History UsefulNotes / Poland

2nd Apr '17 2:13:45 AM Jan_z_Michal
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*** In this gag the protagonist uses the name to confuse a Nazi officer who tries to write down his personal data (along with birth place: Chrząszczyżewoszczyce, powiat Łękołody). [[https://youtu.be/qDN4svYeTMo?t=48m27s Hitlerity ensues]].

to:

*** In this gag the protagonist uses the name to confuse a Nazi officer who tries to write down his personal data (along with birth place: Chrząszczyżewoszczyce, powiat Łękołody). [[https://youtu.be/qDN4svYeTMo?t=48m27s [[https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t-fcrn1Edik Hitlerity ensues]].
31st Mar '17 8:17:03 AM Morgenthaler
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Golden Liberty was a great inspiration for the American Revolution, but it had a flaw, to which we owe the existence of a strong US Presidency. The principle that Poland was a nation of nobles meant that the nobles did not represent anybody other than themselves and so lacked any constitutency beyond their folwarks. Yes, all nobles were equal[[note]]A popular phrase goes:''Szlachcic na zagrodzie równy wojewodzie'': "The Noble on his Estate is equal to the Count" which states that each member of the aristocracy was equal to each other -- apart from few Lithuanian families who styled themselves dukes as a GrandfatherClause, there were no ranks at all among nobility. The "Count" in the quoted text is just a TranslationConvention for a state office, as there was no such thing as a Count in the society of Commonwealth.[[/note]] and this meant every decision required unanimity and so any one noble could block any government decision (the ''Liberum Veto'' which ''EuropaUniversalis'' players might recognize). So it took only one guy to be bribed by UsefulNotes/{{Russia}}, UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}}, or UsefulNotes/{{Austria}} and that was it: the country was theirs. If a noble family decided to start developing Poland, as the Czartoryskis who formed a coalition known as [[TheFamilyForTheWholeFamily the Familia]], they could expect a noble revolt who resented the development of one part of Poland since it would take away trade from another part, the rise of Warsaw, under the policies of one Nobleman meant the decline of Gdansk under another nobleman, which in turn affected the BalanceOfPower since said nobleman had to deliver committments to their respective geopolitical sponsor, who in turn might decide to put their own candidate in the next "election". Enter King Stanisław August Poniatowski, elected by the Sejm, promoted and planted by UsefulNotes/CatherineTheGreat (he was a former lover of hers) to be her puppet, halting reforms and protecting Russia's interests. Yet Poniatowski, who became [[LastOfHisKind the last King of Poland]] was a reformer, a promoter of arts and sciences and sought to strengthen and develop Poland to catch up with its Western counterparts. These reforms angered the "three black eagles" of Russia, Prussia and Austria and it led to the first partition of Poland (1772), leading to the loss of its outer territories.

to:

Golden Liberty was a great inspiration for the American Revolution, but it had a flaw, to which we owe the existence of a strong US Presidency. The principle that Poland was a nation of nobles meant that the nobles did not represent anybody other than themselves and so lacked any constitutency beyond their folwarks. Yes, all nobles were equal[[note]]A popular phrase goes:''Szlachcic na zagrodzie równy wojewodzie'': "The Noble on his Estate is equal to the Count" which states that each member of the aristocracy was equal to each other -- apart from few Lithuanian families who styled themselves dukes as a GrandfatherClause, there were no ranks at all among nobility. The "Count" in the quoted text is just a TranslationConvention for a state office, as there was no such thing as a Count in the society of Commonwealth.[[/note]] and this meant every decision required unanimity and so any one noble could block any government decision (the ''Liberum Veto'' which ''EuropaUniversalis'' ''VideoGame/EuropaUniversalis'' players might recognize). So it took only one guy to be bribed by UsefulNotes/{{Russia}}, UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}}, or UsefulNotes/{{Austria}} and that was it: the country was theirs. If a noble family decided to start developing Poland, as the Czartoryskis who formed a coalition known as [[TheFamilyForTheWholeFamily the Familia]], they could expect a noble revolt who resented the development of one part of Poland since it would take away trade from another part, the rise of Warsaw, under the policies of one Nobleman meant the decline of Gdansk under another nobleman, which in turn affected the BalanceOfPower since said nobleman had to deliver committments to their respective geopolitical sponsor, who in turn might decide to put their own candidate in the next "election". Enter King Stanisław August Poniatowski, elected by the Sejm, promoted and planted by UsefulNotes/CatherineTheGreat (he was a former lover of hers) to be her puppet, halting reforms and protecting Russia's interests. Yet Poniatowski, who became [[LastOfHisKind the last King of Poland]] was a reformer, a promoter of arts and sciences and sought to strengthen and develop Poland to catch up with its Western counterparts. These reforms angered the "three black eagles" of Russia, Prussia and Austria and it led to the first partition of Poland (1772), leading to the loss of its outer territories.
21st Mar '17 8:15:08 AM JulianLapostat
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* DistaffCounterpart: To {{UsefulNotes/Ireland}}, in quite a number of ways
** Both countries are predominantly Roman Catholic and have a history of independence struggle that didn't start to pay off until the end of World War I.
** A long experience in emigration, particularly to the United States.
** The Polish and Irish Catholic Churches both enjoy a relatively high presitge in their respective countries, compared to most of Europe, and laws regarding some of the more touchy issues tend to be stricter there (ie. abortion).
** Both nations seem to have a similar set of stereotypes attached to them, such as general jovialness as well as some fondness for alcohol (although in the case of Poland it's more vodka than beer). Until recently, both were perceived as somewhat inept economically due to their chronic underdevelopment, however both managed to shake that stigma roughly at the same time in the 1990s, when Poland implemented a series of surprsingly well thought-out reforms (all the more impressive when you consider the absolutely disastrous situatiuon the country had been in under its communist regime) and Ireland experienced an economic boom on an unprecedented scale which turned it into one of the world's wealthiest, the fact that even the late-2000s real estate bust didn't manage to change.
** The two countries follow a foreign investment-friendly policy, with relatively low taxation on foreign companies establishing their bases there. This allowed for a significant reduction of unemployment, even though both Poland and Ireland are widely seen more as places for foreigners to get things down cheaper than at home rather than as sources of innovation and technologies. Both countries have tried to combat this trend to varying degrees of success.
** With all that in mind it's no wonder the Poles and Irish (from both sides of the border mind you!) seem to get along just fine, which was especially evident during the last two European Football Championship tournaments, as well as the fact that Ireland has been one of Poles' favorite emigration destination following Poland's accession to the European Union in 2004.
*** Several major differences include: unlike Ireland, Poland never lost its native language and its international status is pretty much settled, with no "outside regions" expressing an interest in mergin with Poland. Also, Poland was never isolated the way Ireland was: for a good chunk of its history it was pretty much your standard European kingdom with its own take on the Reformation, the Renaissance and the Enlightment. Consequently, Poland's traumatic history of tragic military losses and millions of victims is quite unlike that of Ireland, which hardly ever saw any actual military campaigns carried out on its own soil.
21st Mar '17 5:34:19 AM Jaro7788
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** With all that in mind it's no wonder the Poles and Irish (from both sides of the border mind you!) seem to get along really well, which was especially evident during the last two European Football Championship tournaments, as well as the fact that Ireland has been one of Poles' favorite emigration destination following Poland's accession to the European Union in 2004.
*** Several major differences include: unlike Ireland, Poland never lost its native language and its international status is pretty much settled, with no "outside regions" expressing an interest in mergin with Poland. Also, Poland was never isolated the way Ireland was: for a good chunk of its history it was pretty much your standard European kingdom with its own take on the Reformation, the Renaissance and the Enlightment.

to:

** The two countries follow a foreign investment-friendly policy, with relatively low taxation on foreign companies establishing their bases there. This allowed for a significant reduction of unemployment, even though both Poland and Ireland are widely seen more as places for foreigners to get things down cheaper than at home rather than as sources of innovation and technologies. Both countries have tried to combat this trend to varying degrees of success.
** With all that in mind it's no wonder the Poles and Irish (from both sides of the border mind you!) seem to get along really well, just fine, which was especially evident during the last two European Football Championship tournaments, as well as the fact that Ireland has been one of Poles' favorite emigration destination following Poland's accession to the European Union in 2004.
*** Several major differences include: unlike Ireland, Poland never lost its native language and its international status is pretty much settled, with no "outside regions" expressing an interest in mergin with Poland. Also, Poland was never isolated the way Ireland was: for a good chunk of its history it was pretty much your standard European kingdom with its own take on the Reformation, the Renaissance and the Enlightment. Consequently, Poland's traumatic history of tragic military losses and millions of victims is quite unlike that of Ireland, which hardly ever saw any actual military campaigns carried out on its own soil.
21st Mar '17 1:43:34 AM Jaro7788
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* BadassMustache -- Website/{{Cracked}}.com went as far as to claim Poland's fortune is dependent on the quality of her leader's facial hair.
* BlingOfWar -- the Winged Hussars tend to prop up in period fiction, if not for any other reason, then because you just can't turn down guys looking so crazy.
* ButtMonkey -- yeah, we spoke of it above.
* TheExile -- Polish artists in exile are a common trope in literature and life. Famous expat Poles include Chopin, Joseph Conrad and Roman Polanski.
* MeetTheNewBoss -- Poles tend to be quite bitter and cynical since almost any government inevitably uses, belittles and betrays them. They do have a point. There's a lot of grudges against Russia, Germany, the Western betrayal and so on. Inevitably people are disappointed by Solidarity too.
* MindScrew -- Polish history, is genuinely confusing for many outside observers to grasp (mostly because of how the map keeps changing all the damn time and mostly people wonder "what is Poland"). Polish nationalism on the whole is equally confusing mostly because the Polish after three hundred years of instability are themselves confused about it, and their movies, especially Skolimowski's and Wajda's reflect that confusion.
* LastStand -- Whether it's Kościuszko's doomed uprising, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the Warsaw Uprising of 1944, and the many other failed heroic attempts to resist or die trying, and they always do die trying.

to:

* BadassMustache -- BadassMustache: Website/{{Cracked}}.com went as far as to claim Poland's fortune is dependent on the quality of her leader's facial hair.
* BlingOfWar -- the BlingOfWar: The Winged Hussars tend to prop up in period fiction, if not for any other reason, then because you just can't turn down guys looking so crazy.
* ButtMonkey -- yeah, ButtMonkey: Yeah, we spoke of it above.
* TheExile -- DistaffCounterpart: To {{UsefulNotes/Ireland}}, in quite a number of ways
** Both countries are predominantly Roman Catholic and have a history of independence struggle that didn't start to pay off until the end of World War I.
** A long experience in emigration, particularly to the United States.
** The Polish and Irish Catholic Churches both enjoy a relatively high presitge in their respective countries, compared to most of Europe, and laws regarding some of the more touchy issues tend to be stricter there (ie. abortion).
** Both nations seem to have a similar set of stereotypes attached to them, such as general jovialness as well as some fondness for alcohol (although in the case of Poland it's more vodka than beer). Until recently, both were perceived as somewhat inept economically due to their chronic underdevelopment, however both managed to shake that stigma roughly at the same time in the 1990s, when Poland implemented a series of surprsingly well thought-out reforms (all the more impressive when you consider the absolutely disastrous situatiuon the country had been in under its communist regime) and Ireland experienced an economic boom on an unprecedented scale which turned it into one of the world's wealthiest, the fact that even the late-2000s real estate bust didn't manage to change.
** With all that in mind it's no wonder the Poles and Irish (from both sides of the border mind you!) seem to get along really well, which was especially evident during the last two European Football Championship tournaments, as well as the fact that Ireland has been one of Poles' favorite emigration destination following Poland's accession to the European Union in 2004.
*** Several major differences include: unlike Ireland, Poland never lost its native language and its international status is pretty much settled, with no "outside regions" expressing an interest in mergin with Poland. Also, Poland was never isolated the way Ireland was: for a good chunk of its history it was pretty much your standard European kingdom with its own take on the Reformation, the Renaissance and the Enlightment.
* TheExile:
Polish artists in exile are a common trope in literature and life. Famous expat Poles include Chopin, Joseph Conrad and Roman Polanski.
* MeetTheNewBoss -- MeetTheNewBoss: Poles tend to be quite bitter and cynical since almost any government inevitably uses, belittles and betrays them. They do have a point. There's a lot of grudges against Russia, Germany, the Western betrayal and so on. Inevitably people are disappointed by Solidarity too.
* MindScrew -- MindScrew: Polish history, is genuinely confusing for many outside observers to grasp (mostly because of how the map keeps changing all the damn time and mostly people wonder "what is Poland"). Polish nationalism on the whole is equally confusing mostly because the Polish after three hundred years of instability are themselves confused about it, and their movies, especially Skolimowski's and Wajda's reflect that confusion.
* LastStand -- LastStand: Whether it's Kościuszko's doomed uprising, the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, the Warsaw Uprising of 1944, and the many other failed heroic attempts to resist or die trying, and they always do die trying.
13th Mar '17 9:42:58 AM Jan_z_Michal
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Added DiffLines:

'''Third Polish Republic'''
13th Mar '17 9:36:54 AM Jan_z_Michal
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The war experience in Poland was complicated by the Soviet Invasion of Poland, who seized the Eastern territories, the area of land known as Kresy (today part of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus with parts of Lithuania). This was part of the agreement of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and the Soviets stated that these were territories it had lost in the UsefulNotes/PolishSovietWar [[MexicoCalledTheyWantTexasBack and they wanted it back]].[[note]]The Kresy is a part of contentious debate in Polish-Russian/Ukrainian/Belarusian (and occasionally Lithuanian) relations, since they claim it was theirs historically and ethnically, incorporated into the Commonwealth via colonization, and the Polish nobles imposed their culture and started Polonization of the land but always remained a minority in the region. On the Polish part, this colonization went on for 600 years, so it was kind of too late for bringing that up, and besides this minority included some of the biggest centers of Polish culture. This area was annexed in the Third Partition of Poland and was claimed by Poland again after it regained independence. (Minor nitpick: the Soviets ceded all lands held by the Germans in the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, so ''de jure'' they no longer had a claim to it.)[[/note]] The Poles saw this as a double occupation from two invading powers, but since the Soviet Union was still "neutral", their British allies did not want to antagonize them and the Polish Home Army was consigned to fighting the Nazis. During the Soviet Occupation, the NKVD conducted the famous "Katyn massacre" of Polish officers, intelligentsia and other figures. 22,000 were killed in the forest and buried in a mass grave. When the Soviet Union joined the war during Operation Barbarossa, the Western Allies immediately recognized Kresy as Russian territory and later suppressed the Katyn massacre for propaganda reasons. Stalin, vacillating and mercurial as always, wavered over recognition of the Polish government-in-exile before finally settling on the Polish People's Republic, formed in the Soviet Union, comprised of Communists, as the legitimate government and the Polish People's Army as alternatives to the Home Army and the government in exile. The fear of an eventual Soviet takeover led to the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, the largest partisan operation during the war, which ended in failure, defeat, the destruction of Warsaw and the end of the Polish Home Army as any force to safeguard Poland's sovereignty, paving the way for its eventual Soviet Occupation.

Poland lost a fifth of its population in the war -- ''seven million'' people in all, mostly civilians. Out of a pre-war Jewish population of 3.3 million, only 300,000 survived (Poland's Jewish population were Polish citizens; Israel did not exist until after the war). A contentious issue among Poles is the wartime anti-semitism.[[note]]Not to be mistaken for "collaboration with Nazism" -- this would be an abuse of the term.[[/note]] While Poland was formerly religiously tolerant, during the 19th Century, anti-semitism had risen among parts of Poland and in the inter-war years. It is known that anti-semitic massacres such as the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jedwabne_pogrom Jedwabne massacre]] were conducted by Polish peasants, many of whom accused Polish Jews of being collaborators with the Soviets, leading to a [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%BBydokomuna particularly nasty strain]] with, naturally, very little basis in reality. After the Holocaust, several Jews who returned home [[HappyEndingOverride became victims of reprisals]] from citizens who had bought their property and killed them for returning. The Communists for their part, were quite happy to publicize these incidents and associate its opponents and Home Army sympathizers with fascist collaborators, while erasing their involvement in the Katyn massacre. It must be noted that [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rescue_of_Jews_by_Poles_during_the_Holocaust 6620 Poles are considered Righteous Among the Nations]], more than any other European nation. This includes author Janusz Korczak and the Catholic priest Maximilien (Maksymilian) Kolbe among others.[[note]]As a finishing note, Poles are ''really'' cranky about the phrase "Polish death camps" -- they see it as highly offensive loaded words. Think of calling the 9/11 WTC strikes "the act of American terror". Or better yet: "Jewish death camps" -- technically true, if you are into sophistry, but turning the meaning on its head.[[/note]]

to:

The war experience in Poland was complicated by the Soviet Invasion of Poland, who seized the Eastern territories, the area of land known as Kresy (today part of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus with parts of Lithuania). This was part of the agreement of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and the Soviets stated that these were territories it had lost in the UsefulNotes/PolishSovietWar [[MexicoCalledTheyWantTexasBack and they wanted it back]].[[note]]The Kresy is a part of contentious debate in Polish-Russian/Ukrainian/Belarusian (and occasionally Lithuanian) relations, since they claim it was theirs historically and ethnically, incorporated into the Commonwealth via colonization, and the Polish nobles imposed their culture and started Polonization of the land but always remained a minority in the region. On the Polish part, this colonization went on for 600 years, so it was kind of too late for bringing that up, and besides this minority included some of the biggest centers of Polish culture. This area was annexed in the Third Partition of Poland and was claimed by Poland again after it regained independence. (Minor nitpick: the Soviets ceded all lands held by the Germans in the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, so ''de jure'' they no longer had a claim to it.)[[/note]] The Poles saw this as a double occupation from two invading powers, but since the Soviet Union was still "neutral", their British allies did not want to antagonize them and the Polish Home Army was consigned to fighting the Nazis. During the Soviet Occupation, the NKVD conducted the famous infamous "Katyn massacre" of Polish officers, intelligentsia and other figures. 22,000 were killed in the forest and buried in a mass grave. When the Soviet Union joined the war during Operation Barbarossa, the Western Allies immediately recognized Kresy as Russian territory and later suppressed the Katyn massacre for propaganda reasons. Stalin, vacillating and mercurial as always, wavered over recognition of the Polish government-in-exile before finally settling on the Polish People's Republic, formed in the Soviet Union, comprised of Communists, as the legitimate government and the Polish People's Army as alternatives to the Home Army and the government in exile. The fear of an eventual Soviet takeover led to the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, the largest partisan operation during the war, which ended in failure, defeat, the destruction of Warsaw and the end of the Polish Home Army as any force to safeguard Poland's sovereignty, paving the way for its eventual Soviet Occupation.

Poland lost a fifth of its population in the war -- ''seven million'' people in all, mostly civilians. Out of a pre-war Jewish population of 3.3 million, only 300,000 survived (Poland's Jewish population were Polish citizens; Israel did not exist until after the war). A contentious issue among Poles is the wartime anti-semitism.[[note]]Not to be mistaken for "collaboration with Nazism" -- this would be an abuse of the term.[[/note]] While Poland was formerly religiously tolerant, during the 19th Century, anti-semitism had risen among parts of Poland and in the inter-war years. It is known that anti-semitic massacres such as the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jedwabne_pogrom Jedwabne massacre]] were conducted by Polish peasants, many of whom accused Polish Jews of being collaborators with the Soviets, leading to a [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%BBydokomuna org/wiki/Żydokomuna particularly nasty strain]] with, naturally, very little basis in reality. After the Holocaust, several Jews who returned home [[HappyEndingOverride became victims of reprisals]] from citizens who had bought their property and killed them for returning. The Communists for their part, were quite happy to publicize these incidents and associate its opponents and Home Army sympathizers with fascist collaborators, while erasing their involvement in the Katyn massacre. It must be noted that [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rescue_of_Jews_by_Poles_during_the_Holocaust 6620 Poles are considered Righteous Among the Nations]], more than any other European nation. This includes author Janusz Korczak and the Catholic priest Maximilien (Maksymilian) Kolbe among others.[[note]]As a finishing note, Poles are ''really'' cranky about the phrase "Polish death camps" -- they see it as highly offensive loaded words. Think of calling the 9/11 WTC strikes "the act of American terror". Or better yet: "Jewish death camps" -- technically true, if you are into sophistry, but turning the meaning on its head.[[/note]]
8th Mar '17 8:35:26 AM Jan_z_Michal
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** To clarify, this isn't actually a popular surname; it was used as a gag in a Polish comedy movie and became somewhat of a meme since then.

to:

** To clarify, this isn't actually a popular surname; it was used as a gag in [[Film/HowIUnleashedWorldWarII a Polish comedy movie movie]] and became somewhat of a meme since then.
6th Mar '17 1:21:48 PM Jan_z_Michal
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** To clarify, this isn't actually a popular name; it was used as a gag in a Polish comedy movie and became somewhat of a meme since then.
*** In this gag the protagonist uses the name to confuse a Nazi officer who tries to write down his personal data (along with birth place: Chrząszczyżewoszczyce, powiat Łękołody). [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rmgbmysiJH0 Hitlerity ensues]].
*** Also, the entire scene is based on a gag from a book that served as the basis for another Polish comedy, ''Film/CKDezerterzy''. In "CK Dezerterzy", the protagonist Kania identifies himself as "Szczepan Brzęczyszczewski" to an Austrian officer, and gives his birthplace as "Mszczonowieścice, gmina Grzmiszczosławice, powiat Trzcinogrzechotnikowo".


to:

** To clarify, this isn't actually a popular name; surname; it was used as a gag in a Polish comedy movie and became somewhat of a meme since then.
*** In this gag the protagonist uses the name to confuse a Nazi officer who tries to write down his personal data (along with birth place: Chrząszczyżewoszczyce, powiat Łękołody). [[http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rmgbmysiJH0 [[https://youtu.be/qDN4svYeTMo?t=48m27s Hitlerity ensues]].
*** Also, the entire scene is based on a gag from a book that served as the basis for another Polish comedy, ''Film/CKDezerterzy''. In "CK Dezerterzy", the protagonist Kania identifies himself as "Szczepan Brzęczyszczewski" to an Austrian officer, and gives his birthplace as "Mszczonowieścice, gmina Grzmiszczosławice, powiat Trzcinogrzechotnikowo".

Trzcinogrzechotnikowo". And those are hard to pronouce fast even for Poles.

5th Mar '17 5:13:29 AM Jan_z_Michal
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During UsefulNotes/WW1, many Poles, including future leaders such as [[BadassMoustache Pilsudski]] and Sikorski, joined Austro-Hungarian forces[[note]]that's not to say there was no Russian-loyal faction. This role was played by chief political competitors of Piłsudski's faction, the Nationalists. The Nationalists adhered to a doctrine of a sort of political darwinism formulated by their leader, the skilled diplomat and ideologue Roman Dmowski, believing that stronger cultures inevitably take over the weaker ones. In this case they expected that Polish culture and Poles, given time, will ultimately take over Russia, while risking the same from well-organised Germans[[/note]]) and helped the Central Powers to establish a puppet Polish Kingdom in former Russian territory, as the lesser of two evils. If sent to the western front, they usually deserted to join the [[LegionOfLostSouls French Foreign Legion]]. After the war, foreign rule was cast off and Piłsudski and others founded a new, independent Poland which managed to defeat the Soviets in the UsefulNotes/PolishSovietWar against terrible, terrible odds through sheer strategic brilliance. This defeat convinced the Soviets that they weren't in any shape to spread their revolution, which kept them bottled up for about thirty years.

to:

During UsefulNotes/WW1, many Poles, including future leaders such as [[BadassMoustache Pilsudski]] Piłsudski]] and Sikorski, joined Austro-Hungarian forces[[note]]that's not to say there was no Russian-loyal faction. This role was played by chief political competitors of Piłsudski's faction, the Nationalists. The Nationalists adhered to a doctrine of a sort of political darwinism formulated by their leader, the skilled diplomat and ideologue Roman Dmowski, believing that stronger cultures inevitably take over the weaker ones. In this case they expected that Polish culture and Poles, given time, will ultimately take over Russia, while risking the same from well-organised Germans[[/note]]) and helped the Central Powers to establish a puppet Polish Kingdom in former Russian territory, as the lesser of two evils. If sent to the western front, they usually deserted to join the [[LegionOfLostSouls French Foreign Legion]]. After the war, foreign rule was cast off and Piłsudski and others founded a new, independent Poland which managed to defeat the Soviets in the UsefulNotes/PolishSovietWar against terrible, terrible odds through sheer strategic brilliance. This defeat convinced the Soviets that they weren't in any shape to spread their revolution, which kept them bottled up for about thirty years.



** UsefulNotes/TheTeutonicKnights are bad, UsefulNotes/RonaldReagan is good, Pilsudski is a hero and don't call him a dictator, even if he was one. Poland had a historically close relationship with the UnitedStates after the fall of communism and one of her most loyal allies. Poles are, on the whole, less turned off by hawkish American politicians than the rest of Europe, and several Polish intellectuals eagerly supported the Iraq War.

to:

** UsefulNotes/TheTeutonicKnights are bad, UsefulNotes/RonaldReagan is good, Pilsudski good[[note]]for his stance against USSR[[/note]], Piłsudski is a hero and don't call him a dictator, even if he was one. Poland had a historically close relationship with the UnitedStates after the fall of communism and one of her most loyal allies. Poles are, on the whole, less turned off by hawkish American politicians than the rest of Europe, and several Polish intellectuals eagerly supported the Iraq War.
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