History UsefulNotes / Poland

24th Aug '17 10:32:43 AM Veanne
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** Jakub (''James/Jacob''): Kuba, Kubuś (Polish version of Literature/WinnieThePooh is called "Kubuś Puchatek" - we don't know why[[note]]There is this thing, that many Poles brlieve that Winnie the Pooh is femmale, cause it was a mistake in first, now quite obscure polish translation, and we would try to find a teason why he's a male in second, cult translation... the truth is, that second translator, Irena Kwiatkowska, just did a better research[[/note]] )

to:

** Jakub (''James/Jacob''): Kuba, Kubuś (Polish version of Literature/WinnieThePooh is called "Kubuś Puchatek" - we don't know why[[note]]There is this thing, that why[[note]]Apparently, many Poles brlieve believe that Winnie the Pooh is femmale, cause it was ''female'', because of a mistake in first, now quite obscure polish obscure, Polish translation, and we would try confused as to find a teason why he's a male in the second, cult widely-known translation... the truth is, that the second translator, Irena Kwiatkowska, just did a better research[[/note]] )research.[[/note]])
21st Aug '17 1:23:40 AM Azymunt
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** Jakub (''James/Jacob''): Kuba, Kubuś (Polish version of Literature/WinnieThePooh is called "Kubuś Puchatek" - we don't know why[[note]]There is this thing, that many Poles brlieve that Winnie the Pooh is femmale, cause it was a mistake in first, now qite obscure polish translation, and we would try to find a teason why he's a male in second, cult translation... the truth is, that second translator,
Irena Kwiatkowska, just did a better research[[/note]])

to:

** Jakub (''James/Jacob''): Kuba, Kubuś (Polish version of Literature/WinnieThePooh is called "Kubuś Puchatek" - we don't know why[[note]]There is this thing, that many Poles brlieve that Winnie the Pooh is femmale, cause it was a mistake in first, now qite quite obscure polish translation, and we would try to find a teason why he's a male in second, cult translation... the truth is, that second translator,
translator, Irena Kwiatkowska, just did a better research[[/note]])research[[/note]] )
21st Aug '17 1:20:12 AM Azymunt
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** Jakub (''James/Jacob''): Kuba, Kubuś (Polish version of Literature/WinnieThePooh is called "Kubuś Puchatek" - we don't know why[[note]]There is teory, that since A. A. Milne named his character after a real bear in real zoo, polish translator Irena Kwiatkowska just used a name of some bear in polish zoo, disregarding gender diffrence, as it doesn't play a big role in the book. Or was it done out of belief, that children book targeting both genders should have male protagonist? It was a thing back in a day. anyway, case still needs more research.[[/note]])

to:

** Jakub (''James/Jacob''): Kuba, Kubuś (Polish version of Literature/WinnieThePooh is called "Kubuś Puchatek" - we don't know why[[note]]There is teory, this thing, that since A. A. Milne named his character after many Poles brlieve that Winnie the Pooh is femmale, cause it was a real bear mistake in real zoo, first, now qite obscure polish translator translation, and we would try to find a teason why he's a male in second, cult translation... the truth is, that second translator,
Irena Kwiatkowska Kwiatkowska, just used did a name of some bear in polish zoo, disregarding gender diffrence, as it doesn't play a big role in the book. Or was it done out of belief, that children book targeting both genders should have male protagonist? It was a thing back in a day. anyway, case still needs more research.[[/note]])better research[[/note]])
20th Aug '17 3:24:50 PM Jan_z_Michal
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To make things more complicated, the vocative [[note]]a declension form used for addressing people[[//note]] ending with -u is often incorrectly used in place of nominative (as subject) which ends with -o (for example Jasiu, Zbychu).[[note]]Ending a name with -u gives the name a bit of a folksy and/or edgy sound, but it is not universal.[[//note]] Generally, the vocative of names is falling out of use, especially among the younger speakers, but we still do it with common names - see the "skarbie" in examples above (the nominative [[note]]a declension form used for the subject of a sentence[[//note]] "skarb" would '''not''' work there - it's a grammar thing).

to:

To make things more complicated, the vocative [[note]]a declension form used for addressing people[[//note]] people[[/note]] ending with -u is often incorrectly used in place of nominative (as subject) which ends with -o (for example Jasiu, Zbychu).[[note]]Ending a name with -u gives the name a bit of a folksy and/or edgy sound, but it is not universal.[[//note]] [[/note]] Generally, the vocative of names is falling out of use, especially among the younger speakers, but we still do it with common names - see the "skarbie" in examples above (the nominative [[note]]a declension form used for the subject of a sentence[[//note]] sentence[[/note]] "skarb" would '''not''' work there - it's a grammar thing).
20th Aug '17 3:23:40 PM Jan_z_Michal
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To make things more complicated, the vocative [[note]]a declension form used for addressing people[[//note]] ending with -u is often incorrectly used in place of nominative (as subject) which ends with -o (for example Jasiu, Zbychu).[[note]]Ending a name with -u gives the name a bit of a folksy and/or edgy sound, but it is not universal.[[/note]] Generally, the vocative of names is falling out of use, especially among the younger speakers, but we still do it with common names - see the "skarbie" in examples above (the nominative [[note]]a declension form used for the subject of a sentence[[//note]] "skarb" would '''not''' work there - it's a grammar thing).

to:

To make things more complicated, the vocative [[note]]a declension form used for addressing people[[//note]] ending with -u is often incorrectly used in place of nominative (as subject) which ends with -o (for example Jasiu, Zbychu).[[note]]Ending a name with -u gives the name a bit of a folksy and/or edgy sound, but it is not universal.[[/note]] [[//note]] Generally, the vocative of names is falling out of use, especially among the younger speakers, but we still do it with common names - see the "skarbie" in examples above (the nominative [[note]]a declension form used for the subject of a sentence[[//note]] "skarb" would '''not''' work there - it's a grammar thing).
20th Aug '17 3:15:39 PM Azymunt
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** Jakub (''James/Jacob''): Kuba, Kubuś (Polish version of Literature/WinnieThePooh is called "Kubuś Puchatek" - we don't know why[[note]]There is teory, that since A. A. Milne named his character after a real bear in real zoo, polish translator Irena Kwiatkowska just used a name of some bear in polish zoo, disregarding gender diffrebce, as it doesn't play a big role in the book. Or was it done out of belief, that children book targeting both genders should have male protagonist? It was a thing back in a day. anyway, case still needs more research.[[/note]])

to:

** Jakub (''James/Jacob''): Kuba, Kubuś (Polish version of Literature/WinnieThePooh is called "Kubuś Puchatek" - we don't know why[[note]]There is teory, that since A. A. Milne named his character after a real bear in real zoo, polish translator Irena Kwiatkowska just used a name of some bear in polish zoo, disregarding gender diffrebce, diffrence, as it doesn't play a big role in the book. Or was it done out of belief, that children book targeting both genders should have male protagonist? It was a thing back in a day. anyway, case still needs more research.[[/note]])
20th Aug '17 3:14:06 PM Azymunt
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** Jakub (''James/Jacob''): Kuba, Kubuś (Polish version of Literature/WinnieThePooh is called "Kubuś Puchatek" - we don't know why)

to:

** Jakub (''James/Jacob''): Kuba, Kubuś (Polish version of Literature/WinnieThePooh is called "Kubuś Puchatek" - we don't know why)why[[note]]There is teory, that since A. A. Milne named his character after a real bear in real zoo, polish translator Irena Kwiatkowska just used a name of some bear in polish zoo, disregarding gender diffrebce, as it doesn't play a big role in the book. Or was it done out of belief, that children book targeting both genders should have male protagonist? It was a thing back in a day. anyway, case still needs more research.[[/note]])
20th Aug '17 2:52:10 PM Azymunt
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Fun fact - the word ''stołek'' is also a diminutive form of ''stół'', but refers to a chair (stool).

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Fun fact - the word ''stołek'' is also a diminutive form of ''stół'', ''stół'' (table), but refers to a chair (stool).
18th Aug '17 11:07:20 AM Veanne
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For you English-speakers, diminutive means sticking a [[YourLittleDismissiveDiminutive little word "little"]] in front of a noun. Polish has grammatical morphemes for that - there's ''kot'' (a cat) and ''kotek'' (a little cat - not necessarily kitten, there's another word for that). ''Stół'' (table) and ''stolik'' (a small table, like a nightstand). Some words have several diminutive forms, there also exist [[UpToEleven diminutive forms of diminutive forms]] - in this case, ''koteczek'' and ''kiciuś'' - which can also be inflected by gender ( where ''kotek'', ''koteczek'' and ''kiciuś'' are male - and default if the animal's gender is not known - ''kotka'', ''kicia'', ''koteczka'' and ''kiciusia'' are female).

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For you English-speakers, diminutive means sticking a [[YourLittleDismissiveDiminutive little word "little"]] in front of a noun. Polish has grammatical morphemes for that - there's ''kot'' (a cat) and ''kotek'' (a little cat - not necessarily kitten, there's another word for that). ''Stół'' (table) and ''stolik'' (a small table, like a nightstand). Some words have several diminutive forms, there also exist [[UpToEleven diminutive forms of diminutive forms]] - in this case, ''koteczek'' and ''kiciuś'' - which can also be inflected by gender ( where ''kotek'', ''koteczek'' and ''kiciuś'' are male - and default if the animal's gender is not known - ''kotka'', grammatically male, while ''kicia'', ''koteczka'' and ''kiciusia'' are female).
female)[[note]]Also note that a female cat is called ''kotka'', which sounds kind of diminutive but isn't[[/note]].



In general: "ń" makes the already diminutive name [[RuleOfCute more diminuitive]]. Same goes for ś at the end. For rebellious teens: shortening (and sometimes adding -ek, -ka, especially after already diminutive forms ending with -ś or similar sound) makes the diminutive name less diminutive, but still informal. Endings -ek, -ka can also make name very cute, when no diminutive is commonly used (Łukaszek from Łukasz (''Lukas''), Karolek from Karol (''Charles''; used by Melanie for Scarlett's first husband in Polish translation of ''Literature/GoneWithTheWind''), Marylka from Maryla (''Marilla'')).

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In general: "ń" makes the already diminutive name [[RuleOfCute more diminuitive]]. Same goes for ś at the end. For rebellious teens: shortening (and sometimes adding -ek, -ka, especially after already diminutive forms ending with -ś or similar sound) makes the diminutive name less diminutive, but still informal. Endings -ek, -ka can also stuck to a name will make name very cute, when no is a diminutive is commonly used (Łukaszek from Łukasz (''Lukas''), Karolek from Karol (''Charles''; used by Melanie for Scarlett's first husband in Polish translation of ''Literature/GoneWithTheWind''), Marylka from Maryla (''Marilla'')).



In formal settings, only the base forms are used - you can call your friend "Janek", but his checks are always signed "Jan". [[note]]Some people try to use their informal names in formal settings, after the American convention of "Bill" or "Jack" but this sounds ridiculous, unless you're a rock star. And rarely, but still parents can get creative (or cruel) and your name ''is'' a diminuitive, requiring constant corrections each time a clerk automatically fills some paper or form with formal version of said name.[[/note]] There's a sketch in which part of the humour is derived from a grown ([[TheCasanova to maturity]]) guy [[InsistentTerminology insistently calling himself]] a "baby" name in a very inappropiate setting (courtroom). BetterThanItSounds.

Some popular names, their commonly used diminutives and English equivalents[[note]]There are no traditional {{Gender Blender Name}}s, feminine ending -a appears in masculine name form "Kuba" and in rarer names "Barnaba" (''Barnabas'') and "Bonawentura" (''Bonaventure''), but they are never used for girls; on the other hand, "Maria" (''Mary'') is an exeptional female name that can be also used as a middle (second) name (never as a first name) for males, which is rarely practiced and often leads to an EmbarrassingMiddleName.[[/note]]:

to:

In formal settings, only the base forms are used - you can call your friend "Janek", but his checks are always signed "Jan". [[note]]Some people try to use their informal names in formal settings, after the American convention of "Bill" or "Jack" but this sounds ridiculous, unless you're a rock star. And rarely, but still parents can get [[WhoNamesTheirKidDude creative (or cruel) cruel)]] and your name ''is'' a diminuitive, diminutive, requiring constant corrections a weary correction each time a clerk automatically fills some paper or form with the formal version of said name.[[/note]] There's a sketch in which part of the humour is derived from a grown ([[TheCasanova to maturity]]) guy [[InsistentTerminology insistently calling himself]] a "baby" name in a very inappropiate setting (courtroom). BetterThanItSounds.

Some popular names, their commonly used diminutives diminutives/augmentatives and English equivalents[[note]]There are no traditional {{Gender Blender Name}}s, feminine ending -a appears in masculine name form "Kuba" and in rarer names "Barnaba" (''Barnabas'') and "Bonawentura" (''Bonaventure''), but they are never used for girls; on the other hand, "Maria" (''Mary'') is an exeptional female name that can be also used as a middle (second) name (never as a first name) for males, which is rarely practiced and often leads to an EmbarrassingMiddleName.[[/note]]:



** Barbara (''Barbara''): [[Literature/SienkiewiczTrilogy Basia]], Basieńka, Baśka (this is a less diminuitive form!)
** Małgorzata (''Margaret''): Gosia, Małgosia, Gośka (less diminutive)

to:

** Barbara (''Barbara''): [[Literature/SienkiewiczTrilogy Basia]], Basieńka, Baśka (this (note: in Literature/SienkiewiczTrilogy, Basia's husband affectionately calls her "Baśka" and this is a less diminuitive form!)
in practice in RealLife)
** Małgorzata (''Margaret''): Gosia, Małgosia, Gośka (less diminutive)Gośka



** Katarzyna (''Katherine''): Kasia, Kaśka (less diminutive), Katarzynka
** Joanna (''Joan''): Joasia, Asia, Aśka (less diminutive), Asiczek (strange form)
** Zuzanna (''Susan''): Zuzia, Zuza, Zuzka (less diminutive)

to:

** Katarzyna (''Katherine''): Kasia, Kaśka (less diminutive), Katarzynka
Kaśka, Katarzynka (kind of playful-sounding)
** Joanna (''Joan''): Joasia, Asia, Aśka (less diminutive), Aśka, Asiczek (strange form)
** Zuzanna (''Susan''): Zuzia, Zuza, Zuzka (less diminutive)Zuzka, Zuzanka (only for pigtails and frilly skirt age, or if she's [[SickeninglySweethearts your girlfriend]])



** Jakub (''James/Jacob''): Kuba, Kubuś (very cute)
** Zbigniew (Slavic again): Zbyszek, Zbysio, Zbycho (less diminutive, a "guy" name)

to:

** Jakub (''James/Jacob''): Kuba, Kubuś (very cute)
(Polish version of Literature/WinnieThePooh is called "Kubuś Puchatek" - we don't know why)
** Zbigniew (Slavic again): Zbyszek, Zbysio, Zbycho (less diminutive, a "guy" name)("tough guy"-ish sounding)



To make things more complicated, vocative (declension form used when you call somebody, not as subject) ending with -u is often incorrectly used in place of nominative (as subject) which ends with -o (for example Jasiu, Zbychu).[[note]]Ending a name with -u gives the name a bit of a folksy and/or edgy sound, but it is not universal.[[/note]] Generally, vocative of names is rarely used, especially by younger speakers, but for common nouns it's more common, like "skarbie" above (nominative "skarb" would '''not''' work there - it's a grammar thing).

to:

To make things more complicated, the vocative (declension [[note]]a declension form used when you call somebody, not as subject) for addressing people[[//note]] ending with -u is often incorrectly used in place of nominative (as subject) which ends with -o (for example Jasiu, Zbychu).[[note]]Ending a name with -u gives the name a bit of a folksy and/or edgy sound, but it is not universal.[[/note]] Generally, the vocative of names is rarely used, falling out of use, especially by among the younger speakers, but for we still do it with common nouns it's more common, like names - see the "skarbie" in examples above (nominative (the nominative [[note]]a declension form used for the subject of a sentence[[//note]] "skarb" would '''not''' work there - it's a grammar thing).



Fun fact - foreign names are considered either pompous or are associated with lower classes. For example, while English names like Kevin, Jessica or Brian and their Polonised forms are ''somewhat'' popular (just don't expect them to be widespread), they are also punchline of jokes about lowest of low and carry a hefty social stigma.

There are middle names in Poland but, unlike in the East Slavic countries, these are optional and are one hundred per cent dependant on the parents' decision rather than their own names. This name will be present in all your documents: ID, registrations, deeds, diplomas and so on, even if it might be otherwise absent from your life. And if you happen to be Catholic (most Poles are), you end up picking by yourself your second (or third) name after a saint during confirmation, but that name exists only in Church documents. A common practical joke: adress mail with [[OverlyLongName all three names and surname, since it usually barely fits on the envelope]].

to:

Fun fact - foreign names are considered either pompous or are associated with lower classes. For example, while English names like Kevin, Jessica or Brian and their Polonised forms are ''somewhat'' popular (just don't expect them to be widespread), they are also punchline of jokes about the lowest of low and carry a hefty social stigma.

There are middle names in Poland but, unlike in the East Slavic countries, these are optional and are one hundred per cent dependant on the parents' decision rather than their own names. This The middle name will be present in all of your documents: ID, [=ID=], registrations, deeds, diplomas and so on, even if it might be otherwise absent from your life. And if you happen to be Catholic (most (as most Poles are), you end up picking by yourself will be choosing your own second (or third) or third name after (of a patron saint you'd like to keep watch over you) during confirmation, but that name only exists only in Church documents. A common practical joke: adress address mail with [[OverlyLongName all three names and surname, since it usually barely fits on the envelope]].



A note about noblemen's names - an old-style nobleman would list the coat of arms (''herb'') to which his family belonged as a part of his name. A gentleman Mr. Długoszowski may thus call himself "Wieniawa-Długoszowski" (as his family belongs to the Wieniawa coat of arms), or even "Długoszowski herbu Wieniawa". But as the nobility died as a social class, the coat of arms fell out of favour. Some people still use the hyphenated form nowadays, but it is a name like any other (ie. no ancestral castles to go with it). [[labelnote:Explanation]]To explain why does he do it this way, we need to bring up both the traditions of Polish nobility and the Roman naming customs. A coat of arms didn't belong to a single family, more like groups of families shared a single coat of arms. Think widely branched clan or something like that (adoption notwithstanding). So, while introducing himself he also lists his family's clan allegiance. The hyphenated form was inspired by the Roman convention of ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_naming_conventions tria nomina]]'', with the coat of arms standing for clan name ''nomen'' - and since it is handier if you want everyone to know about your family history (and in later times less pretentious), it gained popularity. Generally speaking, the more modern a setting, the lower chance somebody uses the "X of Y" form.[[/labelnote]] Double-barelled names also show up in mentions of people known for using pseudonyms, such as wartime resistance fighters adding their nom-de-guerre to their full name (like general Bor-Komorowski), and may be carried by married women (see below).

to:

A note about noblemen's names - an old-style nobleman would list the coat of arms (''herb'') to which his family belonged as a part of his name. A gentleman Mr. Długoszowski may thus call himself "Wieniawa-Długoszowski" (as his family belongs to the Wieniawa coat of arms), or even "Długoszowski herbu Wieniawa". But as the nobility died as a social class, the coat of arms fell out of favour. Some people still use the hyphenated form nowadays, but it is a name like any other (ie. no ancestral castles to go with it). [[labelnote:Explanation]]To explain why does he do it this way, we need to bring up both the traditions of Polish nobility and the Roman naming customs. A coat of arms didn't belong to a single family, more like groups of families shared a single coat of arms. Think widely branched clan or something like that (adoption notwithstanding). So, while introducing himself he also lists his family's clan allegiance. The hyphenated form was inspired by the Roman convention of ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_naming_conventions tria nomina]]'', with the coat of arms standing for clan name ''nomen'' - and since it is handier if you want everyone to know about your family history (and in later times less pretentious), it gained popularity. Generally speaking, the more modern a setting, the lower chance somebody uses the "X of Y" form.[[/labelnote]] Double-barelled names also show up in mentions of people known for using pseudonyms, such as wartime resistance fighters adding their nom-de-guerre to their full name (like general Bor-Komorowski), and may be carried used by married women (see below).



Anna, though - if you're feeling modern, call her Anna Kowalik. No problem. If she were the wife of Piotr Kowalski, she'd be called Anna Kowalsk'''a''' - adjective-like names inflect by gender (like adjectives). For more old fashioned speakers, though, Anna Kowalik is Anna Kowalik'''owa''' (compare the [[AncientRome Roman convention]] of ''Terentia Ciceronis'' - same thing). Some female writers from XIX and early XX century were known under their husbands' surnames, like Eliza Orzeszkowa (mr. Orzeszko must have existed, but we don't tend to remember him otherwise). Others used their fathers' surnames (see below), or witty {{Nom De Plume}}s.

to:

Anna, though - if you're feeling modern, call her Anna Kowalik. No problem. If she were the wife of Piotr Kowalski, she'd be called Anna Kowalsk'''a''' - adjective-like names inflect by gender (like adjectives). For more old fashioned speakers, though, Anna Kowalik is Anna Kowalik'''owa''' (compare the [[AncientRome Roman convention]] of ''Terentia Ciceronis'' - same thing). Some female writers from XIX and early XX century were known under their husbands' surnames, like Eliza Orzeszkowa (mr. Orzeszko must have existed, but he died while his wife was still young and we don't tend to remember him otherwise). Others used their fathers' surnames (see below), or witty {{Nom De Plume}}s.



Many female celebrities, such as politicians and journalists, will choose to retain their maiden names. Unlike the West, however, they rarely opt to get rid of their husbands' names completely, instead attaching their maiden names to that of the husbands', joining the two by means of a dash. This phenomenon is gaining in popularity but still not common though. That does ''not'' mean that ''every'' woman with a two-part surname is necessarily her invention as there are plenty of rather old last names consisting of two separate words.

to:

Many female celebrities, such as politicians and journalists, will choose to retain their maiden names. Unlike the West, however, they rarely opt to get rid of their husbands' names completely, instead attaching their maiden names to that of the husbands', joining the two by means of a dash. This phenomenon is gaining in popularity but still not common though. That does ''not'' mean that ''every'' woman with a two-part surname is necessarily her invention invention, as there are plenty of rather old last names consisting of two separate words.
15th Jul '17 9:53:17 AM nombretomado
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In the years preceding the war, the Polish government tried to balance itself between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler had made the loss of territory (which in his mind included the land that Germans had settled in the Partitions and Dissolution of the Commonwealth) after UsefulNotes/WorldWarI to new Eastern European nations such as Czechoslovakia and Poland a campaign priority. To this end Piłsudski had signed Non-Aggression Pacts with the Soviet Union (1932) and Nazi Germany (1934) for pragmatic reasons to stave off a potential invasion from either power. With his death in 1935, the situation began to change. Hitler started to be even more brazen in violating the Versailles agreement about rearmament and the League of Nations, France and Britain were reluctant and intimidated to step in and rein in Germany. The Polish foreign policy greatly relied on Western allies to rein in one or both of its neighbours. This already tense situation was upset by the Sudetenland crisis, where Hitler made a play for the German majority regions in the Czech Republic and diplomats in France, England and the Soviet Union discussed their options, with the Soviet Union advocating military defense of Czechoslovakia (as per one of its committments to the new nation) but requesting passage of its troops through Polish territory in order to enforce it, a condition that Poland was categorical in its refusal. The Polish government eventually sided with Germany's partition of Czechoslovakia claiming the territory of Zaolzie (which had a Polish plurality[[note]]Poland and Czechoslavakia fought a war over it in 1919[[/note]]) as well as Czech Teschen, which was invaded by the Polish Army in 1938 and ceded to Poland after they issued an ultimatum to the government.[[note]]After WorldWarII, Teschen was ceded to Soviet Czechoslovakia and is presently part of the Czech Republic.[[/note]]

to:

In the years preceding the war, the Polish government tried to balance itself between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler had made the loss of territory (which in his mind included the land that Germans had settled in the Partitions and Dissolution of the Commonwealth) after UsefulNotes/WorldWarI to new Eastern European nations such as Czechoslovakia and Poland a campaign priority. To this end Piłsudski had signed Non-Aggression Pacts with the Soviet Union (1932) and Nazi Germany (1934) for pragmatic reasons to stave off a potential invasion from either power. With his death in 1935, the situation began to change. Hitler started to be even more brazen in violating the Versailles agreement about rearmament and the League of Nations, France and Britain were reluctant and intimidated to step in and rein in Germany. The Polish foreign policy greatly relied on Western allies to rein in one or both of its neighbours. This already tense situation was upset by the Sudetenland crisis, where Hitler made a play for the German majority regions in the Czech Republic and diplomats in France, England and the Soviet Union discussed their options, with the Soviet Union advocating military defense of Czechoslovakia (as per one of its committments to the new nation) but requesting passage of its troops through Polish territory in order to enforce it, a condition that Poland was categorical in its refusal. The Polish government eventually sided with Germany's partition of Czechoslovakia claiming the territory of Zaolzie (which had a Polish plurality[[note]]Poland and Czechoslavakia fought a war over it in 1919[[/note]]) as well as Czech Teschen, which was invaded by the Polish Army in 1938 and ceded to Poland after they issued an ultimatum to the government.[[note]]After WorldWarII, UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, Teschen was ceded to Soviet Czechoslovakia and is presently part of the Czech Republic.[[/note]]
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