History UsefulNotes / PrehistoricLifeLargeTheropods

4th Mar '18 4:56:24 PM nombretomado
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From Middle Jurassic Europe like ''Megalosaurus'' but smaller-sized (being 2 m shorter and more slender), its well-preserved skeleton is actually from a juvenile (some have suggested it to be the same as the more poorly known ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnosaurus Magnosaurus]]'', also a former ''Megalosaurus'' species, but it may be more primitive)[[note]]Curiously, both ''Magnosaurus'' and ''Megalosaurus'' mean "big lizard", but ''magno-'' is Latin, ''megalo-'' Greek[[/note]]. As the most well-preserved European large Jurassic theropod (two-thirds of the skeleton is known, compared to about half for ''Megalosaurus'' itself), people have long tried to determine its exact affinities. Some early workers thought it was an intermediate form between megalosaurs and allosaurs, but since the rise of more thorough analyses, it has consistently come out as a true megalosaur. ''Eustreptospondylus'' was also chosen as the go-to dinosaur in the episode of the 1999 docu ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' dedicated to marine reptiles… [[AnachronismStew somehow living in the Late instead of the Middle Jurassic]]. Here our megalosaur is depicted as an inoffensive scavenger which has to hang on its world made by small islands, eating the occasional carrion the sea brings on the shore. But the most remembered scene is at the beginning: a specimen of ''Eustreptospondylus'' [[RedHerring apparently described]] as “the most fearsome predator of the Jurassic”… [[WorfEffect only to be eaten alive]] by the gigantic… erhm… OVERSIZED marine reptile ''[[StockDinosaursNonDinosaurs Liopleurodon]]''.

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From Middle Jurassic Europe like ''Megalosaurus'' but smaller-sized (being 2 m shorter and more slender), its well-preserved skeleton is actually from a juvenile (some have suggested it to be the same as the more poorly known ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnosaurus Magnosaurus]]'', also a former ''Megalosaurus'' species, but it may be more primitive)[[note]]Curiously, both ''Magnosaurus'' and ''Megalosaurus'' mean "big lizard", but ''magno-'' is Latin, ''megalo-'' Greek[[/note]]. As the most well-preserved European large Jurassic theropod (two-thirds of the skeleton is known, compared to about half for ''Megalosaurus'' itself), people have long tried to determine its exact affinities. Some early workers thought it was an intermediate form between megalosaurs and allosaurs, but since the rise of more thorough analyses, it has consistently come out as a true megalosaur. ''Eustreptospondylus'' was also chosen as the go-to dinosaur in the episode of the 1999 docu ''Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs'' dedicated to marine reptiles… [[AnachronismStew somehow living in the Late instead of the Middle Jurassic]]. Here our megalosaur is depicted as an inoffensive scavenger which has to hang on its world made by small islands, eating the occasional carrion the sea brings on the shore. But the most remembered scene is at the beginning: a specimen of ''Eustreptospondylus'' [[RedHerring apparently described]] as “the most fearsome predator of the Jurassic”… [[WorfEffect only to be eaten alive]] by the gigantic… erhm… OVERSIZED marine reptile ''[[StockDinosaursNonDinosaurs ''[[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursNonDinosaurs Liopleurodon]]''.
28th Jan '18 7:34:00 AM Sleeping_Beauty
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In 1995, an unexpected find deeply shook the paleontological world as well as the dino-fandom. The obscure-at-the-time ''Carcharodontosaurus'' has revealed not to be a midsized, unclassifiable theropod as always thought (it was originally considered a megalosaur, but others thought it was an allosaur, an intermediate form between allosaurs & tyrannosaurs or even a completely unique theropod that returned to the seas). It was a much more badass animal, whose name “great white shark lizard” has revealed [[HilariousInHindsight stunningly apt]]. A predatory dinosaur ''even bigger than T. rex''!

[[RuleOfCool Obviously]], popular media ballyhooed the discover a lot… totally forgetting that some other giant theropods were already ''TyrannosaurusRex'' contestants for the “biggest” title much before 1995! ''Spinosaurus'' makes the most striking example, but there is also the obscure ''Epanterias'' (almost certainly just an overgrown ''Allosaurus''); not to mention ''Deinocheirus'' and ''Therizinosaurus'' (see “Bird-like theropods”). But the glory of ''Carcharodontosaurus'' didn’t last a long time; merely one year later, it was surpassed by the just-discovered, almost-identical, ''only a bit bigger'', and now stock, ''[[StockDinosaurs Giganotosaurus]]''. Our “white shark dino” was a quite unlucky dinosaur, really.

to:

In 1995, an unexpected find deeply shook the paleontological world as well as the dino-fandom. The obscure-at-the-time ''Carcharodontosaurus'' has revealed not to be a midsized, unclassifiable theropod as always thought (it was originally considered a megalosaur, but others thought it was an allosaur, an intermediate form between allosaurs & tyrannosaurs or even a completely unique theropod that returned to the seas). It was a much more badass animal, whose name “great white shark “shark toothed lizard” has revealed [[HilariousInHindsight stunningly apt]]. A predatory dinosaur ''even bigger than T. rex''!

[[RuleOfCool Obviously]], popular media ballyhooed the discover a lot… totally forgetting that some other giant theropods were already ''TyrannosaurusRex'' contestants for the “biggest” title much before 1995! ''Spinosaurus'' makes the most striking example, but there is also the obscure ''Epanterias'' (almost certainly just an overgrown ''Allosaurus''); not to mention ''Deinocheirus'' and ''Therizinosaurus'' (see “Bird-like theropods”). But the glory of ''Carcharodontosaurus'' didn’t last a long time; merely one year later, it was surpassed by the just-discovered, almost-identical, ''only a bit bigger'', and now stock, ''[[StockDinosaurs Giganotosaurus]]''. Our “white shark “shark toothed dino” was a quite unlucky dinosaur, really.



Found only in 2006 in Argentina, it was the closest relative of ''Giganotosaurus'', and may have been its descendant in RealLife. Just as big as “Giga”, ''Mapusaurus'' was almost identical to it and to ''Carcharodontosaurus'', with huge skull filled with crests and protuberances, and the usual powerful three-fingered hands of all allosauroids. However, the most interesting thing is that its fossils seem to show proof of gregarious behavior. Even though this doesn’t automatically indicate “pack hunting”, many have now fun to imagine awesome scenarios, with pack of ''Mapusaurus'' killing together the immense sauropods of the time like ''[[StockDinosaurs Argentinosaurus]]''. This behaviour was also speculatively attributed to ''Giganotosaurus'' in the “Land of Giants” episode of the ''[[Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs WWD]]'' series… [[HilariousInHindsight four years before]] ''[[HilariousInHindsight Mapusaurus]]'' [[HilariousInHindsight was discovered]]!

Among other carcharodontosaurids, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrannotitan Tyrannotitan]]'' is worthy of note because of its name “titanic tyrant”, [[RuleOfCool the most "rex"-like]] of all theropods, even though its owner, being an allosauroid, was ''not'' so closely related with ''[[TyrannosaurusRex T. rex]]''. An early Cretaceous animal, it was more primitive than the examples above, but still with a fully carcharodontosaurian skull. Even more primitive are ''Sauroniops'' ("[[Literature/TheLordOfTheRings eye of Sauron]]"), ''Eocarcharia'' ("dawn carcharodontosaurid") and ''Veterupristisaurus'' ("old shark reptile"), all from Africa.

Carcharodontosaurids evolved specifically to tack the most challenging of all prey animals, the giant sauropods that weighed several dozen tons apiece. Their method of attack was DeathOfAThousandCuts, using their wide-opening jaws and shark-like teeth to tear off huge chunks of flesh off the living sauropod until it was literally EatenAlive and died of trauma. Other large theropods, such as T. rex, were unable to kill sauropods, as their stronger bite worked against them in opening the mouth wide enough.

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Found only in 2006 in Argentina, it was the closest relative of ''Giganotosaurus'', and may have been its descendant in RealLife. Just Almost as big as “Giga”, ''Mapusaurus'' was almost identical to it and to ''Carcharodontosaurus'', with huge skull filled with crests and protuberances, and the usual powerful three-fingered hands of all allosauroids. However, the most interesting thing is that its fossils seem to show proof of gregarious behavior. Even though this doesn’t automatically indicate “pack hunting”, many have now fun to imagine awesome scenarios, with pack of ''Mapusaurus'' killing together the immense sauropods of the time like ''[[StockDinosaurs Argentinosaurus]]''. This behaviour was also speculatively attributed to ''Giganotosaurus'' in the “Land of Giants” episode of the ''[[Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs WWD]]'' series… [[HilariousInHindsight four years before]] ''[[HilariousInHindsight Mapusaurus]]'' [[HilariousInHindsight was discovered]]!

Among other carcharodontosaurids, ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrannotitan Tyrannotitan]]'' is worthy of note because of its name “titanic tyrant”, “tyrant titan”, [[RuleOfCool the most "rex"-like]] of all theropods, even though its owner, being an allosauroid, was ''not'' so closely related with ''[[TyrannosaurusRex T. rex]]''. An early Cretaceous animal, it was more primitive than the examples above, but still with a fully carcharodontosaurian skull. Even more primitive are ''Sauroniops'' ("[[Literature/TheLordOfTheRings eye of Sauron]]"), ''Eocarcharia'' ("dawn carcharodontosaurid") and ''Veterupristisaurus'' ("old shark reptile"), all from Africa.

Carcharodontosaurids evolved specifically to tack the most challenging of all prey animals, the giant sauropods that weighed several dozen tons apiece. Their method of attack was DeathOfAThousandCuts, using their wide-opening jaws and shark-like teeth to tear off huge chunks of flesh off the living sauropod until it was literally EatenAlive and died of trauma.shock and blood loss. Other large theropods, such as T. rex, were unable to kill sauropods, as their stronger bite worked against them in opening the mouth wide enough.



However, spinosaurids as a group are recognized only since the late 1980s/early 1990s; before, the only-two known members, ''[[StockDinosaurs Spinosaurus]]'' and ''[[StockDinosaurs Baryonyx]]'', were believed so different that each was put in its own family. In year 1998, a third spinosaurid was discovered in Early Cretaceous North Africa: ''Suchomimus'', “the imitator of the crocodile”. 11 m long, bigger than ''Baryonyx'' but smaller than the unbeatable ''Spinosaurus'', has long been the only dinosaur ending in -mimus that is definitely not a small bird-like coelurosaur. Very similar to ''Baryonyx'' (indeed, it and/or its fragmentary neighbor ''Cristatusaurus'' ["crested reptile"] may actually be species of that dinosaur), ''Suchomimus'' was probably a fishing specialist as well, but was distinct by spotting a noticeable spinal ridge analogue to ''Spinosaurus'', though far shorter. Since its discovery this dinosaur has gained much consideration: as an example, both ''Suchomimus'' and ''Baryonyx'' are cited in ''Film/JurassicParkIII'', when the little boy asks Alan Grant about spinosaurids. There is also a debate among dino-fans about the true identity of Rudy (the villain of ''WesternAnimation/IceAge 3''), and many think is a ''Suchomimus''; actually he's a ''Baryonyx'', but he’s so modified that correct identification is hard without asking the WordOfGod.

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However, spinosaurids as a group are recognized only since the late 1980s/early 1990s; before, the only-two known members, ''[[StockDinosaurs Spinosaurus]]'' and ''[[StockDinosaurs Baryonyx]]'', were believed so different that each was put in its own family. In year 1998, a third spinosaurid was discovered in Early Cretaceous North Africa: ''Suchomimus'', “the imitator of the crocodile”. 11 m long, bigger than ''Baryonyx'' but smaller than the unbeatable ''Spinosaurus'', has long been the only dinosaur ending in -mimus that is definitely not a small bird-like coelurosaur. Very similar to ''Baryonyx'' (indeed, it and/or its fragmentary neighbor ''Cristatusaurus'' ["crested reptile"] may actually be species of that dinosaur), ''Suchomimus'' was probably a fishing specialist as well, but was distinct by spotting a noticeable spinal ridge analogue to ''Spinosaurus'', though far shorter. Since its discovery this dinosaur has gained much consideration: as an example, both ''Suchomimus'' and ''Baryonyx'' are cited in ''Film/JurassicParkIII'', when the little boy Billy Brennan asks Alan Grant about spinosaurids.the dinosaur who just attacked them, which was a ''Spinosaurus''. There is also a debate among dino-fans about the true identity of Rudy (the villain of ''WesternAnimation/IceAge 3''), and many think is a ''Suchomimus''; actually he's a ''Baryonyx'', but he’s so modified that correct identification is hard without asking the WordOfGod.
9th Jul '17 8:37:20 AM nombretomado
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The afrovenatorines also include the only Asian megalosaurid, ''Leshansaurus'' (originally considered a metriacanthosaurid allosauroid). These two, known from fairly good skeletons, are far more complete known than most other afrovenatorines. For example, ''Piveteausaurus'' ("Piveteau's reptile") is known only from a ''Ceratosaurus''-like braincase, which has caused much confusion (some thought the entire animal was smaller than a man, while others thought it was actually ''Eustreptospondylus''). The original skeleton of ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poekilopleuron Poekilopleuron]]'' ("varying ribs") was lost in WorldWarTwo, and the remaining specimens are also very fragmentary (in fact, it may even be an allosauroid); former ''Poekilopleuron'' species ''Dubreuillosaurus'' ("reptile of the Dubreuillo family") is known from a pretty decent skull. Interesting that ''Poekilopleuron'' was one of the very first dinosaurs described (before Owen coined the world "Dinosaur"), and that was also used as an early synonym of ''Allosaurus'' (just like what happened to ''"Antrodemus"'', see [[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs Stock Dinosaurs]]).

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The afrovenatorines also include the only Asian megalosaurid, ''Leshansaurus'' (originally considered a metriacanthosaurid allosauroid). These two, known from fairly good skeletons, are far more complete known than most other afrovenatorines. For example, ''Piveteausaurus'' ("Piveteau's reptile") is known only from a ''Ceratosaurus''-like braincase, which has caused much confusion (some thought the entire animal was smaller than a man, while others thought it was actually ''Eustreptospondylus''). The original skeleton of ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poekilopleuron Poekilopleuron]]'' ("varying ribs") was lost in WorldWarTwo, UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, and the remaining specimens are also very fragmentary (in fact, it may even be an allosauroid); former ''Poekilopleuron'' species ''Dubreuillosaurus'' ("reptile of the Dubreuillo family") is known from a pretty decent skull. Interesting that ''Poekilopleuron'' was one of the very first dinosaurs described (before Owen coined the world "Dinosaur"), and that was also used as an early synonym of ''Allosaurus'' (just like what happened to ''"Antrodemus"'', see [[UsefulNotes/StockDinosaursTrueDinosaurs Stock Dinosaurs]]).
6th Jul '17 9:56:19 AM ImperialMajestyXO
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Of course the most portrayed large predatory theropods in documentary media are the Stock ones: the seven classic "carnosaurs" above (already common in dino-books since TheEighties) plus ''Carnotaurus'' & ''Giganotosaurus'' that have become common since TheNineties (when the word "carnosaur" had already assumed its current meaning). Other big meat-eaters, however, have also been common sights. Among the North-American ones, it's expecially common the "small" tyrannosaur ''Albertosaurus'' -- or alternatively ''Gorgosaurus'' (mainly in older paleo-art) and ''Daspletosaurus'' (mainly in the newer one). Though less-frequent, the sail-backed ''Acrocanthosaurus'' can appear in Early Cretaceous reconstructions. In Europe, a frequent choice is the megalosaur ''Eustreptospondylus'' (see WalkingWithDinosaurs for an example). Among Asian carnivores, the tyrannosaur ''Tarbosaurus'' is the classic guy for Cretaceous settings, while the allosaur ''Yangchuanosaurus'' is for the Jurassic ones. Among the African ones, the allosauroid ''Carcharodontosaurus'' and the spinosaurid ''Suchomimus'' have become common since the 1990s.

to:

Of course the most portrayed large predatory theropods in documentary media are the Stock ones: the seven classic "carnosaurs" above (already common in dino-books since TheEighties) plus ''Carnotaurus'' & ''Giganotosaurus'' that have become common since TheNineties (when the word "carnosaur" had already assumed its current meaning). Other big meat-eaters, however, have also been common sights. Among the North-American ones, it's expecially common the "small" tyrannosaur ''Albertosaurus'' -- or alternatively ''Gorgosaurus'' (mainly in older paleo-art) and ''Daspletosaurus'' (mainly in the newer one). Though less-frequent, the sail-backed ''Acrocanthosaurus'' can appear in Early Cretaceous reconstructions. In Europe, a frequent choice is the megalosaur ''Eustreptospondylus'' (see WalkingWithDinosaurs Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs for an example). Among Asian carnivores, the tyrannosaur ''Tarbosaurus'' is the classic guy for Cretaceous settings, while the allosaur ''Yangchuanosaurus'' is for the Jurassic ones. Among the African ones, the allosauroid ''Carcharodontosaurus'' and the spinosaurid ''Suchomimus'' have become common since the 1990s.



Found only in 2006 in Argentina, it was the closest relative of ''Giganotosaurus'', and may have been its descendant in RealLife. Just as big as “Giga”, ''Mapusaurus'' was almost identical to it and to ''Carcharodontosaurus'', with huge skull filled with crests and protuberances, and the usual powerful three-fingered hands of all allosauroids. However, the most interesting thing is that its fossils seem to show proof of gregarious behavior. Even though this doesn’t automatically indicate “pack hunting”, many have now fun to imagine awesome scenarios, with pack of ''Mapusaurus'' killing together the immense sauropods of the time like ''[[StockDinosaurs Argentinosaurus]]''. This behaviour was also speculatively attributed to ''Giganotosaurus'' in the “Land of Giants” episode of the ''[[WalkingWithDinosaurs WWD]]'' series… [[HilariousInHindsight four years before]] ''[[HilariousInHindsight Mapusaurus]]'' [[HilariousInHindsight was discovered]]!

to:

Found only in 2006 in Argentina, it was the closest relative of ''Giganotosaurus'', and may have been its descendant in RealLife. Just as big as “Giga”, ''Mapusaurus'' was almost identical to it and to ''Carcharodontosaurus'', with huge skull filled with crests and protuberances, and the usual powerful three-fingered hands of all allosauroids. However, the most interesting thing is that its fossils seem to show proof of gregarious behavior. Even though this doesn’t automatically indicate “pack hunting”, many have now fun to imagine awesome scenarios, with pack of ''Mapusaurus'' killing together the immense sauropods of the time like ''[[StockDinosaurs Argentinosaurus]]''. This behaviour was also speculatively attributed to ''Giganotosaurus'' in the “Land of Giants” episode of the ''[[WalkingWithDinosaurs ''[[Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs WWD]]'' series… [[HilariousInHindsight four years before]] ''[[HilariousInHindsight Mapusaurus]]'' [[HilariousInHindsight was discovered]]!



The 2009 discovery in Australia of the megaraptoran ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australovenator Australovenator]]'', "southern hunter", has likely revealed the true identity of the mysterious 'dwarf Allosaur' seen in WalkingWithDinosaurs. Also of note is ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fukuiraptor Fukuiraptor]]'', one of the rare Japanese dinosaurs. Initially known from the claw, this Early Cretaceous megaraptoran was initially considered a large deinonychosaur (again, the claw actually went on the hand).

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The 2009 discovery in Australia of the megaraptoran ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australovenator Australovenator]]'', "southern hunter", has likely revealed the true identity of the mysterious 'dwarf Allosaur' seen in WalkingWithDinosaurs.Series/WalkingWithDinosaurs. Also of note is ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fukuiraptor Fukuiraptor]]'', one of the rare Japanese dinosaurs. Initially known from the claw, this Early Cretaceous megaraptoran was initially considered a large deinonychosaur (again, the claw actually went on the hand).



In the 1990s, even the most sceptical people were forced to change their idea about, in front of these two new-discovered theropods: ''Cryolophosaurus'' and ''Gojirasaurus''. Because the uniquely curly shape of its crest, the former [[NamedAfterSomebodyFamous was initially named]] "[[ElvisPresley Elvisaurus]]"; the latter has been named after “Gojira”, [[NamedAfterSomebodyFamous which is the Japanese name of]] Franchise/{{Godzilla}}. And since RuleOfCool undisputly dominates every time dinosaurs are involved... some paleo-artists have been giving to our Godzillasaur unlikely features such as prominent/raised scutes along its back, [[DinosaursAreDragons just to make it look like its namesake!]]

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In the 1990s, even the most sceptical people were forced to change their idea about, in front of these two new-discovered theropods: ''Cryolophosaurus'' and ''Gojirasaurus''. Because the uniquely curly shape of its crest, the former [[NamedAfterSomebodyFamous was initially named]] "[[ElvisPresley "[[Music/ElvisPresley Elvisaurus]]"; the latter has been named after “Gojira”, [[NamedAfterSomebodyFamous which is the Japanese name of]] Franchise/{{Godzilla}}. And since RuleOfCool undisputly dominates every time dinosaurs are involved... some paleo-artists have been giving to our Godzillasaur unlikely features such as prominent/raised scutes along its back, [[DinosaursAreDragons just to make it look like its namesake!]]
5th Mar '17 5:28:05 PM ElSquibbonator
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We can also mention two virtually-unknown animals which have had nonetheless a great relevance in the past, but have lost it due to ScienceMarchesOn. ''Teratosaurus'': (“monster lizard”) lived in Europe during the Triassic period. Discovered as early as the middle of the XIX century, it was 6 m long, and has long detained the record of “the first giant meat-eating dinosaur”. In old books, ''Teratosaurus'' was portrayed as a generic-looking “carnosaur” which hunted the neighboring prosauropod ''[[StockDinosaurs Plateosaurus]]''. Then, in the mid 1980s, it was discovered that ''Teratosaurus'' was actually non-dinosaurian archosaur related to ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeNonDinosaurianReptiles Postosuchus]]'', a member of a group that had convergently evolved to [[https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Postosuchus_kirkpatricki.jpg resemble large theropods]] .[[note]]Interestingly, the reverse happened to the megalosaur ''Streptospondylus'', which was once considered a crocodile.[[/note]]

to:

We can also mention two virtually-unknown animals which have had nonetheless a great relevance in the past, but have lost it due to ScienceMarchesOn. ''Teratosaurus'': (“monster lizard”) lived in Europe during the Triassic period. Discovered as early as the middle of the XIX century, it was 6 m long, and has long detained the record of “the first giant meat-eating dinosaur”. In old books, ''Teratosaurus'' was portrayed as a generic-looking “carnosaur” which hunted the neighboring prosauropod ''[[StockDinosaurs Plateosaurus]]''. Then, in the mid 1980s, it was discovered that ''Teratosaurus'' wasn't a dinosaur at all. It was actually a non-dinosaurian archosaur related to ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeNonDinosaurianReptiles Postosuchus]]'', a member of a group that had convergently evolved to [[https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Postosuchus_kirkpatricki.jpg resemble large theropods]] .[[note]]Interestingly, the reverse happened to the megalosaur ''Streptospondylus'', which was once considered a crocodile.[[/note]]
5th Mar '17 5:23:41 PM ElSquibbonator
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We can also mention two virtually-unknown animals which have had nonetheless a great relevance in the past, but have lost it due to ScienceMarchesOn. ''Teratosaurus'': (“monster lizard”) lived in Europe during the Triassic period. Discovered as early as the middle of the XIX century, it was 6 m long, and has long detained the record of “the first giant meat-eating dinosaur”. In old books, ''Teratosaurus'' was portrayed as a generic-looking “carnosaur” which hunted the neighboring prosauropod ''[[StockDinosaurs Plateosaurus]]''. Then, in the mid 1980s, it was discovered that ''Teratosaurus'' was actually reconstructed upon very fragmentary remains mixed with bones belonging to ''Plateosaurus'': these new studies showed it was ''not even a dinosaur'', but a four-legged, non-dinosaurian archosaur related to ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeNonDinosaurianReptiles Postosuchus]]''.[[note]]Interestingly, the reverse happened to the megalosaur ''Streptospondylus'', which was once considered a crocodile.[[/note]]

to:

We can also mention two virtually-unknown animals which have had nonetheless a great relevance in the past, but have lost it due to ScienceMarchesOn. ''Teratosaurus'': (“monster lizard”) lived in Europe during the Triassic period. Discovered as early as the middle of the XIX century, it was 6 m long, and has long detained the record of “the first giant meat-eating dinosaur”. In old books, ''Teratosaurus'' was portrayed as a generic-looking “carnosaur” which hunted the neighboring prosauropod ''[[StockDinosaurs Plateosaurus]]''. Then, in the mid 1980s, it was discovered that ''Teratosaurus'' was actually reconstructed upon very fragmentary remains mixed with bones belonging to ''Plateosaurus'': these new studies showed it was ''not even a dinosaur'', but a four-legged, non-dinosaurian archosaur related to ''[[UsefulNotes/PrehistoricLifeNonDinosaurianReptiles Postosuchus]]''.Postosuchus]]'', a member of a group that had convergently evolved to [[https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Postosuchus_kirkpatricki.jpg resemble large theropods]] .[[note]]Interestingly, the reverse happened to the megalosaur ''Streptospondylus'', which was once considered a crocodile.[[/note]]
8th Oct '16 10:44:52 PM DustSnitch
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In the 1970s, a third North American tyrannosaur was recognized as distinct: ''Daspletosaurus''. The same size of the other two and living in the same epoch, ''Daspletosaurus'' was actually more similar to ''T. rex'' than to ''Albertosaurus'' in anatomy. Many scientists think the more agile ''Albertosaurus''/''Gorgosaurus'' specialized on relatively easier preys such as hadrosaurs, young ceratopsians, troodonts or ornithomimids, while the more powerfully-built ''Daspletosaurus'' hunted “armored” herbivores like adult ceratopsians and ankylosaurs, [[BadAss and possibly]] ''[[BadAss Albertosaurus]]'' and ''[[BadAss Gorgosaurus]]'' themselves! Other North American tyrannosaurids have been named in recent years, such as ''Bistahieversor'' ("New Mexican destroyer", it was originally considered a southern species of ''Daspletosaurus'') in 2010, ''Teratophoneus'' ("monstrous assassin", a short-snouted form) in 2011 and ''Lythronax'' ("gore king", the oldest true tyrannosaurid) in 2013. On the other hand, "Dinotyrannus" ("terrible tyrant") and "Stygivenator" ("Hunter from the Death-River"), both described in 1995, are today regarded as proper ''T. rex'' specimens.

to:

In the 1970s, a third North American tyrannosaur was recognized as distinct: ''Daspletosaurus''. The same size of the other two and living in the same epoch, ''Daspletosaurus'' was actually more similar to ''T. rex'' than to ''Albertosaurus'' in anatomy. Many scientists think the more agile ''Albertosaurus''/''Gorgosaurus'' specialized on relatively easier preys such as hadrosaurs, young ceratopsians, troodonts or ornithomimids, while the more powerfully-built ''Daspletosaurus'' hunted “armored” herbivores like adult ceratopsians and ankylosaurs, [[BadAss and possibly]] ''[[BadAss Albertosaurus]]'' possibly ''Albertosaurus'' and ''[[BadAss Gorgosaurus]]'' ''Gorgosaurus'' themselves! Other North American tyrannosaurids have been named in recent years, such as ''Bistahieversor'' ("New Mexican destroyer", it was originally considered a southern species of ''Daspletosaurus'') in 2010, ''Teratophoneus'' ("monstrous assassin", a short-snouted form) in 2011 and ''Lythronax'' ("gore king", the oldest true tyrannosaurid) in 2013. On the other hand, "Dinotyrannus" ("terrible tyrant") and "Stygivenator" ("Hunter from the Death-River"), both described in 1995, are today regarded as proper ''T. rex'' specimens.



In 1995, an unexpected find deeply shook the paleontological world as well as the dino-fandom. The obscure-at-the-time ''Carcharodontosaurus'' has revealed not to be a midsized, unclassifiable theropod as always thought (it was originally considered a megalosaur, but others thought it was an allosaur, an intermediate form between allosaurs & tyrannosaurs or even a completely unique theropod that returned to the seas). It was a much more BadAss animal, whose name “great white shark lizard” has revealed [[HilariousInHindsight stunningly apt]]. A predatory dinosaur ''even bigger than T. rex''!

to:

In 1995, an unexpected find deeply shook the paleontological world as well as the dino-fandom. The obscure-at-the-time ''Carcharodontosaurus'' has revealed not to be a midsized, unclassifiable theropod as always thought (it was originally considered a megalosaur, but others thought it was an allosaur, an intermediate form between allosaurs & tyrannosaurs or even a completely unique theropod that returned to the seas). It was a much more BadAss badass animal, whose name “great white shark lizard” has revealed [[HilariousInHindsight stunningly apt]]. A predatory dinosaur ''even bigger than T. rex''!
7th Jul '16 1:06:13 PM schoi30
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'''Smaller Tyrants:''' ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albertosaurus Albertosaurus]]''


''Albertosaurus'' is the most abundant tyrannosaur in fossil record, and also the second big-sized theropod by wealth of fossil material, just after the unbeatable ''Allosaurus''. And yet, ''Albertosaurus'' has not gained much attention in films and comics as ''Tyrannosaurus'' - tyrannosaurids are so similar to each other that if one appears in cinema, people will always call it ''T. rex''. To compensate, ''Albertosaurus'' is a very common sight in many paleo-books, just as common as several [[StockDinosaurs Stock Theropods]].

Naturally, it is portrayed as the superpredator of its time, North America 80-75 million years ago, 10 million years before ''T. rex''. The menu of an ''Albertosaurus'' was probably not monotonous; several kinds of herbivores roamed North American plains at the time, from ceratopsians to hadrosaurs, from the armored ankylosaurs to small swift "hypsilophodonts" and ornithomimids. Even though tyrannosaurids are classically shown [[RuleOfCool battling some powerful prey]], they more probably hunted young individuals more often, to avoid the risk of fatal injuries or consequent infections.

Compared with the legendary ''TyrannosaurusRex'', ''Albertosaurus'' was like a leopard compared with a lion; smaller (25 ft long against the 40 ft of ''T. rex''), it was also more slender, with longer, thinner jaws, smaller teeth, and more agile legs apt to higher top speeds than ''Tyrannosaurus''. Even the herbivores which shared their world were conformed to these predators; those which lived alongside ''T. rex'' were bigger, slower and more powerful than those living with ''Albertosaurus''.

''Albertosaurus'' was also the first dinosaur ever discovered in Canada, at the end of the XIX century, but was named only in 1905 (incidentally, the same year as ''Tyrannosaurus'') [[ExactlyWhatItSaysOnTheTin after the Canadian province of Alberta]], where most of the abundant Canadian dinos have been discovered. ''Albertosaurus'' has also contributed indirectly to the popular image of tyrannosaurs. The forelimbs of ''Albertosaurus'' have been known since its very first find, while those of ''T. rex'' were first discovered only in the 1990s; for almost a century the well-known two-fingered hands of "rex" have been modeled upon those of ''Albertosaurus'', debunking at the time the [[DeadHorseTrope old pop-cultural]] HandWave about portraying three-fingered tyrannosaurs. [[note]]Beware, we’re talking about ''functional'' fingers, not the so-often cited third vestigial digit present in ''T. rex''[[/note]]

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19th Apr '16 11:29:56 AM erforce
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Paleontologists are not necessarily those [[{{Nerd}} nerdy people]] one could believe. Many do fit more in the AdventurerArchaeologist and BadassBookworm tropes - think about the famed ''Australopithecus'' specimen nicknamed [[Music/TheBeatles Lucy]]; the cowboy-looking Bob Bakker; the “Bone Wars” fought by two archenemical guys…. and above all, [[IndianaJones Roy Chapman Andrews]]. And yes, paleontologists ''do'' consume pop-cultural products just like all the other people.

to:

Paleontologists are not necessarily those [[{{Nerd}} nerdy people]] one could believe. Many do fit more in the AdventurerArchaeologist and BadassBookworm tropes - think about the famed ''Australopithecus'' specimen nicknamed [[Music/TheBeatles Lucy]]; the cowboy-looking Bob Bakker; the “Bone Wars” fought by two archenemical guys…. and above all, [[IndianaJones [[Franchise/IndianaJones Roy Chapman Andrews]]. And yes, paleontologists ''do'' consume pop-cultural products just like all the other people.
2nd Feb '16 3:05:16 PM phoenix
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''Acrocanthosaurus'' lived in Early Cretaceous North America, rather between ''Allosaurus'' and ''Tyrannosaurus'' in the time scale. Apart from the “sail”, it was similar to a robust ''Allosaurus'' in shape, and with its 12 m long body was as big as ''TyrannosaurusRex'', albeit of lighter build. One could even say ''Acrocanthosaurus'' [[AllYourPowersCombined combined the best powers]] of the four most popular giant theropods. The size of "rex", the overall robustness of “Giga”, the powerful three-clawed forelimbs of “Allo”, and a crested back like “Spino”. And yet, have you sometimes seen this dinosaur outside dino-books (apart from the [[DocumentaryofLies pseudo-docu]] ''Series/MonstersResurrected'')? Things get even worse if you think ''Acrocanthosaurus'' has been known since the 1940s from rather complete remains, was the top-predator of Early Cretaceous North America, and shared the same habitat with another famous (but much smaller) “killer dinosaur”, ''Deinonychus''. However, Bob Bakker’s scientific novel ''Literature/RaptorRed'' does justice to ''Acrocanthosaurus'', portraying it as the great predator of the world in which ''Utahraptor'' are the main characters.

to:

''Acrocanthosaurus'' lived in Early Cretaceous North America, rather between ''Allosaurus'' and ''Tyrannosaurus'' in the time scale. Apart from the “sail”, it was similar to a robust ''Allosaurus'' in shape, and with its 12 m long body was as big as ''TyrannosaurusRex'', albeit of lighter build. One could even say ''Acrocanthosaurus'' [[AllYourPowersCombined combined the best powers]] of the four most popular giant theropods. The size of "rex", the overall robustness of “Giga”, the powerful three-clawed forelimbs of “Allo”, and a crested back like “Spino”. And yet, have you sometimes seen this dinosaur outside dino-books (apart from the [[DocumentaryofLies pseudo-docu]] pseudo-docu ''Series/MonstersResurrected'')? Things get even worse if you think ''Acrocanthosaurus'' has been known since the 1940s from rather complete remains, was the top-predator of Early Cretaceous North America, and shared the same habitat with another famous (but much smaller) “killer dinosaur”, ''Deinonychus''. However, Bob Bakker’s scientific novel ''Literature/RaptorRed'' does justice to ''Acrocanthosaurus'', portraying it as the great predator of the world in which ''Utahraptor'' are the main characters.
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