therefore, China must become a developed and industrialized nation; justifying the adoption of capitalist policies in order to build up the country. Critics say that this version is no more than an ideological veneer for state-capitalist development, noting the poor quality of public services in China. Others have gone so far as to claim it more resembles a watered-down fascism than socialism, and that it isn't really any ideology at all, rather it's a repackaging of traditional Confucian pragmatism to serve the interests of an elite bureaucratic class.

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* '''Socialism with Chinese characteristics''': The current official ideology of the Communist Party of China, first articulated by Deng Xiaoping in 1978. It blends several ideological strands of Marxism and socialism, adds some new ones, and also emphasizes Chinese nationalism. In essence, the primary argument is that China adopted socialism as a semi-feudal and semi-colonial society, thus it is still in the first stage of socialist development. In order to build communism, therefore, China must become a developed and industrialized nation; nation, justifying the adoption of capitalist policies in order to build up the country. Critics say that this version is no more than an ideological veneer for state-capitalist development, noting the poor quality of public services in China. Others have gone so far as to claim it more resembles a watered-down fascism than socialism, and that it isn't really any ideology at all, rather it's a repackaging of traditional Confucian pragmatism to serve the interests of an elite bureaucratic class.



Anarchism originally emerged as an anti-Capitalist theory. Anarchists and Socialists are often known to cooperate at rallies, [[SourSupporter even if they disagree greatly on many issues]].

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Anarchism originally emerged as an anti-Capitalist anti-capitalist theory. Anarchists and Socialists are often known to cooperate at rallies, [[SourSupporter even if they disagree greatly on many issues]].
15th Nov '17 12:02:42 AM Fireblood
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** '''Armenian socialism''': A type of socialism heavily tied to Armenian social justice and nationalism. It's adherents include the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (whose main goals include promoting Armenian genocide recognition, gaining reparations from Turkey, especially claimed lands to form a united Armenia and establishment of socialism) and the [[OverlyLongName Armenian Secret Army For The Liberation Of Armenia]] (A militant group active in the 20th century that sought justice from Turkey and establishment of a united socialist Armenia).
** '''Kurdish Socialism''': Socialism as practiced by the Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK). Originally, the party was created for militant action against the Turkish government to gain self determination for Kurds living in the area. The main goal of the libertarian socialist PKK is to establish a democratic confederalist Kurdistan. This type of socialism has resurfaced recently in the Kurdish people's fight against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). Although it has been classified by western countries as a terrorist group, [[EnemyMine the PKK's fight against ISIS have caused western perception towards it to change drastically.]]

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** '''Armenian socialism''': A type of socialism heavily tied to Armenian social justice and nationalism. It's adherents include the Armenian Revolutionary Federation (whose main goals include promoting Armenian genocide recognition, gaining reparations from Turkey, especially claimed lands to form a united Armenia and establishment of socialism) and the [[OverlyLongName Armenian Secret Army For The Liberation Of Armenia]] (A (a militant group active in the 20th century that sought justice from Turkey and establishment of a united socialist Armenia).
** '''Kurdish Socialism''': Socialism as practiced by the Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK). Originally, the party was created for militant action against the Turkish government to gain self determination self-determination for Kurds living in the area. The main goal of the libertarian socialist PKK is to establish a democratic confederalist Kurdistan. This type of socialism has resurfaced recently in the Kurdish people's fight against the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS). Although it has been classified by western countries as a terrorist group, [[EnemyMine the PKK's fight against ISIS have caused western perception towards it to change drastically.]]
]] There exists currently a ''de facto'' state in Syria called Rojova, where the Syrian Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD) implemented feminist and socialist principles.
14th Nov '17 11:54:40 PM Fireblood
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** As an aside, the term "social democracy" in the early twentieth century used to refer to Marxists; it should not be confused with the modern usage of the term; although the German SPD[[note]]Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands[[/note]] was founded in 1875 as a Marxist party, it gradually shifted into a state socialist and then social democratic party following the Second World War.

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** As an aside, the term "social democracy" in the early twentieth century used to refer to Marxists; it should not be confused with the modern usage of the term; although the German SPD[[note]]Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands[[/note]] was founded in 1875 1863 as a Marxist party, it gradually shifted into a state socialist and then social democratic party following the Second World War.



* '''Kemalism''': Based around the ideas supported by [[UsefulNotes/{{Turkey}} the Turkish Republic's]] father Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. It is basically somewhere between State Socialist and Social Democracy, with a healthy emphasis on state ownership. [[AmericansHateTingle It doesn't have any real popularity outside of Turkey]] ([[GermansLoveDavidHasselhoff though Arab Spring revolutionaries are saying they look towards Turkey's model of government]]), but over there it is the dominant force in left-wing politics.

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* '''Kemalism''': Based around the ideas supported by [[UsefulNotes/{{Turkey}} the Turkish Republic's]] father Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. It is basically somewhere between State Socialist and Social Democracy, with a healthy emphasis on state ownership. [[AmericansHateTingle It doesn't have any real popularity outside of Turkey]] ([[GermansLoveDavidHasselhoff though Arab Spring revolutionaries are saying said they look towards looked toward Turkey's model of government]]), but over there it is the dominant force in left-wing politics.
28th Oct '17 1:32:59 PM Tomodachi
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* Hugo Chavez

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* Hugo ChavezUsefulNotes/HugoChavez
21st Sep '17 3:12:21 AM jeez
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For more information on Socialism, please consult Wiki/{{Wikipedia}}. They can say it much better than here. Please note that this article ''barely'' scratches the surface.

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For more information on Socialism, please consult Wiki/{{Wikipedia}}. They Wiki/TheOtherWiki. Admittedly, they can say it much better than here. Please note that this article ''barely'' scratches the surface.
22nd Aug '17 2:09:59 PM TristanJeremiah
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Democratic socialists and social democrats:

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Democratic socialists and social democrats:Reform Socialists:



* Martin Luther King, Jr., and several other UsefulNotes/CivilRightsMovement leaders

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* Martin Luther King, Jr.UsefulNotes/MartinLutherKingJr., and several other UsefulNotes/CivilRightsMovement leadersleaders
* UsefulNotes/MalcolmX



And some notable communists; communism is not quite the same thing but they might as well be mentioned:

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And some notable communists; communism Communists; Communism is not quite the same thing but they might as well be mentioned:
18th Aug '17 10:51:51 AM DavidDelony
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* Willy Brandt
12th Aug '17 7:24:46 PM TristanJeremiah
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* Eugene V. Debs

to:

* Eugene V. DebsUsefulNotes/EugeneDebs
15th Jul '17 10:38:54 AM nombretomado
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** Stalinism is characterized by harsh ruthless pragmatism, firm discipline, collectivization and mass indutrialization, strict control by party on all levers of government and society (Executive, Military, Judiciary, Press) and central authority, [[UtopiaJustifiesTheMeans all to better achieve the highly utopian socialist ideal of course]]. Socially, Stalin's isolationism, led to [[FullCircleRevolution revival of some of Russian traditions and a reversal of many of Lenin's social policies]], finally manifesting itself in the CultOfPersonality and mass PropagandaMachine and during WorldWarII, a revival of Russian Patriotism and the Orthodox Church. Internationally, its foreign policy was inconsistent. Initially moderate compared to Lenin's and Trotsky's who both advocated world revolution, it later encouraged rapprochement between China's KMT and CCP, tried to form an early coalition against Hitler with France and England, supported the Spanish Republic against Franco, and forming a Popular Front between Communists and other social democrat and left parties, and yet on the eve of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, it stunned everyone with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between the USSR and Nazi Germany. Early observers such as Creator/GeorgeOrwell, contend that Stalinism is essentially a twisted mirror of capitalism, since it entrenched in power the bourgeois intellectuals just as firmly as capitalism entrenched the robber-baron, the monarch, and the aristocrat, often with even greater brutality. Later observers, with access to Russian archives, see Stalin as a strongman who revived, preserved and deepened Russia's client-patronage system from the Russian Empire and a state-builder in the mode of Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great.

to:

** Stalinism is characterized by harsh ruthless pragmatism, firm discipline, collectivization and mass indutrialization, strict control by party on all levers of government and society (Executive, Military, Judiciary, Press) and central authority, [[UtopiaJustifiesTheMeans all to better achieve the highly utopian socialist ideal of course]]. Socially, Stalin's isolationism, led to [[FullCircleRevolution revival of some of Russian traditions and a reversal of many of Lenin's social policies]], finally manifesting itself in the CultOfPersonality and mass PropagandaMachine and during WorldWarII, UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, a revival of Russian Patriotism and the Orthodox Church. Internationally, its foreign policy was inconsistent. Initially moderate compared to Lenin's and Trotsky's who both advocated world revolution, it later encouraged rapprochement between China's KMT and CCP, tried to form an early coalition against Hitler with France and England, supported the Spanish Republic against Franco, and forming a Popular Front between Communists and other social democrat and left parties, and yet on the eve of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, it stunned everyone with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between the USSR and Nazi Germany. Early observers such as Creator/GeorgeOrwell, contend that Stalinism is essentially a twisted mirror of capitalism, since it entrenched in power the bourgeois intellectuals just as firmly as capitalism entrenched the robber-baron, the monarch, and the aristocrat, often with even greater brutality. Later observers, with access to Russian archives, see Stalin as a strongman who revived, preserved and deepened Russia's client-patronage system from the Russian Empire and a state-builder in the mode of Ivan the Terrible and Peter the Great.
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