History UsefulNotes / PrehistoricLifeOtherSmallTheropods

28th Apr '15 3:50:20 AM Spinosegnosaurus77
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There is also a HilariousInHindsight detail about the “first-bird” argument. Many decades before the discovery of "Protoavis", in a time when birds were still thought to have directly descended from a bipedal archosaur (the aforementioned ''Saltoposuchus''), the similar name “Proavis” (“before birds”) was invented for an imaginative missing-link between ''Saltoposuchus'' and ''Archaeopteryx''. This critter was depicted as a tree-climbing animal with small wings and capable to glide from a tree to another, but still not capable to fly actively. Then, in year 2000, somewhere in the Chinese province of Liaoning, the "proavis" was ''really'' found... in the shape of the four-winged ''Microraptor''.

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There is also a HilariousInHindsight detail about the “first-bird” argument. Many decades before the discovery of "Protoavis", in a time when birds were still thought to have directly descended from a bipedal archosaur (the aforementioned (thecodonts like ''Euparkeria'' ''Saltoposuchus''), the similar name “Proavis” (“before birds”) was invented for an imaginative missing-link between ''Saltoposuchus'' thecodonts and ''Archaeopteryx''. This critter was depicted as a tree-climbing animal with small wings and capable to glide from a tree to another, but still not capable to fly actively. Then, in year 2000, somewhere in the Chinese province of Liaoning, the "proavis" was ''really'' found... in the shape of the four-winged ''Microraptor''.
28th Apr '15 3:49:28 AM Spinosegnosaurus77
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Yes, ''[[StockDinosaurs Archaeopteryx]]'' was not alone. There was also "Protoavis". Discovered in 1990, this very incomplete Triassic fossil from Texas has originated much discussion among paleontologists: Its describer thought that it, and not ''Archaeopteryx'', was the ''true'' "first bird", basing this upon some skeletal features. He chose to name its “sensational” find Protoavis, which just means [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin “first bird”]]. Not surprisingly, our animal has often been mentioned in books and documentaries in those years, even portrayed with small imaginary “wings” on its forearms.

to:

Yes, ''[[StockDinosaurs Archaeopteryx]]'' was not alone. There was also "Protoavis". Discovered in 1990, this very incomplete Triassic fossil from Texas has originated much discussion among paleontologists: Its describer thought that it, and not ''Archaeopteryx'', was the ''true'' ''the true '' "first bird", basing this upon some skeletal features. features (he thought it was older but more advanced than ''Archaeopteryx''). He chose to name its “sensational” find Protoavis, ''Protoavis'', which just means [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin “first bird”]]. Not surprisingly, our animal has often been mentioned in books and documentaries in those years, even portrayed with small imaginary “wings” on its forearms.
28th Apr '15 3:44:11 AM Spinosegnosaurus77
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The problem is, its skull is not preserved, and we don’t know if it was toothed or toothless. In old paintings, it was depicted ''Coelophysis''-like and toothed. Then, scientists proposed ''Elaphrosaurus'' was the ancestor of the ornithomimosaurs, and depicted it toothless. In the nineties, when theropod classification was strongly improved, ''Elaphrosaurus'' was recognized as a much more primitive animal related with ''Ceratosaurus'', and still is today: this caused its mouth to return toothed. However, the very recent discovery of ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limusaurus Limusaurus]]'', a close relative whose skull is quite reminescent of an ornithomimid's, has shuffled the cards again: now it’s possible ''Elaphrosaurus'' [[HilariousInHindsight really looked like an ostrich-mimic dinosaur]], in spite of not being closely related at all.

to:

The problem is, its skull is not preserved, and we don’t know if it was toothed or toothless. In old paintings, it was depicted ''Coelophysis''-like and toothed. Then, scientists proposed ''Elaphrosaurus'' was the ancestor of the ornithomimosaurs, and depicted it toothless. In the nineties, when theropod classification was strongly improved, ''Elaphrosaurus'' was recognized as a much more primitive animal related with ''Ceratosaurus'', and still is today: this caused its mouth to return toothed. However, the very recent discovery of ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limusaurus Limusaurus]]'', a close relative whose skull is quite reminescent of an ornithomimid's, has shuffled the cards again: now it’s possible ''Elaphrosaurus'' [[HilariousInHindsight really looked like an ostrich-mimic dinosaur]], in spite of not being closely related at all. \n In 2015 a theropod very similar to ''Limusaurus'' was found. Called ''Chilesaurus'', it was closer to the great megalosaurs & allosaurs.
23rd Dec '14 5:30:22 PM nombretomado
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But it was too late: the sensationalism which surrounded ''Guanlong'' as “[[TyrannosaurusRex The First Tyrannosaur]]!” soon gave it the general attention in media, to the point that it appeared as the protagonist of one documentary appositely dedicated to it (a very rare honor for every dinosaur that is not ''T.rex''). And then, ''Guanlong'' was also portrayed in the third movie within the ''IceAge'' series in place of the stock dromaeosaurids. Could it become a [[StockDinosaurs stock dinosaur]] in the next future?

to:

But it was too late: the sensationalism which surrounded ''Guanlong'' as “[[TyrannosaurusRex The First Tyrannosaur]]!” soon gave it the general attention in media, to the point that it appeared as the protagonist of one documentary appositely dedicated to it (a very rare honor for every dinosaur that is not ''T.rex''). And then, ''Guanlong'' was also portrayed in the third movie within the ''IceAge'' ''WesternAnimation/IceAge'' series in place of the stock dromaeosaurids. Could it become a [[StockDinosaurs stock dinosaur]] in the next future?
13th Dec '14 9:02:40 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
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'''The first jurassic Rex's ancestor?:''' ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokesosaurus Stokesosaurus]]''

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'''The first jurassic Rex's ancestor?:''' ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokesosaurus Stokesosaurus]]''
13th Dec '14 9:01:48 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
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However, in the last years ''Guanlong'' has lost the record in favor of ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proceratosaurus Proceratosaurus]]''. This was a Middle Jurassic European theropod found at the beginning of the XX century; as its only-known remain is a partial skull with a horn on the nose similar to the younger ''Ceratosaurus'' (hence its name, "before ''Ceratosaurus''"), it was classified as a basal tyrannosaur in the latest part of 2009. Another basal tyrannosauroid (possibly a relative of ''Proceratosaurus'') was the Late Jurassic ''Stokesosaurus'' (see further), known from North American remains since the 1970s. Some thought that ''Stokesosaurus'' was the same as the mysterious small theropod ''Iliosuchus''; in turn, the European ''Juratyrant'' was long thought to be a species of ''Stokesosaurus''.

to:

However, in the last years ''Guanlong'' has lost the record in favor of ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proceratosaurus Proceratosaurus]]''. This was a Middle Jurassic European theropod found at the beginning of the XX century; as its only-known remain is a partial skull with a horn on the nose similar to the younger ''Ceratosaurus'' (hence its name, "before ''Ceratosaurus''"), it was classified as a basal tyrannosaur in the latest part of 2009. Another basal tyrannosauroid (possibly a relative of ''Proceratosaurus'') was the Late Jurassic ''Stokesosaurus'' (see further), just below), known from North American remains since the 1970s. Some thought that ''Stokesosaurus'' was the same as the mysterious small theropod ''Iliosuchus''; in turn, the European ''Juratyrant'' was long thought to be a species of ''Stokesosaurus''.



'''The first jurassic Rex's ancestor?:''' ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokesosaurus Stokesosaurus]]''

Before ''Yutyrannus'', ''Guanlong'' or ''Dilong'', there was ''Stokesosaurus clevelandi''. This primitive tyrannosaur, discovered in Utah by William Lee Stokes (for whom the genus was named) and his assistant James Madsen, was named in ''1974''; years before those other tyrannosauroids. ''Stokesosaurus'' was also the first of the Jurassic tyrannosauroids to be found; it's only known from hip elements, but those hip elements have enough to distinct it from other Jurassic theropods, and other material once reffered to as ''Stokesosaurus langhami'' was risen into the genus ''Juratyrant'' later. ''Stokesosaurus'' was found in the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry in Utah, and thus is a genus from the Morrison Formation. ''Stokesosaurus'' was a proceratosaurid, and thus one of the earliest of the tyrannosaur radiation.

Because of it's scrappy remains, it's hard to get a clear image of what ''Stokesosaurus'' looked like; though closer relatives like ''Guanlong'' or ''Proceratosaurus'' can aid in piecing together what this Morrison forebear looked like. ''Stokesosaurus'' likely differed from more traditonal tyrannosaurs in a plethora of ways, if we take that into account; for one, it's skull would not be as large or tall. For another, it's arms would have been fairly elongate with three funtional fingers, each tipped with a claw. It's legs would probably have been quite elongate and gracile, unlike those of later tyrannosaurids, and it's neck was longer than other tyrannosaurs. And, considering it's relatives, ''Stokesosaurus'' may have sported some kind of cranial crest (though the fact that ''Juratyrant'' lacks a cranial crest could point to it not existing in ''Stokesosaurus'', either). ''Stokesosaurus'' likely wasn't the most powerful predator on the block in it's time; as it lived in the Morrison Formation, it was living alongside ''Ceratosaurus'', ''Marshosaurus'', ''Torvosaurus'' and ''Allosaurus''; all of whom were at least slightly bigger than ''Stokesosaurus''.

Even though ''Stokesosaurus'' itself was eclipsed, it's lineage would have the last laugh in the predatory dinosaur rush; the descendants of ''Stokesosaurus'', tyrannosaurids, became the top predator in North America and Asia for most of the Cretaceous Period, pushing out the other large predators before being wiped out in the Cretaceous/Palaeogene extinction 66 million years ago.

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'''Stokes' lizard: the first Jurassic tyrannosauroid:''' (''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokesosaurus Stokesosaurus]]''

Before ''Yutyrannus'', ''Guanlong'' or ''Dilong'', there was ''Stokesosaurus clevelandi''.

This primitive tyrannosaur, discovered in Utah by William Lee Stokes (for whom the genus was named) and his assistant James Madsen, was named in ''1974''; years before those other tyrannosauroids. ''Stokesosaurus'' was also the first of the Jurassic tyrannosauroids to be found; it's only known from hip elements, but those hip elements have enough to distinct it from other Jurassic theropods, and other material once reffered to as ''Stokesosaurus langhami'' was risen into the genus ''Juratyrant'' later. ''Stokesosaurus'' was found in the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry in Utah, and thus is a genus from the Morrison Formation. ''Stokesosaurus'' was a proceratosaurid, and thus one of the earliest of the tyrannosaur radiation.

Because of it's scrappy remains, it's hard to get a clear image of what ''Stokesosaurus'' looked like; though closer relatives like ''Guanlong'' or ''Proceratosaurus'' can aid in piecing together what this Morrison forebear looked like.

''Stokesosaurus'' likely differed from more traditonal tyrannosaurs in a plethora of ways, if we take that into account; for one, it's skull would not be as large or tall. For another, it's arms would have been fairly elongate with three funtional fingers, each tipped with a claw. It's legs would probably have been quite elongate and gracile, unlike those of later tyrannosaurids, and it's neck was longer than other tyrannosaurs. And, considering it's relatives, ''Stokesosaurus'' may have sported some kind of cranial crest (though the fact that ''Juratyrant'' lacks a cranial crest could point to it not existing in ''Stokesosaurus'', either).

''Stokesosaurus'' likely wasn't the biggest, baddest predator on the block in it's time; as it lived in the Morrison Formation, it was living alongside ''Ceratosaurus'', ''Marshosaurus'', ''Torvosaurus'' and ''Allosaurus''; all of whom were at least slightly bigger than ''Stokesosaurus''.

Even though ''Stokesosaurus'' itself was eclipsed, it's lineage would have the last laugh in the predatory dinosaur rush; the descendants of ''Stokesosaurus'', tyrannosaurids, became the top predator in North America and Asia for most of the Cretaceous Period, pushing out the other large predators before being wiped out in the Cretaceous/Palaeogene extinction 66 million years ago.

----
13th Dec '14 8:56:30 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
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However, in the last years ''Guanlong'' has lost the record in favor of ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proceratosaurus Proceratosaurus]]''. This was a Middle Jurassic European theropod found at the beginning of the XX century; as its only-known remain is a partial skull with a horn on the nose similar to the younger ''Ceratosaurus'' (hence its name, "before ''Ceratosaurus''"), it was classified as a basal tyrannosaur in the latest part of 2009. Another basal tyrannosauroid (possibly a relative of ''Proceratosaurus'') was the Late Jurassic ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokesaurus Stokesosaurus]]'', known from North American remains since the 1970s. Some thought that ''Stokesosaurus'' was the same as the mysterious small theropod ''Iliosuchus''; in turn, the European ''Juratyrant'' was long thought to be a species of ''Stokesosaurus''.

to:

However, in the last years ''Guanlong'' has lost the record in favor of ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proceratosaurus Proceratosaurus]]''. This was a Middle Jurassic European theropod found at the beginning of the XX century; as its only-known remain is a partial skull with a horn on the nose similar to the younger ''Ceratosaurus'' (hence its name, "before ''Ceratosaurus''"), it was classified as a basal tyrannosaur in the latest part of 2009. Another basal tyrannosauroid (possibly a relative of ''Proceratosaurus'') was the Late Jurassic ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokesaurus Stokesosaurus]]'', ''Stokesosaurus'' (see further), known from North American remains since the 1970s. Some thought that ''Stokesosaurus'' was the same as the mysterious small theropod ''Iliosuchus''; in turn, the European ''Juratyrant'' was long thought to be a species of ''Stokesosaurus''.



'''Stokes' lizard: the first Jurassic tyrannosauroid (''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokesosaurus Stokesosaurus]]'')'''

to:

'''Stokes' lizard: the first Jurassic tyrannosauroid tyrannosauroid:''' (''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stokesosaurus Stokesosaurus]]'')'''
Stokesosaurus]]''
17th Jul '14 7:06:38 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
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''Coelurus'' was often confused with ''Ornitholestes'' in the past, and arguably behaved in a similar way above. First found during the Bone Wars, ''Coelurus'' was the first small theropod discovered in USA, and has had a great historical relevance. As soon as the XIX century, ''Coelurus'' gave its name to the coelurosaurs, aka all small/slender theropods, countered against the carnosaurs aka large/robust theropods such as ''TyrannosaurusRex''. Carnosaurs & coelurosaurs were not originally thought to be closely related (with carnosaurs being closer to sauropods), but most later studies indeed believed distinct lineages of theropods, arisen independently in the Triassic and evolved through the epochs until the end of the Cretaceous with a succession of animals like these: COELUROSAURS: ''Coelophysis'' --> ''Compsognathus'' --> Dromeosaurids & Ornithomimids; CARNOSAURS: ''Ornithosuchus'' [[note]]At the time the 4 m long "crocodilian" ''Ornithosuchus'' was believed the ancestors of carnosaurs because of its bipedal stance, see "Non dinosaurian reptiles"[[/note]]--> ''Megalosaurus'' --> ''Allosaurus'' --> ''Tyrannosaurus'').

to:

''Coelurus'' was often confused with ''Ornitholestes'' in the past, and arguably behaved in a similar way above. First found during the Bone Wars, ''Coelurus'' was the first small theropod discovered in USA, and has had a great historical relevance. As soon as the XIX century, ''Coelurus'' gave its name to the coelurosaurs, aka all small/slender theropods, countered against the carnosaurs aka large/robust theropods such as ''TyrannosaurusRex''. Carnosaurs & coelurosaurs were not originally thought to be closely related (with carnosaurs being closer to sauropods), but most later studies indeed believed distinct lineages of theropods, arisen independently in the Triassic and evolved through the epochs until the end of the Cretaceous with a succession of animals like these: COELUROSAURS: ''Coelophysis'' --> ''Compsognathus'' --> Dromeosaurids & Ornithomimids; CARNOSAURS: ''Ornithosuchus'' [[note]]At the time the 4 m long "crocodilian" ''Ornithosuchus'' was believed the ancestors of carnosaurs because of its bipedal stance, see "Non dinosaurian reptiles"[[/note]]--> ''Megalosaurus'' --> ''Allosaurus'' --> ''Tyrannosaurus'').''Tyrannosaurus''.
17th Jul '14 7:05:55 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
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''Coelurus'' was often confused with ''Ornitholestes'' in the past, and arguably behaved in a similar way above. First found during the Bone Wars, ''Coelurus'' was the first small theropod discovered in USA, and has had a great historical relevance. As soon as the XIX century, ''Coelurus'' gave its name to the coelurosaurs, aka all small/slender theropods, countered against the carnosaurs aka large/robust theropods such as ''TyrannosaurusRex''. Carnosaurs & coelurosaurs were not originally thought to be closely related (with carnosaurs being closer to sauropods), but most later studies indeed believed distinct lineages of theropods, arisen independently in the Triassic and evolved through the epochs until the end of the Cretaceous with a succession like these: COELUROSAURS: ''Coelophysis'' --> ''Compsognathus'' --> Dromeosaurids & Ornithomimids; CARNOSAURS: ''Ornithosuchus'' [[note]]At the time the 4 m long "crocodilian" ''Ornithosuchus'' was believed the ancestors of carnosaurs because of its bipedal stance, see "Non dinosaurian reptiles"[[/note]]--> ''Megalosaurus'' --> ''Allosaurus'' --> ''Tyrannosaurus'').

to:

''Coelurus'' was often confused with ''Ornitholestes'' in the past, and arguably behaved in a similar way above. First found during the Bone Wars, ''Coelurus'' was the first small theropod discovered in USA, and has had a great historical relevance. As soon as the XIX century, ''Coelurus'' gave its name to the coelurosaurs, aka all small/slender theropods, countered against the carnosaurs aka large/robust theropods such as ''TyrannosaurusRex''. Carnosaurs & coelurosaurs were not originally thought to be closely related (with carnosaurs being closer to sauropods), but most later studies indeed believed distinct lineages of theropods, arisen independently in the Triassic and evolved through the epochs until the end of the Cretaceous with a succession of animals like these: COELUROSAURS: ''Coelophysis'' --> ''Compsognathus'' --> Dromeosaurids & Ornithomimids; CARNOSAURS: ''Ornithosuchus'' [[note]]At the time the 4 m long "crocodilian" ''Ornithosuchus'' was believed the ancestors of carnosaurs because of its bipedal stance, see "Non dinosaurian reptiles"[[/note]]--> ''Megalosaurus'' --> ''Allosaurus'' --> ''Tyrannosaurus'').
17th Jul '14 7:04:48 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
Is there an issue? Send a Message


''Coelurus'' was often confused with ''Ornitholestes'' in the past, and arguably behaved in a similar way above. First found during the Bone Wars, ''Coelurus'' was the first small theropod discovered in USA, and has had a great historical relevance. As soon as the XIX century, ''Coelurus'' gave its name to the coelurosaurs, aka all small/slender theropods, countered against the carnosaurs aka large/robust theropods such as ''TyrannosaurusRex''. Carnosaurs & coelurosaurs were not originally thought to be closely related (with carnosaurs being closer to sauropods), but most later studies indeed believed distinct lineages of theropods, arisen independently in the Triassic and evolved through the epochs until the end of the Cretaceous with a succession similar to a link of a chain (ex. COELUROSAURS: ''Coelophysis'' --> ''Compsognathus'' --> Dromeosaurids & Ornithomimids; CARNOSAURS: ''Ornithosuchus'' [[note]]At the time the 4 m long "crocodilian" ''Ornithosuchus'' was believed the ancestors of carnosaurs because of its bipedal stance, see "Non dinosaurian reptiles"[[/note]]--> ''Megalosaurus'' --> ''Allosaurus'' --> ''Tyrannosaurus'').

to:

''Coelurus'' was often confused with ''Ornitholestes'' in the past, and arguably behaved in a similar way above. First found during the Bone Wars, ''Coelurus'' was the first small theropod discovered in USA, and has had a great historical relevance. As soon as the XIX century, ''Coelurus'' gave its name to the coelurosaurs, aka all small/slender theropods, countered against the carnosaurs aka large/robust theropods such as ''TyrannosaurusRex''. Carnosaurs & coelurosaurs were not originally thought to be closely related (with carnosaurs being closer to sauropods), but most later studies indeed believed distinct lineages of theropods, arisen independently in the Triassic and evolved through the epochs until the end of the Cretaceous with a succession similar to a link of a chain (ex. like these: COELUROSAURS: ''Coelophysis'' --> ''Compsognathus'' --> Dromeosaurids & Ornithomimids; CARNOSAURS: ''Ornithosuchus'' [[note]]At the time the 4 m long "crocodilian" ''Ornithosuchus'' was believed the ancestors of carnosaurs because of its bipedal stance, see "Non dinosaurian reptiles"[[/note]]--> ''Megalosaurus'' --> ''Allosaurus'' --> ''Tyrannosaurus'').
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