History UsefulNotes / PrehistoricLifeLargeTheropods

7th Jul '16 1:06:13 PM schoi30
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'''Smaller Tyrants:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albertosaurus Albertosaurus]]''


''Albertosaurus'' is the most abundant tyrannosaur in fossil record, and also the second big-sized theropod by wealth of fossil material, just after the unbeatable ''Allosaurus''. And yet, ''Albertosaurus'' has not gained much attention in films and comics as ''Tyrannosaurus'' - tyrannosaurids are so similar to each other that if one appears in cinema, people will always call it ''T. rex''. To compensate, ''Albertosaurus'' is a very common sight in many paleo-books, just as common as several [[StockDinosaurs Stock Theropods]].

Naturally, it is portrayed as the superpredator of its time, North America 80-75 million years ago, 10 million years before ''T. rex''. The menu of an ''Albertosaurus'' was probably not monotonous; several kinds of herbivores roamed North American plains at the time, from ceratopsians to hadrosaurs, from the armored ankylosaurs to small swift "hypsilophodonts" and ornithomimids. Even though tyrannosaurids are classically shown [[RuleOfCool battling some powerful prey]], they more probably hunted young individuals more often, to avoid the risk of fatal injuries or consequent infections.

Compared with the legendary ''TyrannosaurusRex'', ''Albertosaurus'' was like a leopard compared with a lion; smaller (25 ft long against the 40 ft of ''T. rex''), it was also more slender, with longer, thinner jaws, smaller teeth, and more agile legs apt to higher top speeds than ''Tyrannosaurus''. Even the herbivores which shared their world were conformed to these predators; those which lived alongside ''T. rex'' were bigger, slower and more powerful than those living with ''Albertosaurus''.

''Albertosaurus'' was also the first dinosaur ever discovered in Canada, at the end of the XIX century, but was named only in 1905 (incidentally, the same year as ''Tyrannosaurus'') [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin after the Canadian province of Alberta]], where most of the abundant Canadian dinos have been discovered. ''Albertosaurus'' has also contributed indirectly to the popular image of tyrannosaurs. The forelimbs of ''Albertosaurus'' have been known since its very first find, while those of ''T. rex'' were first discovered only in the 1990s; for almost a century the well-known two-fingered hands of "rex" have been modeled upon those of ''Albertosaurus'', debunking at the time the [[DeadHorseTrope old pop-cultural]] HandWave about portraying three-fingered tyrannosaurs. [[note]]Beware, we’re talking about ''functional'' fingers, not the so-often cited third vestigial digit present in ''T. rex''[[/note]]

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19th Apr '16 11:29:56 AM erforce
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Paleontologists are not necessarily those [[{{Nerd}} nerdy people]] one could believe. Many do fit more in the AdventurerArchaeologist and BadassBookworm tropes - think about the famed ''Australopithecus'' specimen nicknamed [[Music/TheBeatles Lucy]]; the cowboy-looking Bob Bakker; the “Bone Wars” fought by two archenemical guys…. and above all, [[IndianaJones Roy Chapman Andrews]]. And yes, paleontologists ''do'' consume pop-cultural products just like all the other people.

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Paleontologists are not necessarily those [[{{Nerd}} nerdy people]] one could believe. Many do fit more in the AdventurerArchaeologist and BadassBookworm tropes - think about the famed ''Australopithecus'' specimen nicknamed [[Music/TheBeatles Lucy]]; the cowboy-looking Bob Bakker; the “Bone Wars” fought by two archenemical guys…. and above all, [[IndianaJones [[Franchise/IndianaJones Roy Chapman Andrews]]. And yes, paleontologists ''do'' consume pop-cultural products just like all the other people.
2nd Feb '16 3:05:16 PM phoenix
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''Acrocanthosaurus'' lived in Early Cretaceous North America, rather between ''Allosaurus'' and ''Tyrannosaurus'' in the time scale. Apart from the “sail”, it was similar to a robust ''Allosaurus'' in shape, and with its 12 m long body was as big as ''TyrannosaurusRex'', albeit of lighter build. One could even say ''Acrocanthosaurus'' [[AllYourPowersCombined combined the best powers]] of the four most popular giant theropods. The size of "rex", the overall robustness of “Giga”, the powerful three-clawed forelimbs of “Allo”, and a crested back like “Spino”. And yet, have you sometimes seen this dinosaur outside dino-books (apart from the [[DocumentaryofLies pseudo-docu]] ''Series/MonstersResurrected'')? Things get even worse if you think ''Acrocanthosaurus'' has been known since the 1940s from rather complete remains, was the top-predator of Early Cretaceous North America, and shared the same habitat with another famous (but much smaller) “killer dinosaur”, ''Deinonychus''. However, Bob Bakker’s scientific novel ''Literature/RaptorRed'' does justice to ''Acrocanthosaurus'', portraying it as the great predator of the world in which ''Utahraptor'' are the main characters.

to:

''Acrocanthosaurus'' lived in Early Cretaceous North America, rather between ''Allosaurus'' and ''Tyrannosaurus'' in the time scale. Apart from the “sail”, it was similar to a robust ''Allosaurus'' in shape, and with its 12 m long body was as big as ''TyrannosaurusRex'', albeit of lighter build. One could even say ''Acrocanthosaurus'' [[AllYourPowersCombined combined the best powers]] of the four most popular giant theropods. The size of "rex", the overall robustness of “Giga”, the powerful three-clawed forelimbs of “Allo”, and a crested back like “Spino”. And yet, have you sometimes seen this dinosaur outside dino-books (apart from the [[DocumentaryofLies pseudo-docu]] pseudo-docu ''Series/MonstersResurrected'')? Things get even worse if you think ''Acrocanthosaurus'' has been known since the 1940s from rather complete remains, was the top-predator of Early Cretaceous North America, and shared the same habitat with another famous (but much smaller) “killer dinosaur”, ''Deinonychus''. However, Bob Bakker’s scientific novel ''Literature/RaptorRed'' does justice to ''Acrocanthosaurus'', portraying it as the great predator of the world in which ''Utahraptor'' are the main characters.
13th Jul '15 3:19:43 AM SebastianJS
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The most long-standing basal tyrannosauroid is ''Dryptosaurus'', the first theropod discovered in North America from not-only-teeth, in 1866, before the Bone Wars. Because of its apparently untyrannosauroidian nature and scant remains, ''Dryptosaurus'' was long considered a hard-to-classify theropod. After the discovery of North American forms like ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appalachiosaurus Appalachiosaurus]]'' ([[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin guess where this one has been discovered]]), ''Dryptosaurus'' has consistently been placed in the tyrannosauroid realm. However, it was more slender than tyrannosaurids, and we don’t know if it had two- or three-fingered hands (they have never been found). ''Dryptosaurus'' has also the distinction to be one of the few dinosaurs discovered in eastern USA, contrary to the quasi-totality of North American dinosaurs. But the main distinction of ''Dryptosaurus'' is to be the first dinosaur ever depicted by the famous paleo-artist Charles Knight (when the dinosaur was still called “Laelaps”), with two individuals fighting each other. ''Dryptosaurus'' had long arms with huge claws, in dramatic contrast to tis relatives, and this meant a completely different hunting style; instead of attacking smaller game like all of the large tyrannosaurids, it could kill animals larger than itself.

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The most long-standing basal tyrannosauroid is ''Dryptosaurus'', the first theropod discovered in North America from not-only-teeth, in 1866, before the Bone Wars. Because of its apparently untyrannosauroidian nature and scant remains, ''Dryptosaurus'' was long considered a hard-to-classify theropod. After the discovery of North American forms like ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Appalachiosaurus Appalachiosaurus]]'' ([[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin guess where this one has been discovered]]), ''Dryptosaurus'' has consistently been placed in the tyrannosauroid realm. However, it was more slender than tyrannosaurids, and we don’t know if it had two- or three-fingered hands (they have never been found). ''Dryptosaurus'' has also the distinction to be one of the few dinosaurs discovered in eastern USA, contrary to the quasi-totality of North American dinosaurs. But the main distinction of ''Dryptosaurus'' is to be the first dinosaur ever depicted by the famous paleo-artist Charles Knight (when the dinosaur was still called “Laelaps”), with two individuals fighting each other. ''Dryptosaurus'' had long arms with huge claws, in dramatic contrast to tis relatives, and this meant a completely different hunting style; instead of attacking smaller game like all of the large tyrannosaurids, it could kill animals larger than itself.
its relatives.
12th Jul '15 1:02:48 AM Morgenthaler
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Many abelisaurids showed some kind of ornamentation on their skull, though none had the "bovine" horn of a ''Carnotaurus''. ''Majungasaurus'' is an excellent example of this. Found in Madagascar, it was not bigger than ''Carnotaurus'' and shared a similar overall look, but with shorter legs and ''one single horn'' atop of its head. This dinosaur has had a curious ScienceMarchesOn story: initially only its blunt horn was known, and because of its shape was thought to be the domehead of a tiny pachycephalosaur called “Majungatholus”. Then, this name was applied to the carnivore until few years ago; for example, in ''JurassicFightClub'' this theropod appears named “Majungatholus”. Here, two adults are shown cannibalizing a young of their own species; this was based upon some marks of teeth on the bones of young ''Majungasaurus'' specimens, whose shape match the teeth of adult ''Majungasaurus''.

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Many abelisaurids showed some kind of ornamentation on their skull, though none had the "bovine" horn of a ''Carnotaurus''. ''Majungasaurus'' is an excellent example of this. Found in Madagascar, it was not bigger than ''Carnotaurus'' and shared a similar overall look, but with shorter legs and ''one single horn'' atop of its head. This dinosaur has had a curious ScienceMarchesOn story: initially only its blunt horn was known, and because of its shape was thought to be the domehead of a tiny pachycephalosaur called “Majungatholus”. Then, this name was applied to the carnivore until few years ago; for example, in ''JurassicFightClub'' ''Series/JurassicFightClub'' this theropod appears named “Majungatholus”. Here, two adults are shown cannibalizing a young of their own species; this was based upon some marks of teeth on the bones of young ''Majungasaurus'' specimens, whose shape match the teeth of adult ''Majungasaurus''.
31st May '15 1:46:26 AM SparkyLurkdragon
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''Acrocanthosaurus'' lived in Early Cretaceous North America, rather between ''Allosaurus'' and ''Tyrannosaurus'' in the time scale. Apart from the “sail”, it was similar to a robust ''Allosaurus'' in shape, and with its 12 m long body was as big as ''TyrannosaurusRex'', albeit of lighter build. One could even say ''Acrocanthosaurus'' [[AllYourPowersCombined combined the best powers]] of the four most popular giant theropods. The size of "rex", the overall robustness of “Giga”, the powerful three-clawed forelimbs of “Allo”, and a crested back like “Spino”. And yet, have you sometimes seen this dinosaur outside dino-books (apart from the [[DocumentaryofLies pseudo-docu]] ''Series/MonstersResurrected'')? Things get even worse if you think ''Acrocanthosaurus'' has been known since the 1940s from rather complete remains, was the top-predator of Early Cretaceous North America, and shared the same habitat with another famous (but much smaller) “killer dinosaur”, ''Deinonychus''. However, Bob Bakker’s scientific novel ''RaptorRed'' does justice to ''Acrocanthosaurus'', portraying it as the great predator of the world in which ''Utahraptor'' are the main characters.

to:

''Acrocanthosaurus'' lived in Early Cretaceous North America, rather between ''Allosaurus'' and ''Tyrannosaurus'' in the time scale. Apart from the “sail”, it was similar to a robust ''Allosaurus'' in shape, and with its 12 m long body was as big as ''TyrannosaurusRex'', albeit of lighter build. One could even say ''Acrocanthosaurus'' [[AllYourPowersCombined combined the best powers]] of the four most popular giant theropods. The size of "rex", the overall robustness of “Giga”, the powerful three-clawed forelimbs of “Allo”, and a crested back like “Spino”. And yet, have you sometimes seen this dinosaur outside dino-books (apart from the [[DocumentaryofLies pseudo-docu]] ''Series/MonstersResurrected'')? Things get even worse if you think ''Acrocanthosaurus'' has been known since the 1940s from rather complete remains, was the top-predator of Early Cretaceous North America, and shared the same habitat with another famous (but much smaller) “killer dinosaur”, ''Deinonychus''. However, Bob Bakker’s scientific novel ''RaptorRed'' ''Literature/RaptorRed'' does justice to ''Acrocanthosaurus'', portraying it as the great predator of the world in which ''Utahraptor'' are the main characters.
4th May '15 12:44:58 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
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Since 2009 or so, ''Megaraptor'' is classified as an allosauroid, more precisely as a very specialized member of the family Neovenatoridae (here called "megaraptorans").[[note]]However, some workers think that megaraptorans may be coelurosaurs and possibly even tyrannosaurs.[[/note]]This recently-created family is based on ''Neovenator'' (“new hunter”) , a much more normally-looking 7.5 long theropod which lived in Early Cretaceous England alongside former ''Iguanodon'' species ''Mantellisaurus'' as well as ''Iguanodon'' itself. Discovered in the 1990s, ''Neovenator'' (and the aforementioned ''Valdoraptor'') unwillingly made a HilariousInHindsight case. It has indirectly made [[TruthInTelevision Truth In Books]] a classic in old dinosaurian portraits: that is, the battle between ''Iguanodon'' and an [[AnachronismStew anachronistic]] ''Megalosaurus'', which in RealLife lived in the Middle Jurassic.

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Since 2009 or so, ''Megaraptor'' is classified as an allosauroid, more precisely as a very specialized member of the family Neovenatoridae (here called "megaraptorans").[[note]]However, some workers think that megaraptorans may be coelurosaurs and possibly even tyrannosaurs.[[/note]]This recently-created family is based on ''Neovenator'' (“new hunter”) , a much more normally-looking 7.5 long theropod which lived in Early Cretaceous England alongside former ''Iguanodon'' species ''Mantellisaurus'' as well as ''Iguanodon'' itself. Discovered in the 1990s, ''Neovenator'' (and the aforementioned ''Valdoraptor'') unwillingly made a HilariousInHindsight case. It has indirectly made [[TruthInTelevision Truth In Books]] a classic in old dinosaurian portraits: that is, the battle between ''Iguanodon'' and an [[AnachronismStew anachronistic]] ''Megalosaurus'', which in RealLife lived in the Middle Jurassic.
4th May '15 12:39:52 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
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Still another close kin has been described as a really huge animal, up to 15 m long, even bigger than an average ''T. rex'': "Epanterias". The astonishing thing is, "Epanterias" is known to science since as early as year 1878, ''25 years'' before ''T. rex'' was discovered! This awesome oversight is due to its extremely scant remains (to the point it was originally considered a sauropod). But the main point is another: "Epanterias" is very likely another overgrown ''Allosaurus'' species as well. If true, then our ''Allosaurus'' would deserve to be considered a real rival of ''T. rex'', "Giga", and "Spino" for the “King of Dinosaurs” title, and whether or not this was true, we have at least one new contender in the form of the fearsome ''Saurophaganax''.

to:

Still another close kin has been described as a really huge animal, up to 15 m long, even bigger than an average ''T. rex'': "Epanterias". The astonishing thing is, "Epanterias" is known to science since as early as year 1878, ''25 years'' before ''T. rex'' was discovered! This awesome oversight is due to its extremely scant remains (to the point it was originally considered a sauropod). But the main point is another: "Epanterias" is very likely another overgrown ''Allosaurus'' species as well. If true, then our ''Allosaurus'' would deserve to be considered a real rival of ''T. rex'', "Giga", and "Spino" for the “King of Dinosaurs” title, and whether or not this was true, we have at least one new contender in the form of the fearsome ''Saurophaganax''.
4th May '15 12:38:12 AM laplaneteetlesoleil
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Still another close kin has been described as a really huge animal, 12 m long, around the size of a ''T. rex'': "Epanterias". The astonishing thing is, "Epanterias" is known to science since as early as year 1878, ''25 years'' before ''T. rex'' was discovered! This awesome oversight is due to its extremely scant remains (to the point it was originally considered a sauropod). But the main point is another: "Epanterias" is very likely another overgrown ''Allosaurus'' species as well. If true, then our ''Allosaurus'' would deserve to be considered a real rival of ''T. rex'', "Giga", and "Spino" for the “King of Dinosaurs” title, and whether or not this was true, we have at least one new contender in the form of the fearsome ''Saurophaganax''.

to:

Still another close kin has been described as a really huge animal, 12 up to 15 m long, around the size of a even bigger than an average ''T. rex'': "Epanterias". The astonishing thing is, "Epanterias" is known to science since as early as year 1878, ''25 years'' before ''T. rex'' was discovered! This awesome oversight is due to its extremely scant remains (to the point it was originally considered a sauropod). But the main point is another: "Epanterias" is very likely another overgrown ''Allosaurus'' species as well. If true, then our ''Allosaurus'' would deserve to be considered a real rival of ''T. rex'', "Giga", and "Spino" for the “King of Dinosaurs” title, and whether or not this was true, we have at least one new contender in the form of the fearsome ''Saurophaganax''.
8th Feb '15 12:56:58 PM Bk-notburgerking
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Among other carcharodontosaurids, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrannotitan Tyrannotitan]]'' is worthy of note because of its name “titanic tyrant”, [[RuleOfCool the most "rex"-like]] of all theropods, even though its owner, being an allosauroid, was ''not'' so closely related with ''[[TyrannosaurusRex T. rex]]''. An early Cretaceous animal, it was more primitive than the examples above, but still with a fully carcharodontosaurian skull. Even more primitive are ''Sauroniops'' ("[[Literature/TheLordOfTheRings eye of Sauron]]"), ''Eocarcharia'' ("dawn carcharodontosaurid") and ''Veterupristisaurus'' ("old shark reptile"), all from Africa.

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Among other carcharodontosaurids, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrannotitan Tyrannotitan]]'' is worthy of note because of its name “titanic tyrant”, [[RuleOfCool the most "rex"-like]] of all theropods, even though its owner, being an allosauroid, was ''not'' so closely related with ''[[TyrannosaurusRex T. rex]]''. An early Cretaceous animal, it was more primitive than the examples above, but still with a fully carcharodontosaurian skull. Even more primitive are ''Sauroniops'' ("[[Literature/TheLordOfTheRings eye of Sauron]]"), ''Eocarcharia'' ("dawn carcharodontosaurid") and ''Veterupristisaurus'' ("old shark reptile"), all from Africa.
Africa.

Carcharodontosaurids evolved specifically to tack the most challenging of all prey animals, the giant sauropods that weighed several dozen tons apiece. Their method of attack was DeathOfAThousandCuts, using their wide-opening jaws and shark-like teeth to tear off huge chunks of flesh off the living sauropod until it was literally EatenAlive and died of trauma. Other large theropods, such as T. rex, were unable to kill sauropods, as their stronger bite worked against them in opening the mouth wide enough.
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