History UsefulNotes / Poland

1st Jan '17 4:09:13 AM Jan_z_Michal
Is there an issue? Send a Message


** However, statistics aren't always an accurate representation of reality. Polls have shown that more and more people are simply getting by without thinking about religion at all. While most ''state'' they're Catholic, they may do it out of force of habit, upbringing, or peer pressure. Mass attendance has been falling down steadily since 1987, to a record low of 40% in 2011. There is a growing anti-clerical movement which got 10% of the vote during the 2011 parliamentary elections, echoing that trend.

to:

** However, statistics aren't always an accurate representation of reality. Polls have shown that more and more people are simply getting by without thinking about religion at all. While most ''state'' they're Catholic, they may do it out of force of habit, upbringing, or peer pressure. Mass attendance has been falling down steadily since 1987, to a record low of 40% in 2011. There is a growing anti-clerical movement which got 10% of the vote during the 2011 parliamentary elections, echoing that trend.and currently keeping around 45%.



* Polish politics tend to fall on the right side of the spectrum, compared to most all countries in the EU. Its two largest political parties are the Civic Platform (PO), which is more or less neoliberal, pro-European, and certainly not leftist; and Law and Justice ([=PiS=]), which is national-conservative, deeply rooted in Catholicism, and somewhat Eurosceptic. Its leftist parties haven't been contenders since their implosion in the early 2000s, although the aforementioned anticlericalist movement has a strong social-democratic twist to it. Interestingly, when you look at a map of Poland according to the strength of the two political parties (here's the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wybory_prezydenckie_2010_I_tura_BK.png map for the 2010 Presidential election]]; PO in orange, [=PiS=] in blue) you find that PO's support almost perfectly matches the [[UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}} once-Prussian]] part, while the rest (formerly [[UsefulNotes/{{Russia}} Russian]] and [[UsefulNotes/{{Austria}} Austrian]]) are strongholds of [=PiS=]; the main exception is Warsaw, which, while formerly in the Russian part, is the capital and largest city and consequently has a more cosmopolitan, forward-looking culture.

to:

* Polish politics tend to fall on the right side of the spectrum, compared to most all countries in the EU. Its two largest political parties are the Civic Platform (PO), which is more or less neoliberal, pro-European, and certainly not leftist; and Law and Justice ([=PiS=]), which is national-conservative, deeply rooted in Catholicism, and somewhat Eurosceptic. Its leftist parties haven't been contenders since their implosion in the early 2000s, although the aforementioned anticlericalist movement has a strong social-democratic twist to it.2000s. Interestingly, when you look at a map of Poland according to the strength of the two political parties (here's the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Wybory_prezydenckie_2010_I_tura_BK.png map for the 2010 Presidential election]]; PO in orange, [=PiS=] in blue) you find that PO's support almost perfectly matches the [[UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}} once-Prussian]] part, while the rest (formerly [[UsefulNotes/{{Russia}} Russian]] and [[UsefulNotes/{{Austria}} Austrian]]) are strongholds of [=PiS=]; the main exception is Warsaw, which, while formerly in the Russian part, is the capital and largest city and consequently has a more cosmopolitan, forward-looking culture.
21st Dec '16 6:08:01 PM SignSeeker7
Is there an issue? Send a Message


[[/folder]]

to:

[[/folder]]


Added DiffLines:

[[/folder]]
2nd Dec '16 2:28:37 PM VerMa
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* Marie Curie, nee Maria Skłodowska.

to:

* [[UsefulNotes/MarieCurie Marie Curie, nee Maria Skłodowska.Skłodowska]]



* Creator/JosephConrad, whose given name was Jozef Korzeniowski. Wrote in English.

to:

* Creator/JosephConrad, whose given name was Jozef Józef Korzeniowski. Wrote in English.
8th Nov '16 4:30:16 PM Morgenthaler
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* Tadeusz Kościuszko, a revolutionary and {{Badass}} enough to be a national hero in four countries - Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and USA (he founded West Point).

to:

* Tadeusz Kościuszko, a revolutionary and {{Badass}} badass enough to be a national hero in four countries - Poland, Lithuania, Belarus, and USA (he founded West Point).
6th Nov '16 6:53:26 AM lordGacek
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Poland arose when the West Slavic tribes of the region were united by the Piast dynasty of the Polans around about 1000, cleverly alternating between placating [[UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire the German emperors]] and going behind their backs. Perhaps the most globally notable event of first two or three centuries of Poland's existence happened during a period of political fragmentation, when one of Polish regional princes [[WhatAnIdiot invited]] UsefulNotes/TheTeutonicKnights to help him against the pagan Prussians. It later became quite a nuisance, so to say. Reunified Poland, in dire need for allies, became associated with Lithuania (this historical Lithuania actually consisted of modern-day ''Belarus'' and Lithuania). As the last pagan country in Europe, it also had a problem with the Knights, until Grand Duke Jogaila accepted the Polish crown, baptized himself and his realm (thus nullifying the reason of the Order's very presence) and became king Władysław of Poland. Together both countries broke the power of the Order. Over time Lithuania eventually merged with Poland, forming the [[TheFederation Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth]]. Together, Poland and Lithuania ruled over an enormous, immensely powerful and rich empire. It was an era of peace and isolation, threatened by the Mongol Invasion and schenanigans in the Holy Roman Empire, but it was for the most part left alone and this allowed it to thrive. It also became a beacon for religious tolerance, with King Casimir III ''the Great'' providing refuge to Jews and prohibited, [[GoodIsNotSoft under pain of death]], the forced conversion of Jewish children to Christianity and this increased Jewish migration to Poland. Until the third partition, Poland despite being a devoutly Catholic nation, was known for developing good relationships with Jews and being far less anti-semitic than Western Europe.

to:

Poland arose when the West Slavic tribes of the region were united by the Piast dynasty of the Polans around about 1000, cleverly alternating between placating [[UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire the German emperors]] and going behind their backs. Perhaps the most globally notable event of first two or three centuries of Poland's existence happened during a period of political fragmentation, when one of Polish regional princes [[WhatAnIdiot invited]] UsefulNotes/TheTeutonicKnights to help him against the pagan Prussians. It later became quite a nuisance, so to say. Reunified Poland, in dire need for allies, became associated with Lithuania (this historical Lithuania actually consisted of modern-day ''Belarus'' and Lithuania). As the last pagan country in Europe, it also had a problem with the Knights, until Grand Duke Jogaila accepted the Polish crown, baptized himself and his realm (thus nullifying the reason of the Order's very presence) and became king Władysław of Poland. Together both countries broke the power of the Order. Over time Lithuania eventually merged with Poland, forming the [[TheFederation Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth]]. Together, Poland and Lithuania ruled over an enormous, immensely powerful and rich empire. It was an era of peace and isolation, threatened by the Mongol Invasion and schenanigans in the Holy Roman Empire, but it was for the most part left alone and this allowed it to thrive. It also became a beacon for religious tolerance, tolerance even before the union with Lithuania, with King Casimir III ''the Great'' providing refuge to Jews and prohibited, [[GoodIsNotSoft under pain of death]], the forced conversion of Jewish children to Christianity and this increased Jewish migration to Poland. Until [[note]]Until the third partition, Poland despite being a devoutly Catholic nation, was known for developing good relationships with Jews and being far less anti-semitic than Western Europe.
Europe.[[/note]]



The 16th and 17th Centuries comprised the UsefulNotes/PolishLithuanianCommonwealth are known as, respectively, the Golden Age and the Silver Age of Polish history, remembered for its "Golden Liberty", when [[ElectiveMonarchy kings were elected]] and the franchise included 10% of the population, by far the most inclusive in Europe until the end of the eighteenth century. The Commonwealth's legacy is disputed since nobody knows who truly represented it, and, this is important, who really inherits it. Until the Constitution of 3rd May, it was legally a union of two countries, Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The nobility of the Grand Duchy became for the most part Polonized, but the lower classes of Lithuania, like the lower classes of Poland were left out and Poland was identified as "the Noble nation". Poles see Poland as representative to all of the Commonwealth, ignoring the views of Lithuanians who see Lithuania as the successor to Grand Duchy. Ethnic Lithuanians were actually a minority in a country mostly made of modern-day Belarus, and (due to assimilation) their upper classes were culturally Polish anyway. Ukrainians consider themselves descendants of the Ruthenian population of the region, particularly those who formed the Cossack Host, even though the Cossacks themselves were at least as much [[{{Pirates}} an occupation]] as an ethnic group. [[note]]Belarusians had all of their upper classes assimilated, or killed off by Hitler and Stalin, so nobody was left to argue it's not just a swampy small part of Russia. All of the latter three, somewhat expectedly, also tend to see Poland as a sort of BigBrotherBully, although today Lithuanians and (Western) Ukrainians tend to look to Poland for help against the bigger bully to the east--Russia.[[/note]]

to:

The 16th and 17th Centuries comprised the UsefulNotes/PolishLithuanianCommonwealth are known as, respectively, the Golden Age and the Silver Age of Polish history, remembered for its "Golden Liberty", when [[ElectiveMonarchy kings were elected]] and the franchise included 10% of the population, by far the most inclusive in Europe until the end of the eighteenth century. The Commonwealth's legacy is disputed since nobody knows who truly represented it, and, this is important, who really inherits it. Until the Constitution of 3rd May, it was legally a union of two countries, Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The nobility of the Grand Duchy became for the most part Polonized, but the lower classes of Lithuania, like the lower classes of Poland were left out and Poland was identified as "the Noble nation". Poles see Poland as representative to all of the Commonwealth, ignoring the views of Lithuanians who see Lithuania as the successor to Grand Duchy. Ethnic Lithuanians were actually a minority in a country mostly made of modern-day Belarus, and (due to assimilation) their upper classes were culturally Polish anyway. Ukrainians consider themselves descendants of the Ruthenian population of the region, particularly those who formed the Cossack Host, even though the Cossacks {{Cossacks}} themselves were at least as much [[{{Pirates}} an occupation]] as an ethnic group. [[note]]Belarusians had all of their upper classes assimilated, or killed off by Hitler and Stalin, so nobody was left to argue it's not just a swampy small part of Russia. All of the latter three, somewhat expectedly, also tend to see Poland as a sort of BigBrotherBully, although today Lithuanians and (Western) Ukrainians tend to look to Poland for help against the bigger bully to the east--Russia.[[/note]]



Golden Liberty was a great inspiration for the American Revolution, but it had a flaw, to which we owe the existence of a strong US Presidency. The principle that Poland was a nation of nobles meant that the nobles did not represent anybody other than themselves and so lacked any constitutency beyond their folwarks. Yes, all nobles were equal[[note]]A popular phrase goes:''Szlachcic na zagrodzie równy wojewodzie'': "The Noble on his Estate is equal to the Count" which states that each member of the aristocracy was equal to each other -- apart from few Lithuanian families who styled themselves dukes as a GrandfatherClause, there were no ranks at all among nobility. The "Count" in the quoted text is just a TranslationConvention for a state office.[[/note]] and this meant every decision required unanimity and so any one noble could block any government decision (the ''Liberum Veto'' which ''EuropaUniversalis'' players might recognize). So it took only one guy to be bribed by UsefulNotes/{{Russia}}, UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}}, or UsefulNotes/{{Austria}} and that was it: the country was theirs. If a noble family decided to start developing Poland, as the Czartoryskis who formed a coalition known as [[TheFamilyForTheWholeFamily the Familia]], they could expect a noble revolt who resented the development of one part of Poland since it would take away trade from another part, the rise of Warsaw, under the policies of one Nobleman meant the decline of Gdansk under another nobleman, which in turn affected the BalanceOfPower since said nobleman had to deliver committments to their respective geopoliticial sponsor, who in turn might decide to put their own candidate in the next "election". Enter King Stanisław August Poniatowski, elected by the Sejm, promoted and planted by UsefulNotes/CatherineTheGreat (he was a former lover of hers) to be her puppet, halting reforms and protecting Russia's interests. Yet Poniatowski, who became [[LastOfHisKind the last King of Poland]] was a reformer, a promoter of arts and sciences and sought to strengthen and develop Poland to catch up with its Western counterparts. These reforms angered the "three black eagles" of Russia, Prussia and Austria and it led to the first partition of Poland (1772), leading to the loss of its outer territories.

to:

Golden Liberty was a great inspiration for the American Revolution, but it had a flaw, to which we owe the existence of a strong US Presidency. The principle that Poland was a nation of nobles meant that the nobles did not represent anybody other than themselves and so lacked any constitutency beyond their folwarks. Yes, all nobles were equal[[note]]A popular phrase goes:''Szlachcic na zagrodzie równy wojewodzie'': "The Noble on his Estate is equal to the Count" which states that each member of the aristocracy was equal to each other -- apart from few Lithuanian families who styled themselves dukes as a GrandfatherClause, there were no ranks at all among nobility. The "Count" in the quoted text is just a TranslationConvention for a state office.office, as there was no such thing as a Count in the society of Commonwealth.[[/note]] and this meant every decision required unanimity and so any one noble could block any government decision (the ''Liberum Veto'' which ''EuropaUniversalis'' players might recognize). So it took only one guy to be bribed by UsefulNotes/{{Russia}}, UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}}, or UsefulNotes/{{Austria}} and that was it: the country was theirs. If a noble family decided to start developing Poland, as the Czartoryskis who formed a coalition known as [[TheFamilyForTheWholeFamily the Familia]], they could expect a noble revolt who resented the development of one part of Poland since it would take away trade from another part, the rise of Warsaw, under the policies of one Nobleman meant the decline of Gdansk under another nobleman, which in turn affected the BalanceOfPower since said nobleman had to deliver committments to their respective geopoliticial geopolitical sponsor, who in turn might decide to put their own candidate in the next "election". Enter King Stanisław August Poniatowski, elected by the Sejm, promoted and planted by UsefulNotes/CatherineTheGreat (he was a former lover of hers) to be her puppet, halting reforms and protecting Russia's interests. Yet Poniatowski, who became [[LastOfHisKind the last King of Poland]] was a reformer, a promoter of arts and sciences and sought to strengthen and develop Poland to catch up with its Western counterparts. These reforms angered the "three black eagles" of Russia, Prussia and Austria and it led to the first partition of Poland (1772), leading to the loss of its outer territories.



The final stage of this decline led to the legendary uprising of Tadeusz Kościuszko. Kościuszko was a popular general and a liberal noble, who had fought in UsefulNotes/TheAmericanRevolution. Noting the various defections and counter-defections and failure of the szlachta to counter the invaders, Kościuszko triggered a popular uprising. He appealed to the peasants, and for the first time included them in the conception of the Polish nation. He also assured peasants civil liberties, and created the first army in Poland open to peasant conscripts. Kościuszko's uprising might perhaps have been successful had the reforms he instituted been put in place at the time of the first or even second partition. It was in the end too little too late, and worst of all, seen by Catherine the Great and neighbors as "the last straw" since Poland's relative leniency towards serfs was the reason she interfered in Poland's affairs to start with (too many Russian serfs were fleeing to Poland [[CrapsackWorld from a brutal serfdom to a comparatively benevolent bondage]]), actual abolition of serfdom and feudalism was exactly the thing she feared. The uprising was brutally crushed, and it ended with the dissolution of the Commonwealth, the exile of King Poniatowski and Kościuszko (who was later allowed to emigrate to America) and it marked the effective cessation of Poland for more than a century, with one momentary respite.

to:

The final stage of this decline led to the legendary uprising of Tadeusz Kościuszko. Kościuszko was a popular general and a liberal noble, who had fought in UsefulNotes/TheAmericanRevolution. Noting the various defections and counter-defections and failure of the szlachta to counter the invaders, Kościuszko triggered a popular uprising. He appealed to the peasants, and for the first time included them in the conception of the Polish nation. He also assured peasants civil liberties, and created the first army in Poland fully open to peasant conscripts. Kościuszko's uprising might perhaps have been successful had the reforms he instituted been put in place at the time of the first or even second partition. It was in the end too little too late, and worst of all, seen by Catherine the Great and neighbors as "the last straw" since Poland's relative leniency towards serfs was the reason she interfered in Poland's affairs to start with (too many Russian serfs were fleeing to Poland [[CrapsackWorld from a brutal serfdom to a comparatively benevolent bondage]]), actual abolition of serfdom and feudalism was exactly the thing she feared. The uprising was brutally crushed, and it ended with the dissolution of the Commonwealth, the exile of King Poniatowski and Kościuszko (who was later allowed to emigrate to America) and it marked the effective cessation of Poland for more than a century, with one momentary respite.



Immediately after the collapse of the Russian Empire resulted in the renewed independence of most of the former Commonwealth, Poland laid claim to the Lithuanian city of Vilnius,[[note]]''both'' home to many Poles (among them Piłsudski's himself) '''and''' the long-standing Lithuanian capital[[/note]] leading to a war between the former allies. The Ukrainians who had invited the Poles in to rescue them from the Reds found that Warsaw, ultimately, had none of their best interests at heart (Piłsudski personally was very ashamed by this). The new Poland's German minority also suffered. Poland ended up suffering from a sluggish economy caused by a century of exploitation and field trips from World War I military powers, being surrounded by many powerful enemies, and deep internal tensions between Poles, Lithuanians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Germans, and Jews, and political factions everyone belonged to. The tensions became more severe in certain areas and relaxed in others after a military coup[[note]]A handful of fun facts to show the background: the officer corps was largely made of Piłsudski's former soldiers, the Nationalists were the modernist and pro-democratic faction (Piłsudski was more of an old-school Romantic), and a large factor in the coup's success was the support of labour unions recognizing Piłsudski's past as a revolutionary socialist.[[/note]] and the establishment of the "Government of Moral Sanitation".

to:

Immediately after the collapse of the Russian Empire resulted in the renewed independence of most of the former Commonwealth, Poland laid claim to the Lithuanian city of Vilnius,[[note]]''both'' Vilnius,[[note]]in Polish: ''Wilno'', ''both'' home to many Poles (among them Piłsudski's himself) '''and''' the long-standing Lithuanian capital[[/note]] leading to a war between the former allies. The Ukrainians who had invited the Poles in to rescue them from the Reds found that Warsaw, ultimately, had none of their best interests at heart (Piłsudski personally was very ashamed by this). The new Poland's German minority also suffered. Poland ended up suffering from a sluggish economy caused by a century of exploitation and field trips from World War I military powers, being surrounded by many powerful enemies, and deep internal tensions between Poles, Lithuanians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Germans, and Jews, and political factions everyone belonged to. The tensions became more severe in certain areas and relaxed in others after a military coup[[note]]A handful of fun facts to show the background: the officer corps was largely made of Piłsudski's former soldiers, the Nationalists were the modernist and pro-democratic faction (Piłsudski was more of an old-school Romantic), and a large factor in the coup's success was the support of labour unions recognizing Piłsudski's past as a revolutionary socialist.[[/note]] and the establishment of the "Government of Moral Sanitation".



In the years preceding the war, the Polish government tried to balance itself between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler had made the loss of territory (which in his mind included the land that Germans had settled in the Partitions and Dissolution of the Commonwealth) after UsefulNotes/WorldWarI to new Eastern European nations such as Czechoslovakia and Poland a campaign priority. To this end Piłsudski had signed Non-Aggression Pacts with the Soviet Union (1932) and Nazi Germany (1934) for pragmatic reasons to stave off a potential invasion from either power. With his death in 1935, the situation began to change. Hitler started to be even more brazen in violating the Versailles agreement about rearmament and the League of Nations, France and Britain were reluctant and intimidated to step in and rein in Germany. The Polish foreign policy greatly relied on Western allies to rein in one or both of its neighbours. This already tense situation was upset by the Sudetenland crisis, where Hitler made a play for the German majority regions in the Czech Republic and diplomats in France, England and the Soviet Union discussed their options, with the Soviet Union advocating military defense of Czechoslovakia (as per one of its committments to the new nation) but requesting passage of its troops through Polish territory in order to enforce it, a condition that Poland was categorical in its refusal. The Polish government eventually sided with Germany's partition of Czechoslavakia claiming the territory of Zaolzie (which had a Polish plurality[[note]]Poland and Czechoslavakia fought a war over it in 1919[[/note]]) as well as Czech Teschen, which was invaded by the Polish Army in 1938 and ceded to Poland after they issued an ultimatum to the government.[[note]]After WorldWarII, Teschen was ceded to Soviet Czechoslovakia and is presently part of the Czech Republic[[/note]]

Poland's participation in the Sudetenland Crisis and the Munich talks [[http://hitchensblog.mailonsunday.co.uk/2013/10/the-polish-guarantee-churchill-speaks-.html was condemned in its time]] by French Minister Edouard Daladier and UsefulNotes/WinstonChurchill. The Soviets for their part warned Poland that their intervention in Czechoslavakia would abroagate their earlier Non-Agression Pact, though publicly after the pact, they updated and renewed it while secretly engaging in another round of talks with [[GambitRoulette England, France...and Nazi Germany]], before revealing the shocking Molotov-Ribbentrop pact a short while before the 1939 Invasion of Poland, the official start of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII.

DuringTheWar, Poland suffered one of the most brutal occupation in the world. The territory governed by [[AllYourBaseAreBelongToUs Nazi Germany was described by their Gauleiters as Generalgouvernment]] and it was this area that UsefulNotes/TheHolocaust was mainly conducted. The Nazi Invasion of Poland led to the declaration of war by Britian and France. The Poles [[DavidVersusGoliath fought brilliantly against overwhelming odds]] compared to the common opinion about their performance, but unfortunately the difference in power proved too large. Still, the Polish state [[IWillFightSomeMoreForever never surrendered]], and plenty of soldiers managed to [[IShallReturn escape to fight another day]]. The cavalry charging tanks was a myth, by the way; the incident that inspired this story involved a Polish cavalry division (actually mounted infantry, like most cavalry of the time, though with traditions and training) which routed a German infantry division but was counter-attacked by armoured cars. Additionally, while some Polish cavalry units ''did'' deliberately engage German armor, they did so dismounted while wielding [[BigFreakingGun anti-tank rifles]]. The Poles didn't take occupation lying down. As well as [[LaResistance running a resistance movement]] later organized into the Home Army, tens of thousands of Polish men escaped from the country and [[GovernmentInExile made their way to Britain and France to continue the fight]], forming entire squadrons of airmen and divisions of ground troops. By the end of the war, there were ~250 thousand Poles fighting alongside the Western Allies, with another ~200 thousand aiding the Soviets.

to:

In the years preceding the war, the Polish government tried to balance itself between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler had made the loss of territory (which in his mind included the land that Germans had settled in the Partitions and Dissolution of the Commonwealth) after UsefulNotes/WorldWarI to new Eastern European nations such as Czechoslovakia and Poland a campaign priority. To this end Piłsudski had signed Non-Aggression Pacts with the Soviet Union (1932) and Nazi Germany (1934) for pragmatic reasons to stave off a potential invasion from either power. With his death in 1935, the situation began to change. Hitler started to be even more brazen in violating the Versailles agreement about rearmament and the League of Nations, France and Britain were reluctant and intimidated to step in and rein in Germany. The Polish foreign policy greatly relied on Western allies to rein in one or both of its neighbours. This already tense situation was upset by the Sudetenland crisis, where Hitler made a play for the German majority regions in the Czech Republic and diplomats in France, England and the Soviet Union discussed their options, with the Soviet Union advocating military defense of Czechoslovakia (as per one of its committments to the new nation) but requesting passage of its troops through Polish territory in order to enforce it, a condition that Poland was categorical in its refusal. The Polish government eventually sided with Germany's partition of Czechoslavakia Czechoslovakia claiming the territory of Zaolzie (which had a Polish plurality[[note]]Poland and Czechoslavakia fought a war over it in 1919[[/note]]) as well as Czech Teschen, which was invaded by the Polish Army in 1938 and ceded to Poland after they issued an ultimatum to the government.[[note]]After WorldWarII, Teschen was ceded to Soviet Czechoslovakia and is presently part of the Czech Republic[[/note]]

Republic.[[/note]]

Poland's participation in the Sudetenland Crisis and the Munich talks [[http://hitchensblog.mailonsunday.co.uk/2013/10/the-polish-guarantee-churchill-speaks-.html was condemned in its time]] by French Minister Edouard Daladier and UsefulNotes/WinstonChurchill. The Soviets for their part warned Poland that their intervention in Czechoslavakia Czechoslovakia would abroagate abrogate their earlier Non-Agression Pact, though publicly after the pact, they updated and renewed it while secretly engaging in another round of talks with [[GambitRoulette England, France...France... and Nazi Germany]], before revealing the shocking Molotov-Ribbentrop pact a short while before the 1939 Invasion of Poland, the official start of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII.

DuringTheWar, Poland suffered one of the most brutal occupation occupations in the world. The territory governed by [[AllYourBaseAreBelongToUs Nazi Germany was described by their Gauleiters as Generalgouvernment]] and it was this area that UsefulNotes/TheHolocaust was mainly conducted. conducted on. The Nazi Invasion of Poland led to the declaration of war by Britian Britain and France. The Poles [[DavidVersusGoliath fought brilliantly against overwhelming odds]] compared to the common opinion about their performance, but unfortunately the difference in power proved too large. Still, the Polish state [[IWillFightSomeMoreForever never surrendered]], and plenty of soldiers managed to [[IShallReturn escape to fight another day]]. The cavalry charging tanks was a myth, by the way; the incident that inspired this story involved a Polish cavalry division (actually mounted infantry, like most cavalry of the time, though with traditions and training) which routed a German infantry division but was counter-attacked by armoured cars. Additionally, while some Polish cavalry units ''did'' deliberately engage German armor, they did so dismounted while wielding [[BigFreakingGun anti-tank rifles]]. The Poles didn't take occupation lying down. As well as [[LaResistance running a resistance movement]] later organized into the Home Army, tens of thousands of Polish men escaped from the country and [[GovernmentInExile made their way to Britain and France to continue the fight]], forming entire squadrons of airmen and divisions of ground troops. By the end of the war, there were ~250 thousand Poles fighting alongside the Western Allies, with another ~200 thousand aiding the Soviets.



Poland lost a fifth of its population in the war -- ''seven million'' people in all, mostly civilians. Out of a pre-war Jewish population of 3.3 million, only 300,000 survived (Poland's Jewish population were Polish citizens; Israel did not exist until after the war). A contentious issue among Poles is the wartime anti-semitism.[[note]]Not to be mistaken for "collaboration with Nazism" -- this would be an abuse of the term.[[/note]] While Poland was formerly religiously tolerant, during the 19th Century, anti-semitism had risen among parts of Poland and in the inter-war years. It is known that anti-semitic massacres such as the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jedwabne_pogrom Jedwabne massacre]] was conducted by Polish peasants, many of whom accused Polish Jews of being collaborators with the Soviets, leading to a [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%BBydokomuna particularly nasty strain]] with, naturally, very little basis in reality. After the Holocaust, several Jews who returned home [[HappyEndingOverride became victims of reprisals]] from citizens who had bought their property and killed them for returning. The Communists for their part, were quite happy to publicize these incidents and associate its opponents and Home Army sympathizers with fascist collaborators, while erasing their involvement in the Katyn massacre. It must be noted that [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rescue_of_Jews_by_Poles_during_the_Holocaust 6620 Poles are considered Righteous Among the Nations]], more than any other European nation. This includes author Janusz Korczak and the Catholic priest Maximilien Kolbe among others.[[note]]As a finishing note, Poles are ''really'' cranky about the phrase "Polish death camps" -- they see it as highly offensive loaded words. Think of calling the 9/11 WTC strikes "the act of American terror". Or better yet: "Jewish death camps" -- technically true, if you are into sophistry, but turning the meaning on its head.[[/note]]

to:

Poland lost a fifth of its population in the war -- ''seven million'' people in all, mostly civilians. Out of a pre-war Jewish population of 3.3 million, only 300,000 survived (Poland's Jewish population were Polish citizens; Israel did not exist until after the war). A contentious issue among Poles is the wartime anti-semitism.[[note]]Not to be mistaken for "collaboration with Nazism" -- this would be an abuse of the term.[[/note]] While Poland was formerly religiously tolerant, during the 19th Century, anti-semitism had risen among parts of Poland and in the inter-war years. It is known that anti-semitic massacres such as the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jedwabne_pogrom Jedwabne massacre]] was were conducted by Polish peasants, many of whom accused Polish Jews of being collaborators with the Soviets, leading to a [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%BBydokomuna particularly nasty strain]] with, naturally, very little basis in reality. After the Holocaust, several Jews who returned home [[HappyEndingOverride became victims of reprisals]] from citizens who had bought their property and killed them for returning. The Communists for their part, were quite happy to publicize these incidents and associate its opponents and Home Army sympathizers with fascist collaborators, while erasing their involvement in the Katyn massacre. It must be noted that [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rescue_of_Jews_by_Poles_during_the_Holocaust 6620 Poles are considered Righteous Among the Nations]], more than any other European nation. This includes author Janusz Korczak and the Catholic priest Maximilien (Maksymilian) Kolbe among others.[[note]]As a finishing note, Poles are ''really'' cranky about the phrase "Polish death camps" -- they see it as highly offensive loaded words. Think of calling the 9/11 WTC strikes "the act of American terror". Or better yet: "Jewish death camps" -- technically true, if you are into sophistry, but turning the meaning on its head.[[/note]]



After the war, the country was taken over by the UsefulNotes/RedsWithRockets. Present-day Poland is formed by absorbing the Kresy and other territories, pushing its eastern border west a few hundred miles. To compensate the Polish, however, the Soviet Union deposited them in former Eastern Germany, including areas like Silesia and Pomerania that had historically been German. This triggered the largest population exchange in history, with Poles and Germans kicked out of their respective ancestral homes. This accounts for the country's suspiciously straight borders (the western border follows the line of the Oder and Neisse rivers) and the fact that Warsaw, originally chosen as the capital for its central location, is no longer especially central. The new Poland under the eye of Soviet big brother undertook the task of agrarian reform, altering Poland's class structure (which involved land seizures and collectivization), rebuilding wartorn buildings and building new ones. This includes the massive [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palace_of_Culture_and_Science Warsaw Palace of Culture and Science]] (which is still the largest building in Poland and seventh in the European Union). That is not to say the new government did not bring some improvements with it, but as usual, it was packaged by a heavy dose of repression, exile, execution and the heavy air of PoliceState machinery. While early attempts at reform, such as [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_October the Polish October]] in the Khruschev Thaw provided Poland greater autonomy than other satellite nations, it eventually led to a new series of purges and counter-purges in imitation of Stalin, and like Stalin in his twilight years, involved a period of nasty anti-semitism masqueraded as striking against cosmopolitans.

A culture of dissent started growing in Poland. A youth movement fascinated by the West (aided by the CIA backed Radio Free Europe) was taking root. Some of them ironically found expression in the National Film School in Łódź, which recieved Soviet support but this led to the Polish New Wave which included rebels, future solidarity activists and defectors (the likes of Andrzej Wajda, Andrzej Munk, Jerzy Skolimowski and Creator/RomanPolanski). By TheSeventies, various labour protests reached an organizational stage and a trade union movement known as Solidarity took form. This originated in the Gdansk shipyards and was led by Lech Wałęsa, an electrician by training. Solidarity aimed to be an independent trade union unconnected to the Communist party, which was seen as a violation of communist doctrine, a challenge to its authority and, by the west, as a symbolic [[DeaderThanDisco discrediting of the ideals]] of Communism, since Solidarność can't be equated with fascist/trotskyist/fifth columnist traitors. This movement got the support of [[MisfitMobilizationMoment the middle-classes, the intelligentsia, dissident communists, right-wingers and the Catholic Church]] and it led to a series of non-violent protests, civil disobedience campaigns and most ironically, fittingly of all, a worker's strike over the firing of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anna_Walentynowicz Anna Walentynowicz]] at the [[MeaningfulName Lenin Shipyard]]. Prime Minister Wojciech Jaruzelski, who was also General of the Army, declared Martial Law in 1981 and made Poland into a literal PoliceState for the next two years. Then in the course of TheEighties, Jaruzelski released the main leaders of Solidarity and then granted an amnesty in 1986, later claiming that he declared Martial Law to prevent intervention by the Soviet Union, a point disputed by many former opponents, but also supported by some of Jaruzelski's former enemies such as Adam Michnik.

to:

After the war, the country was taken over by the UsefulNotes/RedsWithRockets. Present-day Poland is formed by absorbing the Kresy and other territories, territories into the Soviet Union, pushing its eastern border west a few hundred miles. To compensate the Polish, however, the Soviet Union deposited them in former Eastern Germany, including areas like Silesia and Pomerania that had historically been German.German[[note]]Silesia fell apart from Poland due to feudal fragmentation and ceased to be officially claimed as Polish territory during the reign of Casimir the Great, who also conquered the southern part of Kresy. Pomerania was a duchy with an on-off relationship with Poland before finally landing in the Holy Roman Empire's lap. Much like Kresy, all of them were heavily settled by new rulers, and Soviet propaganda presented the border shift as a return to the "original" borders.[[/note]]. This triggered the largest population exchange in history, with Poles and Germans kicked out of their respective ancestral homes. This accounts for the country's suspiciously straight borders (the western border follows the line of the Oder and Neisse rivers) and the fact that Warsaw, originally chosen as the capital for its central location, is no longer especially central. The new Poland under the eye of Soviet big brother undertook the task of agrarian reform, altering Poland's class structure (which involved land seizures and collectivization), rebuilding wartorn buildings and building new ones. This includes the massive [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palace_of_Culture_and_Science Warsaw Palace of Culture and Science]] (which is still the largest building in Poland and seventh in the European Union). That is not to say the new government did not bring some improvements with it, but as usual, it was packaged by a heavy dose of repression, exile, execution and the heavy air of PoliceState machinery. While early attempts at reform, such as [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_October the Polish October]] in the Khruschev Thaw provided Poland greater autonomy than other satellite nations, it eventually led to a new series of purges and counter-purges in imitation of Stalin, and like Stalin in his twilight years, involved a period of nasty anti-semitism masqueraded as striking against cosmopolitans.

A culture of dissent started growing in Poland. A youth movement fascinated by the West (aided by the CIA backed Radio Free Europe) was taking root. Some of them ironically found expression in the National Film School in Łódź, which recieved received Soviet support but this led to the Polish New Wave which included rebels, future solidarity activists and defectors (the likes of Andrzej Wajda, Andrzej Munk, Jerzy Skolimowski and Creator/RomanPolanski). By TheSeventies, various labour protests reached an organizational stage and a trade union movement known as Solidarity took form. This originated in the Gdansk shipyards and was led by Lech Wałęsa, an electrician by training. Solidarity aimed to be an independent trade union unconnected to the Communist party, which was seen as a violation of communist doctrine, a challenge to its authority and, by the west, as a symbolic [[DeaderThanDisco discrediting of the ideals]] of Communism, since Solidarność can't be equated with fascist/trotskyist/fifth columnist traitors. This movement got the support of [[MisfitMobilizationMoment the middle-classes, the intelligentsia, dissident communists, right-wingers and the Catholic Church]] and it led to a series of non-violent protests, civil disobedience campaigns and most ironically, ironically and fittingly of all, a worker's strike over the firing of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anna_Walentynowicz Anna Walentynowicz]] at the [[MeaningfulName Lenin Shipyard]]. In response, Prime Minister Wojciech Jaruzelski, who was also General of the Army, declared Martial Law in 1981 and made Poland into a literal PoliceState for the next two years. years[[note]]fun fact: the junta called itself one UnfortunateName after another, which just happened to sound like the word for crow or the male organ. You can imagine the jokes[[/note]]. Then in the course of TheEighties, Jaruzelski released the main leaders of Solidarity and then granted an amnesty in 1986, later claiming that he declared Martial Law to prevent intervention by the Soviet Union, a point disputed by many former opponents, dissidents, but also supported by some of Jaruzelski's former enemies such as Adam Michnik.
29th Oct '16 9:51:41 AM Veanne
Is there an issue? Send a Message


A diminutive sometimes just denotes that something is tiny (''Dałeś mi tę kanapeczkę?'' - You've given me this tiny sandwich?), is always (always) used in BabyTalk (''Zobacz, skarbie, kotek!'' - Look, darling, a kitty!), sometimes [[{{Irony}} ironically]] and sometimes by older people who don't realise how annoying they are. Moving on.

to:

A diminutive sometimes just denotes that something is tiny (''Dałeś mi tę kanapeczkę?'' - You've given me this tiny sandwich?), or [[CutenessProximity cute]] (''Jaki śliczny kiciuś!'' - What a cute kitty!), is always (always) used in BabyTalk (''Zobacz, skarbie, kotek!'' - Look, darling, a kitty!), sometimes [[{{Irony}} ironically]] and sometimes by older people who don't realise how annoying they are. Moving on.
24th Oct '16 10:36:14 AM DonPiano
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* dź ('''ji'''ngle)

to:

* dź ('''ji'''ngle)(voiced 'ć'; '''ji'''ngle)
24th Oct '16 10:35:02 AM DonPiano
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Polish language is hard, meaning it is both hard to learn and pronounce. It has many "hard" consonants like:

to:

The Polish language is hard, meaning it is both hard to learn and pronounce. It has many "hard" consonants like:



* sz ('''sh'''ampoo)
* ś (similar to 'sz', but softer; '''sh'''ow)

to:

* sz ('''sh'''ampoo)
(voiceless [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retroflex_consonant retroflex]] fricative, harder than "sh"; '''sh'''ampoo)
* ś (similar to 'sz', but softer; (voiceless [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alveolo-palatal_consonant alveolo-palatal]] fricative, palatized "sh"; '''sh'''ow)



* ż (mira'''ge''', like 'dż', but without 'd', somehow may seem longer for English speakers; in transcription this sound is rendered as "zh")
* ź (like 'z', but soft; lei'''s'''ure)

to:

* ż (mira'''ge''', (voiced retroflex fricative, similar to 'g' as in mira'''ge''', like 'dż', but without 'd', somehow may seem longer for English speakers; in transcription this sound is rendered as "zh")
* ź (like 'z', but soft; (voiced alveolo-palatal fricative, palatized "zh"; lei'''s'''ure)



* cz (tou'''ch''')
* ć ('''chi'''cken, often transliterated as 'ti')

to:

* cz (tou'''ch''')
(voiceless retroflex affricate; tou'''ch''')
* ć ('''chi'''cken, (voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative; '''chi'''cken; often transliterated as 'ti')



* dz ('d' and 'z', but one sound)
* dż ('''j'''ournal)

to:

* dz ('d' and 'z', but one sound)
(voiced 'c')
* dż ('''j'''ournal)(voiced "cz"; '''j'''ournal)



* ''Grzegorz Brzęczyszczykiewicz'' ([g ż e g o ż, b ż en cz y sz cz y ki e v i cz]) - a Polish name (the first name meaning: Gregory, last name means something similar to 'buzzing')

to:

* ''Grzegorz Brzęczyszczykiewicz'' ([g ż e g o ż, b ż en cz y sz cz y ki e v i cz]) - a Polish name (the first name meaning: Gregory, last name means something similar to 'buzzing')'Buzzingson')



Polish grammar is even harder than the pronunciation. There are thousands of rules, each with thousands of exceptions (though generally a lot more consistency than most languages in general, and especially English). Some (irregular) words do not obey any rule at all. Most meaningful words undergo inflection.

'''Example'''

to:

Polish grammar is even harder than the pronunciation. There are thousands of rules, each with thousands of exceptions (though generally a lot more consistency than most languages in general, and especially English). Some (irregular) words do not obey any rule at all. Most meaningful words undergo inflection.

'''Example'''
inflection. Grammatical gender is important, as it affects the inflection of all verbs, all adjectives and some numerals. Nouns are divided into personal animate, impersonal animate and impersonal inanimate, which changes masculine nouns' accusatives. There are even two plural genders that apply to everything but nouns - masculine-personal and non-masculine-personal, which changes depending on whether the plural word refers to a group that includes anything that can be called by a masculine personal noun or not.

'''Conjugation example'''



* ''wycierałem'' - I (a man) was wiping
* ''wycierałam'' - I (a woman) was wiping
* ''wycierałeś'' - you (a man) were wiping
* ''wycierałaś'' - you (a woman) were wiping

to:

* ''wycierałem'' - I (a man) (masculine) was wiping
* ''wycierałam'' - I (a woman) (feminine) was wiping
* ''wycierałeś'' - you (a man) (masculine) were wiping
* ''wycierałaś'' - you (a woman) (feminine) were wiping



* ''wycieraliśmy'' - we (men) were wiping
* ''wycierałyśmy'' - we (women) were wiping
* ''wycieraliście'' - You (men) were wiping (plural)
* ''wycierałyście'' - You (women) were wiping (plural)
* ''wycierali'' - they (men) were wiping
* ''wycierały'' - they (women) were wiping

to:

* ''wycieraliśmy'' - we (men) (masculine-personal) were wiping
* ''wycierałyśmy'' - we (women) (non-masculine-personal) were wiping
* ''wycieraliście'' - You (men) (masculine-personal) were wiping (plural)
* ''wycierałyście'' - You (women) (non-masculine-personal) were wiping (plural)
* ''wycierali'' - they (men) (masculine-personal) were wiping
* ''wycierały'' - they (women) (non-masculine-personal) were wiping



* ''wycierałbym'' - I (a man) would wipe
* ''wycierałabym'' - I (a woman) would wipe
* ''wycierałbyś'' - you (a man) would wipe
* ''wycierałabyś'' - you (a woman) would wipe

to:

* ''wycierałbym'' - I (a man) (masculine) would wipe
* ''wycierałabym'' - I (a woman) (feminine) would wipe
* ''wycierałbyś'' - you (a man) (masculine) would wipe
* ''wycierałabyś'' - you (a woman) (feminine) would wipe



* ''wycieralibyśmy'' - we (men) would wipe
* ''wycierałybyśmy'' - we (women) would wipe
* ''wycieralibyście'' - you (men) would wipe
* ''wycierałybyście'' - you (women) would wipe
* ''wycieraliby'' - they (men) would wipe
* ''wycierałyby'' - they (women) would wipe
* ''wycierający'' - a wiping man
* ''wycierająca'' - a wiping woman
* ''wycierające'' - wiping something

to:

* ''wycieralibyśmy'' - we (men) (masculine-personal) would wipe
* ''wycierałybyśmy'' - we (women) (non-masculine-personal) would wipe
* ''wycieralibyście'' - you (men) (masculine-personal) would wipe
* ''wycierałybyście'' - you (women) (non-masculine-personal) would wipe
* ''wycieraliby'' - they (men) (masculine-personal) would wipe
* ''wycierałyby'' - they (women) (non-masculine-personal) would wipe
* ''wycierający'' - a wiping man
(masculine or masculine-personal)
* ''wycierająca'' - a wiping woman
(feminine)
* ''wycierające'' - wiping something(neuter or non-masculine-personal)



* ''wycierany'' - a man being wiped
* ''wycierana'' - a woman being wiped
* ''wycierane'' - something being wiped

to:

* ''wycierany'' - a man being wiped
wiped (masculine)
* ''wycierany'' - being wiped (masculine-personal)
* ''wycierana'' - a woman being wiped
wiped (feminine)
* ''wycierane'' - something being wipedwiped (neuter or non-masculine-personal)
17th Oct '16 3:12:14 PM Morgenthaler
Is there an issue? Send a Message


During WW1, many Poles, including future leaders such as [[BadassMoustache Pilsudski]] and Sikorski, joined Austro-Hungarian forces[[note]]that's not to say there was no Russian-loyal faction. This role was played by chief political competitors of Piłsudski's faction, the Nationalists. The Nationalists adhered to a doctrine of a sort of political darwinism formulated by their leader, the skilled diplomat and ideologue Roman Dmowski, believing that stronger cultures inevitably take over the weaker ones. In this case they expected that Polish culture and Poles, given time, will ultimately take over Russia, while risking the same from well-organised Germans[[/note]]) and helped the Central Powers to establish a puppet Polish Kingdom in former Russian territory, as the lesser of two evils. If sent to the western front, they usually deserted to join the [[LegionOfLostSouls French Foreign Legion]]. After the war, foreign rule was cast off and Piłsudski and others founded a new, independent Poland which managed to defeat the Soviets in the UsefulNotes/PolishSovietWar against terrible, terrible odds through sheer strategic brilliance. This defeat convinced the Soviets that they weren't in any shape to spread their revolution, which kept them bottled up for about thirty years.

to:

During WW1, UsefulNotes/WW1, many Poles, including future leaders such as [[BadassMoustache Pilsudski]] and Sikorski, joined Austro-Hungarian forces[[note]]that's not to say there was no Russian-loyal faction. This role was played by chief political competitors of Piłsudski's faction, the Nationalists. The Nationalists adhered to a doctrine of a sort of political darwinism formulated by their leader, the skilled diplomat and ideologue Roman Dmowski, believing that stronger cultures inevitably take over the weaker ones. In this case they expected that Polish culture and Poles, given time, will ultimately take over Russia, while risking the same from well-organised Germans[[/note]]) and helped the Central Powers to establish a puppet Polish Kingdom in former Russian territory, as the lesser of two evils. If sent to the western front, they usually deserted to join the [[LegionOfLostSouls French Foreign Legion]]. After the war, foreign rule was cast off and Piłsudski and others founded a new, independent Poland which managed to defeat the Soviets in the UsefulNotes/PolishSovietWar against terrible, terrible odds through sheer strategic brilliance. This defeat convinced the Soviets that they weren't in any shape to spread their revolution, which kept them bottled up for about thirty years.
14th Oct '16 7:14:26 PM JokesOnYou
Is there an issue? Send a Message


The 16th and 17th Centuries comprised the UsefulNotes/PolishLithuanianCommonwealth are known as, respectively, the Golden Age and the Silver Age of Polish history, remembered for its "Golden Liberty", when [[ElectiveMonarchy kings were elected]] and the franchise included 10% of the population, by far the most inclusive in Europe until the end of the eighteenth century. The Commonwealth's legacy is disputed since nobody knows who truly represented it, and, this is important, who really inherits it. Until the Constitution of 3rd May, it was legally a union of two countries, Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The nobility of the Grand Duchy became for the most part Polonized, but the lower classes of Lithuania, like the lower classes of Poland were left out and Poland was identified as "the Noble nation". Poles see Poland as representative to all of the Commonwealth, ignoring the views of Lithuanians who see Lithuania as the successor to Grand Duchy. Ethnic Lithuanians were actually a minority in a country mostly made of modern-day Belarus, and (due to assimilation) their upper classes were culturally Polish anyway. Ukrainians consider themselves descendants of the Ruthenian population of the region, particularly those who formed the Cossack Host, even though the Cossacks themselves were at least as much [[{{Pirates}} an occupation]] as an ethnic group. [[note]]Belarussians had all of their upper classes assimilated, or killed off by Hitler and Stalin, so nobody was left to argue it's not just a swampy small part of Russia. All of the latter three, somewhat expectedly, also tend to see Poland as a sort of BigBrotherBully, although today Lithuanians and (Western) Ukrainians tend to look to Poland for help against the bigger bully to the east--Russia.[[/note]]

to:

The 16th and 17th Centuries comprised the UsefulNotes/PolishLithuanianCommonwealth are known as, respectively, the Golden Age and the Silver Age of Polish history, remembered for its "Golden Liberty", when [[ElectiveMonarchy kings were elected]] and the franchise included 10% of the population, by far the most inclusive in Europe until the end of the eighteenth century. The Commonwealth's legacy is disputed since nobody knows who truly represented it, and, this is important, who really inherits it. Until the Constitution of 3rd May, it was legally a union of two countries, Kingdom of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The nobility of the Grand Duchy became for the most part Polonized, but the lower classes of Lithuania, like the lower classes of Poland were left out and Poland was identified as "the Noble nation". Poles see Poland as representative to all of the Commonwealth, ignoring the views of Lithuanians who see Lithuania as the successor to Grand Duchy. Ethnic Lithuanians were actually a minority in a country mostly made of modern-day Belarus, and (due to assimilation) their upper classes were culturally Polish anyway. Ukrainians consider themselves descendants of the Ruthenian population of the region, particularly those who formed the Cossack Host, even though the Cossacks themselves were at least as much [[{{Pirates}} an occupation]] as an ethnic group. [[note]]Belarussians [[note]]Belarusians had all of their upper classes assimilated, or killed off by Hitler and Stalin, so nobody was left to argue it's not just a swampy small part of Russia. All of the latter three, somewhat expectedly, also tend to see Poland as a sort of BigBrotherBully, although today Lithuanians and (Western) Ukrainians tend to look to Poland for help against the bigger bully to the east--Russia.[[/note]]



The war experience in Poland was complicated by the Soviet Invasion of Poland, who seized the Eastern territories, the area of land known as Kresy (today part of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus with parts of Lithuania). This was part of the agreement of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and the Soviets stated that these were territories it had lost in the UsefulNotes/PolishSovietWar [[MexicoCalledTheyWantTexasBack and they wanted it back]].[[note]]The Kresy is a part of contentious debate in Polish-Russian/Ukrainian/Belorussian (and occasionally Lithuanian) relations, since they claim it was theirs historically and ethnically, incorporated into the Commonwealth via colonization, and the Polish nobles imposed their culture and started Polonization of the land but always remained a minority in the region. On the Polish part, this colonization went on for 600 years, so it was kind of too late for bringing that up, and besides this minority included some of the biggest centers of Polish culture. This area was annexed in the Third Partition of Poland and was claimed by Poland again after it regained independence. (Minor nitpick: the Soviets ceded all lands held by the Germans in the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, so ''de jure'' they no longer had a claim to it.)[[/note]] The Poles saw this as a double occupation from two invading powers, but since the Soviet Union was still "neutral", their British allies did not want to antagonize them and the Polish Home Army was consigned to fighting the Nazis. During the Soviet Occupation, the NKVD conducted the famous "Katyn massacre" of Polish officers, intelligentsia and other figures. 22,000 were killed in the forest and buried in a mass grave. When the Soviet Union joined the war during Operation Barbarossa, the Western Allies immediately recognized Kresy as Russian territory and later suppressed the Katyn massacre for propaganda reasons. Stalin, vacillating and mercurial as always, wavered over recognition of the Polish government-in-exile before finally settling on the Polish People's Republic, formed in the Soviet Union, comprised of Communists, as the legitimate government and the Polish People's Army as alternatives to the Home Army and the government in exile. The fear of an eventual Soviet takeover led to the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, the largest partisan operation during the war, which ended in failure, defeat, the destruction of Warsaw and the end of the Polish Home Army as any force to safeguard Poland's sovereignty, paving the way for its eventual Soviet Occupation.

to:

The war experience in Poland was complicated by the Soviet Invasion of Poland, who seized the Eastern territories, the area of land known as Kresy (today part of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus with parts of Lithuania). This was part of the agreement of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and the Soviets stated that these were territories it had lost in the UsefulNotes/PolishSovietWar [[MexicoCalledTheyWantTexasBack and they wanted it back]].[[note]]The Kresy is a part of contentious debate in Polish-Russian/Ukrainian/Belorussian Polish-Russian/Ukrainian/Belarusian (and occasionally Lithuanian) relations, since they claim it was theirs historically and ethnically, incorporated into the Commonwealth via colonization, and the Polish nobles imposed their culture and started Polonization of the land but always remained a minority in the region. On the Polish part, this colonization went on for 600 years, so it was kind of too late for bringing that up, and besides this minority included some of the biggest centers of Polish culture. This area was annexed in the Third Partition of Poland and was claimed by Poland again after it regained independence. (Minor nitpick: the Soviets ceded all lands held by the Germans in the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, so ''de jure'' they no longer had a claim to it.)[[/note]] The Poles saw this as a double occupation from two invading powers, but since the Soviet Union was still "neutral", their British allies did not want to antagonize them and the Polish Home Army was consigned to fighting the Nazis. During the Soviet Occupation, the NKVD conducted the famous "Katyn massacre" of Polish officers, intelligentsia and other figures. 22,000 were killed in the forest and buried in a mass grave. When the Soviet Union joined the war during Operation Barbarossa, the Western Allies immediately recognized Kresy as Russian territory and later suppressed the Katyn massacre for propaganda reasons. Stalin, vacillating and mercurial as always, wavered over recognition of the Polish government-in-exile before finally settling on the Polish People's Republic, formed in the Soviet Union, comprised of Communists, as the legitimate government and the Polish People's Army as alternatives to the Home Army and the government in exile. The fear of an eventual Soviet takeover led to the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, the largest partisan operation during the war, which ended in failure, defeat, the destruction of Warsaw and the end of the Polish Home Army as any force to safeguard Poland's sovereignty, paving the way for its eventual Soviet Occupation.
This list shows the last 10 events of 122. Show all.
http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.Poland