History UsefulNotes / Poland

5th Sep '16 7:14:47 AM TheFifthHorseman
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For you English-speakers, diminutive means sticking a [[YourLittleDismissiveDiminutive little word "little"]] in front of a noun. Polish has grammatical morphemes for that - there's ''kot'' (a cat) and ''kotek'' (a little cat - not necessarily kitten, there's another word for that). ''Stół'' (table) and ''stolik'' (a small table, like a nightstand). Some words have several diminutive forms (there's ''kotek'' and ''kicia''), there also exist [[UpToEleven diminutive forms of diminutive forms]] - in this case, ''koteczek'' and ''kiciuś''. Fun fact - the word ''stołek'' is also a diminutive form of ''stół'', but refers to a chair (stool).

to:

For you English-speakers, diminutive means sticking a [[YourLittleDismissiveDiminutive little word "little"]] in front of a noun. Polish has grammatical morphemes for that - there's ''kot'' (a cat) and ''kotek'' (a little cat - not necessarily kitten, there's another word for that). ''Stół'' (table) and ''stolik'' (a small table, like a nightstand). Some words have several diminutive forms (there's ''kotek'' and ''kicia''), forms, there also exist [[UpToEleven diminutive forms of diminutive forms]] - in this case, ''koteczek'' and ''kiciuś''. ''kiciuś'' - which can also be inflected by gender ( where ''kotek'', ''koteczek'' and ''kiciuś'' are male - and default if the animal's gender is not known - ''kotka'', ''kicia'', ''koteczka'' and ''kiciusia'' are female).

Fun fact - the word ''stołek'' is also a diminutive form of ''stół'', but refers to a chair (stool).
31st Jul '16 7:17:06 AM JulianLapostat
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Then, [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII in September 1939]], everything fell apart with Germans and Soviets paying a visit over the borders.



In the years preceding the war, the Polish government tried to balance itself between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler had made the loss of territory (which in his mind included the land that Germans had settled in the Partitions and Dissolution of the Commonwealth) after UsefulNotes/WorldWarI to new Eastern European nations such as Czechoslovakia and Poland a campaign priority. To this end Piłsudski had signed Non-Aggression Pacts with the Soviet Union (1932) and Nazi Germany (1934) for pragmatic reasons to stave off a potential invasion from either power. With his death in 1935, the situation began to change. Hitler started to be even more brazen in violating the Versailles agreement about rearmament and the League of Nations, France and Britain were reluctant and intimidated to step in and rein in Germany. The Polish foreign policy greatly relied on Western allies to rein in one or both of its neighbours. This already tense situation was upset by the Sudetenland crisis, where Hitler made a play for the German majority regions in the Czech Republic and diplomats in France, England and the Soviet Union discussed their options, with the Soviet Union's diplomats advocating military defense of Czechoslovakia (as per one of its committments to it) but requesting passage of its troops through Polish territory in order to enforce it, a condition that Poland was categorical in its refusal. The Polish government eventually sided with Germany's partition of Czechoslavakia claiming the territory of Zaolzie (which had a Polish plurality[[note]]Poland and Czechoslavakia fought a war over it in 1919[[/note]]) as well as Czech Teschen, which was invaded by the Polish Army in 1938 and ceded to Poland after they issued an ultimatum to the government.[[note]]After WorldWarII, Teschen was ceded to Soviet Czechoslovakia and is presently part of the Czech Republic[[/note]]

to:

In the years preceding the war, the Polish government tried to balance itself between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler had made the loss of territory (which in his mind included the land that Germans had settled in the Partitions and Dissolution of the Commonwealth) after UsefulNotes/WorldWarI to new Eastern European nations such as Czechoslovakia and Poland a campaign priority. To this end Piłsudski had signed Non-Aggression Pacts with the Soviet Union (1932) and Nazi Germany (1934) for pragmatic reasons to stave off a potential invasion from either power. With his death in 1935, the situation began to change. Hitler started to be even more brazen in violating the Versailles agreement about rearmament and the League of Nations, France and Britain were reluctant and intimidated to step in and rein in Germany. The Polish foreign policy greatly relied on Western allies to rein in one or both of its neighbours. This already tense situation was upset by the Sudetenland crisis, where Hitler made a play for the German majority regions in the Czech Republic and diplomats in France, England and the Soviet Union discussed their options, with the Soviet Union's diplomats Union advocating military defense of Czechoslovakia (as per one of its committments to it) the new nation) but requesting passage of its troops through Polish territory in order to enforce it, a condition that Poland was categorical in its refusal. The Polish government eventually sided with Germany's partition of Czechoslavakia claiming the territory of Zaolzie (which had a Polish plurality[[note]]Poland and Czechoslavakia fought a war over it in 1919[[/note]]) as well as Czech Teschen, which was invaded by the Polish Army in 1938 and ceded to Poland after they issued an ultimatum to the government.[[note]]After WorldWarII, Teschen was ceded to Soviet Czechoslovakia and is presently part of the Czech Republic[[/note]]
31st Jul '16 7:14:02 AM JulianLapostat
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So during WW1, many Poles, including future leaders such as [[BadassMoustache Pilsudski]] and Sikorski, joined Austro-Hungarian forces[[note]]that's not to say there was no Russian-loyal faction. This role was played by chief political competitors of Piłsudski's faction, the Nationalists. The Nationalists adhered to a doctrine of a sort of political darwinism formulated by their leader, the skilled diplomat and ideologue Roman Dmowski, believing that stronger cultures inevitably take over the weaker ones. In this case they expected that Polish culture and Poles, given time, will ultimately take over Russia, while risking the same from well-organised Germans[[/note]]) and helped the Central Powers to establish a puppet Polish Kingdom in former Russian territory, as the lesser of two evils. If sent to the western front, they usually deserted to join the [[LegionOfLostSouls French Foreign Legion]]. After the war, foreign rule was cast off and Piłsudski and others founded a new, independent Poland which managed to defeat the Soviets in the UsefulNotes/PolishSovietWar against terrible, terrible odds through sheer strategic brilliance. This defeat convinced the Soviets that they weren't in any shape to spread their revolution, which kept them bottled up for about thirty years.

to:

So during During WW1, many Poles, including future leaders such as [[BadassMoustache Pilsudski]] and Sikorski, joined Austro-Hungarian forces[[note]]that's not to say there was no Russian-loyal faction. This role was played by chief political competitors of Piłsudski's faction, the Nationalists. The Nationalists adhered to a doctrine of a sort of political darwinism formulated by their leader, the skilled diplomat and ideologue Roman Dmowski, believing that stronger cultures inevitably take over the weaker ones. In this case they expected that Polish culture and Poles, given time, will ultimately take over Russia, while risking the same from well-organised Germans[[/note]]) and helped the Central Powers to establish a puppet Polish Kingdom in former Russian territory, as the lesser of two evils. If sent to the western front, they usually deserted to join the [[LegionOfLostSouls French Foreign Legion]]. After the war, foreign rule was cast off and Piłsudski and others founded a new, independent Poland which managed to defeat the Soviets in the UsefulNotes/PolishSovietWar against terrible, terrible odds through sheer strategic brilliance. This defeat convinced the Soviets that they weren't in any shape to spread their revolution, which kept them bottled up for about thirty years.
years.



DuringTheWar, Poland suffered one of the most brutal occupation in the world (tied with Japan's occupation of Manchuria). UsefulNotes/TheHolocaust was carried out in Polish territory. The official start of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII is the Nazi Invasion of Poland which led to the declaration of war by Britian and France. The Poles [[DavidVersusGoliath fought brilliantly against overwhelming odds]] compared to the common opinion about their performance, but unfortunately the difference in power proved too large. Still, the Polish state [[IWillFightSomeMoreForever never surrendered]], and plenty of soldiers managed to [[IShallReturn escape to fight another day]]. The cavalry charging tanks was a myth, by the way; the incident that inspired this story involved a Polish cavalry division (actually mounted infantry, like most cavalry of the time, though with traditions and training) which routed a German infantry division but was counter-attacked by armoured cars. Additionally, while some Polish cavalry units ''did'' deliberately engage German armor, they did so dismounted while wielding [[BigFreakingGun anti-tank rifles]]. The Poles didn't take occupation lying down. As well as [[LaResistance running a resistance movement]] later organized into the Home Army, tens of thousands of Polish men escaped from the country and [[GovernmentInExile made their way to Britain and France to continue the fight]], forming entire squadrons of airmen and divisions of ground troops. By the end of the war, there were ~250 thousand Poles fighting alongside the Western Allies, with another ~200 thousand aiding the Soviets.

to:

In the years preceding the war, the Polish government tried to balance itself between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler had made the loss of territory (which in his mind included the land that Germans had settled in the Partitions and Dissolution of the Commonwealth) after UsefulNotes/WorldWarI to new Eastern European nations such as Czechoslovakia and Poland a campaign priority. To this end Piłsudski had signed Non-Aggression Pacts with the Soviet Union (1932) and Nazi Germany (1934) for pragmatic reasons to stave off a potential invasion from either power. With his death in 1935, the situation began to change. Hitler started to be even more brazen in violating the Versailles agreement about rearmament and the League of Nations, France and Britain were reluctant and intimidated to step in and rein in Germany. The Polish foreign policy greatly relied on Western allies to rein in one or both of its neighbours. This already tense situation was upset by the Sudetenland crisis, where Hitler made a play for the German majority regions in the Czech Republic and diplomats in France, England and the Soviet Union discussed their options, with the Soviet Union's diplomats advocating military defense of Czechoslovakia (as per one of its committments to it) but requesting passage of its troops through Polish territory in order to enforce it, a condition that Poland was categorical in its refusal. The Polish government eventually sided with Germany's partition of Czechoslavakia claiming the territory of Zaolzie (which had a Polish plurality[[note]]Poland and Czechoslavakia fought a war over it in 1919[[/note]]) as well as Czech Teschen, which was invaded by the Polish Army in 1938 and ceded to Poland after they issued an ultimatum to the government.[[note]]After WorldWarII, Teschen was ceded to Soviet Czechoslovakia and is presently part of the Czech Republic[[/note]]

Poland's participation in the Sudetenland Crisis and the Munich talks [[http://hitchensblog.mailonsunday.co.uk/2013/10/the-polish-guarantee-churchill-speaks-.html was condemned in its time]] by French Minister Edouard Daladier and UsefulNotes/WinstonChurchill. The Soviets for their part warned Poland that their intervention in Czechoslavakia would abroagate their earlier Non-Agression Pact, though publicly after the pact, they updated and renewed it while secretly engaging in another round of talks with [[GambitRoulette England, France...and Nazi Germany]], before revealing the shocking Molotov-Ribbentrop pact a short while before the 1939 Invasion of Poland, the official start of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII.

DuringTheWar, Poland suffered one of the most brutal occupation in the world (tied with Japan's occupation of Manchuria). world. The territory governed by [[AllYourBaseAreBelongToUs Nazi Germany was described by their Gauleiters as Generalgouvernment]] and it was this area that UsefulNotes/TheHolocaust was carried out in Polish territory. mainly conducted. The official start of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII is the Nazi Invasion of Poland which led to the declaration of war by Britian and France. The Poles [[DavidVersusGoliath fought brilliantly against overwhelming odds]] compared to the common opinion about their performance, but unfortunately the difference in power proved too large. Still, the Polish state [[IWillFightSomeMoreForever never surrendered]], and plenty of soldiers managed to [[IShallReturn escape to fight another day]]. The cavalry charging tanks was a myth, by the way; the incident that inspired this story involved a Polish cavalry division (actually mounted infantry, like most cavalry of the time, though with traditions and training) which routed a German infantry division but was counter-attacked by armoured cars. Additionally, while some Polish cavalry units ''did'' deliberately engage German armor, they did so dismounted while wielding [[BigFreakingGun anti-tank rifles]]. The Poles didn't take occupation lying down. As well as [[LaResistance running a resistance movement]] later organized into the Home Army, tens of thousands of Polish men escaped from the country and [[GovernmentInExile made their way to Britain and France to continue the fight]], forming entire squadrons of airmen and divisions of ground troops. By the end of the war, there were ~250 thousand Poles fighting alongside the Western Allies, with another ~200 thousand aiding the Soviets.
31st Jul '16 5:49:07 AM lordGacek
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The war experience in Poland was complicated by the Soviet Invasion of Poland, who seized the Eastern territories, the area of land known as Kresy (today part of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus with parts of Lithuania). This was part of the agreement of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and the Soviets stated that these were territories it had lost in the UsefulNotes/PolishSovietWar [[MexicoCalledTheyWantTexasBack and they wanted it back]][[note]]The Kresy is a part of contentious debate in Polish-Russian/Ukrainian/Belorussian (and occasionally Lithuanian) relations, since they claim it was theirs historically and ethnically, incorporated into the Commonwealth via colonization, and the Polish nobles imposed their culture and started Polonization of the land but always remained a minority in the region. On the Polish part, this colonization went on for 600 years, so it was kind of too late for bringing that up, and besides this minority included some of the biggest centers of Polish culture. This area was annexed in the Third Partition of Poland and was claimed by Poland when they invaded the Soviet Union.[[/note]] The Poles saw this as a double occupation from two invading powers, but since the Soviet Union was still "neutral", their British allies did not want to antagonize them and the Polish Home Army was consigned to fighting the Nazis. During the Soviet Occupation, the NKVD conducted the famous "Katyn massacre" of Polish officers, intelligentsia and other figures. 22,000 were killed in the forest and buried in a mass grave. When the Soviet Union joined the war during Operation Barbarossa, the Western Allies immediately recognized Kresy as Russian territory and later suppressed the Katyn massacre for propaganda reasons. Stalin, vacillating and mercurial as always, wavered over recognition of the Polish government-in-exile before finally settling on the Polish People's Republic, formed in the Soviet Union, comprised of Communists, as the legitimate government and the Polish People's Army as alternatives to the Home Army and the government in exile. The fear of an eventual Soviet takeover led to the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, the largest partisan operation during the war, which ended in failure, defeat, the destruction of Warsaw and the end of the Polish Home Army as any force to safeguard Poland's sovereignty, paving the way for its eventual Soviet Occupation.

to:

The war experience in Poland was complicated by the Soviet Invasion of Poland, who seized the Eastern territories, the area of land known as Kresy (today part of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus with parts of Lithuania). This was part of the agreement of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and the Soviets stated that these were territories it had lost in the UsefulNotes/PolishSovietWar [[MexicoCalledTheyWantTexasBack and they wanted it back]][[note]]The back]].[[note]]The Kresy is a part of contentious debate in Polish-Russian/Ukrainian/Belorussian (and occasionally Lithuanian) relations, since they claim it was theirs historically and ethnically, incorporated into the Commonwealth via colonization, and the Polish nobles imposed their culture and started Polonization of the land but always remained a minority in the region. On the Polish part, this colonization went on for 600 years, so it was kind of too late for bringing that up, and besides this minority included some of the biggest centers of Polish culture. This area was annexed in the Third Partition of Poland and was claimed by Poland when again after it regained independence. (Minor nitpick: the Soviets ceded all lands held by the Germans in the treaty of Brest-Litovsk, so ''de jure'' they invaded the Soviet Union.[[/note]] no longer had a claim to it.)[[/note]] The Poles saw this as a double occupation from two invading powers, but since the Soviet Union was still "neutral", their British allies did not want to antagonize them and the Polish Home Army was consigned to fighting the Nazis. During the Soviet Occupation, the NKVD conducted the famous "Katyn massacre" of Polish officers, intelligentsia and other figures. 22,000 were killed in the forest and buried in a mass grave. When the Soviet Union joined the war during Operation Barbarossa, the Western Allies immediately recognized Kresy as Russian territory and later suppressed the Katyn massacre for propaganda reasons. Stalin, vacillating and mercurial as always, wavered over recognition of the Polish government-in-exile before finally settling on the Polish People's Republic, formed in the Soviet Union, comprised of Communists, as the legitimate government and the Polish People's Army as alternatives to the Home Army and the government in exile. The fear of an eventual Soviet takeover led to the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, the largest partisan operation during the war, which ended in failure, defeat, the destruction of Warsaw and the end of the Polish Home Army as any force to safeguard Poland's sovereignty, paving the way for its eventual Soviet Occupation.
30th Jul '16 5:27:35 PM lordGacek
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The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth [[http://nonsite.org/article/forget-postcolonialism-theres-a-class-war-ahead has been likened]] to UsefulNotes/AntebellumAmerica since many of its leaders and rulers proclaimed freedom while still owning large ''folwarks'' (manorial plantations) of serfs. The period of the Commonwealth coincided with the Refeudalization of Poland and Eastern Europe. At the time when Serfdom was on its way out in Western Europe, and feudalism gave way to the UsefulNotes/TheRenaissance and the Early Modern Era, serfdom ''increased'' in Poland where peasants, who were formerly allowed to own land and given rights to travel, soon had their rights taken away from them. 80% of the population in the Commonwealth consisted of serfs who were bound to their manor houses, denied permission to leave and [[http://culture.pl/en/article/slavery-vs-serfdom-or-was-poland-a-colonial-empire who could be bought and sold]] at the whim of their masters. Since the Polish szlachta (Nobility) were reluctant to break up families and sell serfs (unlike slaveowners in the American South) this often meant that whole villages of serfs could be bought and sold by various nobles. The economic reasons for renewed and heightened serfdom was that Poland, a bread-basket region, relied heavily on grain exports to other countries, which combined with the lack of devolution of the artistocratic-military elite, meant that Poland still remained a classically agriculture-based economy at a time when the rest of Europe was starting to diversify. This meant a halt in the development of cities and towns, and a firm halt on the rise of the Polish middle classes. This paved the way for...

to:

The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth [[http://nonsite.org/article/forget-postcolonialism-theres-a-class-war-ahead has been likened]] to UsefulNotes/AntebellumAmerica since many of its leaders and rulers proclaimed freedom while still owning large ''folwarks'' (manorial plantations) of serfs. The period of the Commonwealth coincided with the Refeudalization of Poland and Eastern Europe. At the time when Serfdom was on its way out in Western Europe, and feudalism gave way to the UsefulNotes/TheRenaissance and the Early Modern Era, serfdom ''increased'' in Poland where peasants, who were formerly allowed to own land and given rights to travel, soon had their rights taken away from them. 80% of the population in the Commonwealth consisted of serfs who were bound to their manor houses, denied permission to leave and [[http://culture.pl/en/article/slavery-vs-serfdom-or-was-poland-a-colonial-empire who could be bought and sold]] at the whim of their masters. Since the Polish szlachta (Nobility) were reluctant to break up families and sell serfs (unlike slaveowners in the American South) this often meant that whole villages of serfs could be bought and sold by various nobles. The economic reasons for renewed and heightened serfdom was that Poland, a bread-basket region, relied heavily on grain exports to other countries, which combined with the lack of devolution of the artistocratic-military aristocratic-military elite, meant that Poland still remained a classically agriculture-based economy at a time when the rest of Europe was starting to diversify. This meant a halt in the development of cities and towns, and a firm halt on the rise of the Polish middle classes. This paved the way for...



Golden Liberty was a great inspiration for the American Revolution, but it had a flaw, to which we owe the existence of a strong US Presidency. The principle that Poland was a nation of nobles meant that the nobles did not represent anybody other than themselves and so lacked any constitutency beyond their folwarks. Yes, all nobles were equal[[note]]A popular phrase goes:''Szlachcic na zagrodzie równy wojewodzie'': "The Noble on his Estate is equal to the Count" which states that each member of the aristocracy despite ranks had equality amongst themselves[[/note]] and this meant every decision required unanimity and so any one noble could block any government decision (the ''Liberum Veto'' which ''EuropaUniversalis'' players might recognize). So it took only one guy to be bribed by UsefulNotes/{{Russia}}, UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}}, or UsefulNotes/{{Austria}} and that was it: the country was theirs. If a noble family decided to start developing Poland, as the Czartoryskis who formed a coalition known as [[TheFamilyForTheWholeFamily the Familia]], they can expect a noble revolt who resented the development of one part of Poland since it would take away trade from another part, the rise of Warsaw, under the policies of one Nobleman meant the decline of Gdansk under another nobleman, which in turn affected the BalanceOfPower since said nobleman had to deliver committments to their respective geopoliticial sponsor, who in turn might decide to put their own candidate in the next "election". Enter King Stanisław August Poniatowski, elected by the Sejm, promoted and planted by UsefulNotes/CatherineTheGreat (he was a former lover of hers) to be her puppet, halting reforms and protecting Russia's interests. Yet Poniatowski, who became [[LastOfHisKind the last King of Poland]] was a reformer, a promoter of arts and sciences and sought to strengthen and develop Poland to catch up with its Western counterparts. These reforms angered the "three black eagles" of Russia, Prussia and Austria and it led to the first partition of Poland (1772), leading to the loss of its outer territories.

to:

Golden Liberty was a great inspiration for the American Revolution, but it had a flaw, to which we owe the existence of a strong US Presidency. The principle that Poland was a nation of nobles meant that the nobles did not represent anybody other than themselves and so lacked any constitutency beyond their folwarks. Yes, all nobles were equal[[note]]A popular phrase goes:''Szlachcic na zagrodzie równy wojewodzie'': "The Noble on his Estate is equal to the Count" which states that each member of the aristocracy despite was equal to each other -- apart from few Lithuanian families who styled themselves dukes as a GrandfatherClause, there were no ranks had equality amongst themselves[[/note]] at all among nobility. The "Count" in the quoted text is just a TranslationConvention for a state office.[[/note]] and this meant every decision required unanimity and so any one noble could block any government decision (the ''Liberum Veto'' which ''EuropaUniversalis'' players might recognize). So it took only one guy to be bribed by UsefulNotes/{{Russia}}, UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}}, or UsefulNotes/{{Austria}} and that was it: the country was theirs. If a noble family decided to start developing Poland, as the Czartoryskis who formed a coalition known as [[TheFamilyForTheWholeFamily the Familia]], they can could expect a noble revolt who resented the development of one part of Poland since it would take away trade from another part, the rise of Warsaw, under the policies of one Nobleman meant the decline of Gdansk under another nobleman, which in turn affected the BalanceOfPower since said nobleman had to deliver committments to their respective geopoliticial sponsor, who in turn might decide to put their own candidate in the next "election". Enter King Stanisław August Poniatowski, elected by the Sejm, promoted and planted by UsefulNotes/CatherineTheGreat (he was a former lover of hers) to be her puppet, halting reforms and protecting Russia's interests. Yet Poniatowski, who became [[LastOfHisKind the last King of Poland]] was a reformer, a promoter of arts and sciences and sought to strengthen and develop Poland to catch up with its Western counterparts. These reforms angered the "three black eagles" of Russia, Prussia and Austria and it led to the first partition of Poland (1772), leading to the loss of its outer territories.



The final stage of this decline led to the legendary uprising of Tadeusz Kościuszko. Kościuszko was a popular general and a liberal noble, who had fought in UsefulNotes/TheAmericanRevolution. Noting the various defections and counter-defections and failure of the szlachta to counter the invaders, Kościuszko triggered a popular uprising. He appealed to the peasants, and for the first time included them in the conception of the Polish nation. He also assured peasants civil liberties, and created the first army in Poland open to peasant conscripts. Kościuszko's uprising might perhaps have been successful had the reforms he instituted been put in place at the time of the first or even second partition. It was in the end too little too late, and worst of all, seen by Catherine the Great and neighbors as "the last straw" since Poland's relative leniency towards serfs was the reason she interfered in Poland's affairs to start with (too many Russian serfs fer fleeing to Poland [[CrapsackWorld from a brutal serfdom to a comparatively benevolent bondage]]), actual abolition of serfdom and feudalism was exactly the thing she feared. The uprising was brutally crushed, and it ended with the dissolution of the Commonwealth, the exile of King Poniatowski and Kościuszko (who was later allowed to emigrate to America) and it marked the effective cessation of Poland for more than a century, with one momentary respite.

to:

The final stage of this decline led to the legendary uprising of Tadeusz Kościuszko. Kościuszko was a popular general and a liberal noble, who had fought in UsefulNotes/TheAmericanRevolution. Noting the various defections and counter-defections and failure of the szlachta to counter the invaders, Kościuszko triggered a popular uprising. He appealed to the peasants, and for the first time included them in the conception of the Polish nation. He also assured peasants civil liberties, and created the first army in Poland open to peasant conscripts. Kościuszko's uprising might perhaps have been successful had the reforms he instituted been put in place at the time of the first or even second partition. It was in the end too little too late, and worst of all, seen by Catherine the Great and neighbors as "the last straw" since Poland's relative leniency towards serfs was the reason she interfered in Poland's affairs to start with (too many Russian serfs fer were fleeing to Poland [[CrapsackWorld from a brutal serfdom to a comparatively benevolent bondage]]), actual abolition of serfdom and feudalism was exactly the thing she feared. The uprising was brutally crushed, and it ended with the dissolution of the Commonwealth, the exile of King Poniatowski and Kościuszko (who was later allowed to emigrate to America) and it marked the effective cessation of Poland for more than a century, with one momentary respite.



Immediately after the collapse of the Russian Empire resulted in the renewed independence of most of the former Commonwealth, Poland laid claim to the Lithuanian city of Vilnius,[[note]]''both'' home to many Poles (among them Piłsudski's himself) '''and''' the long-standing Lithuanian capital[[/note]] leading to a war between the former allies. The Ukrainians who had invited the Poles in to rescue them from the Reds found that Warsaw, ultimately, had none of their best interests at heart (Piłsudski personally was very ashamed by this). The new Poland's German minority also suffered. Poland ended up suffering from a sluggish economy caused by a century of exploitation and field trips from World War I military powers, being surrounded by many powerful enemies, and deep internal tensions between Poles, Lithuanians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Germans, and Jews, and political factions everyone belonged to. The tensions became more severe in certain areas and relaxed in others after a military coup and the establishment of the "Government of Moral Sanitation".

to:

Immediately after the collapse of the Russian Empire resulted in the renewed independence of most of the former Commonwealth, Poland laid claim to the Lithuanian city of Vilnius,[[note]]''both'' home to many Poles (among them Piłsudski's himself) '''and''' the long-standing Lithuanian capital[[/note]] leading to a war between the former allies. The Ukrainians who had invited the Poles in to rescue them from the Reds found that Warsaw, ultimately, had none of their best interests at heart (Piłsudski personally was very ashamed by this). The new Poland's German minority also suffered. Poland ended up suffering from a sluggish economy caused by a century of exploitation and field trips from World War I military powers, being surrounded by many powerful enemies, and deep internal tensions between Poles, Lithuanians, Belarusians, Ukrainians, Germans, and Jews, and political factions everyone belonged to. The tensions became more severe in certain areas and relaxed in others after a military coup coup[[note]]A handful of fun facts to show the background: the officer corps was largely made of Piłsudski's former soldiers, the Nationalists were the modernist and pro-democratic faction (Piłsudski was more of an old-school Romantic), and a large factor in the coup's success was the support of labour unions recognizing Piłsudski's past as a revolutionary socialist.[[/note]] and the establishment of the "Government of Moral Sanitation".



DuringTheWar, Poland suffered one of the most brutal occupation in the world (tied with Japan's occupation of Manchuria). UsefulNotes/TheHolocaust was carried out in Polish territory. The official start of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII is the Nazi Invasion of Poland which led to the declaration of war by Britian and France. The Poles [[DavidVersusGoliath fought brilliantly against overwhelming odds]], [[YouShallNotPass never surrendered]], and [[IShallReturn escaped to fight another day]]. The cavalry charging tanks was a myth, by the way; the incident that inspired this story involved a Polish cavalry division (actually mounted infantry, like most cavalry of the time, though with traditions and training) which routed a German infantry division but was counter-attacked by armoured cars. Additionally, while some Polish cavalry units ''did'' deliberately engage German armor, they did so dismounted while wielding [[BigFreakingGun anti-tank rifles]]. The Poles didn't take occupation lying down. As well as [[LaResistance organising a resistance movement]], tens of thousands of Polish men escaped from the country and [[GovernmentInExile made their way to Britain and France to continue the fight]], forming entire squadrons of airmen and divisions of ground troops. By the end of the war, there were ~250 thousand Poles fighting alongside the Western Allies, with another ~200 thousand aiding the Soviets.

The war experience in Poland was complicated by the Soviet Invasion of Poland, who seized the Eastern territories, the area of land known as Kresy (today part of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus with parts of Lithuania). This was part of the agreement of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and the Soviets stated that these were territories it had lost in the UsefulNotes/PolishSovietWar [[MexicoCalledTheyWantTexasBack and they wanted it back]][[note]]The Kresy is a part of contentious debate in Polish-Russian relations, since historically it was part of Russian and Ukraine, which was incorporated into the Commonwealth via colonization, and the Polish nobles imposed their culture and started Polonization of the land but always remained a minority in the region. This area was annexed in the Third Partition of Poland and was claimed by Poland when they invaded the Soviet Union[[/note]]. The Polish Home Army saw this as a double occupation from two invading powers, but since the Soviet Union was still "neutral", their British allies did not want to antagonize them and the Polish Home Army was consigned to fighting the Nazis. During the Soviet Occupation, the NKVD conducted the famous "Katyn massacre" of Polish officers, intelligentsia and other figures. 22,000 were killed in the forest and buried in a mass grave. When the Soviet Union joined the war during Operation Barbarossa, the Western Allies immediately recognized Kresy as Russian territory and later suppressed the Katyn massacre for propaganda reasons. Stalin, vacillating and mercurial as always, wavered over recognition of the Polish government-in-exile before finally settling on the Polish People's Republic, formed in the Soviet Union, comprised of Communists, as the legitimate government and the Polish People's Army as alternatives to the Home Army and the government in exile. The fear of an eventual Soviet takeover led to the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, the largest partisan operation during the war, which ended in failure, defeat, the destruction of Warsaw and the end of the Polish Home Army as any force to safeguard Poland's sovereignty, paving the way for its eventual Soviet Occupation.

Poland lost a fifth of its population in the war- ''seven million'' people in all, mostly civilians. Out of a pre-war Jewish population of 3.3 million, only 300,000 survived (Poland's Jewish population were Polish citizens; Israel did not exist until after the war). A contentious issue among Poles is the issue of collaboration with Nazism. While Poland was formerly religiously tolerant, during the 19th Century, anti-semitism had risen among parts of Poland and in the inter-war years. It is known that anti-semitic massacres such as the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jedwabne_pogrom Jedwabne massacre]] was conducted by Polish peasants, many of whom accused Polish Jews of being collaborators with the Soviets, leading to a [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%BBydokomuna particularly nasty strain]] with, naturally, very little basis in reality. After the Holocaust, several Jews who returned home [[HappyEndingOverride became victims of reprisals]] from citizens who had bought their property and killed them for returning. The Communists for their part, were quite happy to publicize these incidents and associate its opponents and Home Army sympathizers with fascist collaborators, while erasing their involvement in the Katyn massacre. It must be noted that [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rescue_of_Jews_by_Poles_during_the_Holocaust 6620 Poles are considered Righteous Among the Nations]], more than any other European nation. This includes author Januscz Korczak and the Catholic priest Maximilien Kolbe among others.

to:

DuringTheWar, Poland suffered one of the most brutal occupation in the world (tied with Japan's occupation of Manchuria). UsefulNotes/TheHolocaust was carried out in Polish territory. The official start of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII is the Nazi Invasion of Poland which led to the declaration of war by Britian and France. The Poles [[DavidVersusGoliath fought brilliantly against overwhelming odds]], [[YouShallNotPass odds]] compared to the common opinion about their performance, but unfortunately the difference in power proved too large. Still, the Polish state [[IWillFightSomeMoreForever never surrendered]], and plenty of soldiers managed to [[IShallReturn escaped escape to fight another day]]. The cavalry charging tanks was a myth, by the way; the incident that inspired this story involved a Polish cavalry division (actually mounted infantry, like most cavalry of the time, though with traditions and training) which routed a German infantry division but was counter-attacked by armoured cars. Additionally, while some Polish cavalry units ''did'' deliberately engage German armor, they did so dismounted while wielding [[BigFreakingGun anti-tank rifles]]. The Poles didn't take occupation lying down. As well as [[LaResistance organising running a resistance movement]], movement]] later organized into the Home Army, tens of thousands of Polish men escaped from the country and [[GovernmentInExile made their way to Britain and France to continue the fight]], forming entire squadrons of airmen and divisions of ground troops. By the end of the war, there were ~250 thousand Poles fighting alongside the Western Allies, with another ~200 thousand aiding the Soviets.

The war experience in Poland was complicated by the Soviet Invasion of Poland, who seized the Eastern territories, the area of land known as Kresy (today part of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus with parts of Lithuania). This was part of the agreement of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and the Soviets stated that these were territories it had lost in the UsefulNotes/PolishSovietWar [[MexicoCalledTheyWantTexasBack and they wanted it back]][[note]]The Kresy is a part of contentious debate in Polish-Russian Polish-Russian/Ukrainian/Belorussian (and occasionally Lithuanian) relations, since they claim it was theirs historically it was part of Russian and Ukraine, which was ethnically, incorporated into the Commonwealth via colonization, and the Polish nobles imposed their culture and started Polonization of the land but always remained a minority in the region. On the Polish part, this colonization went on for 600 years, so it was kind of too late for bringing that up, and besides this minority included some of the biggest centers of Polish culture. This area was annexed in the Third Partition of Poland and was claimed by Poland when they invaded the Soviet Union[[/note]]. Union.[[/note]] The Polish Home Army Poles saw this as a double occupation from two invading powers, but since the Soviet Union was still "neutral", their British allies did not want to antagonize them and the Polish Home Army was consigned to fighting the Nazis. During the Soviet Occupation, the NKVD conducted the famous "Katyn massacre" of Polish officers, intelligentsia and other figures. 22,000 were killed in the forest and buried in a mass grave. When the Soviet Union joined the war during Operation Barbarossa, the Western Allies immediately recognized Kresy as Russian territory and later suppressed the Katyn massacre for propaganda reasons. Stalin, vacillating and mercurial as always, wavered over recognition of the Polish government-in-exile before finally settling on the Polish People's Republic, formed in the Soviet Union, comprised of Communists, as the legitimate government and the Polish People's Army as alternatives to the Home Army and the government in exile. The fear of an eventual Soviet takeover led to the 1944 Warsaw Uprising, the largest partisan operation during the war, which ended in failure, defeat, the destruction of Warsaw and the end of the Polish Home Army as any force to safeguard Poland's sovereignty, paving the way for its eventual Soviet Occupation.

Poland lost a fifth of its population in the war- war -- ''seven million'' people in all, mostly civilians. Out of a pre-war Jewish population of 3.3 million, only 300,000 survived (Poland's Jewish population were Polish citizens; Israel did not exist until after the war). A contentious issue among Poles is the issue of collaboration wartime anti-semitism.[[note]]Not to be mistaken for "collaboration with Nazism. Nazism" -- this would be an abuse of the term.[[/note]] While Poland was formerly religiously tolerant, during the 19th Century, anti-semitism had risen among parts of Poland and in the inter-war years. It is known that anti-semitic massacres such as the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jedwabne_pogrom Jedwabne massacre]] was conducted by Polish peasants, many of whom accused Polish Jews of being collaborators with the Soviets, leading to a [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%BBydokomuna particularly nasty strain]] with, naturally, very little basis in reality. After the Holocaust, several Jews who returned home [[HappyEndingOverride became victims of reprisals]] from citizens who had bought their property and killed them for returning. The Communists for their part, were quite happy to publicize these incidents and associate its opponents and Home Army sympathizers with fascist collaborators, while erasing their involvement in the Katyn massacre. It must be noted that [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rescue_of_Jews_by_Poles_during_the_Holocaust 6620 Poles are considered Righteous Among the Nations]], more than any other European nation. This includes author Januscz Janusz Korczak and the Catholic priest Maximilien Kolbe among others.
others.[[note]]As a finishing note, Poles are ''really'' cranky about the phrase "Polish death camps" -- they see it as highly offensive loaded words. Think of calling the 9/11 WTC strikes "the act of American terror". Or better yet: "Jewish death camps" -- technically true, if you are into sophistry, but turning the meaning on its head.[[/note]]



After the war, the country was taken over by the UsefulNotes/RedsWithRockets. Present-day Poland is formed by absorbing the Kresy and other territories, pushing its eastern border west a few hundred miles. To compensate the Polish, however, the Soviet Union deposited them in former Eastern Germany, including areas like Silesia and Pomerania that had historically been German. This triggered the largest population exchange in history, with Poles and Germans kicked out of their respective ancestral homes. This accounts for the country's suspiciously straight borders (the western border follows the line of the Oder and Neisse rivers) and the fact that Warsaw, originally chosen as the capital for its central location, is no longer especially central. The Soviet Union undertook the task of agrarian reform, altering Poland's class structure (which involved land seizures and collectivization), rebuilding wartorn buildings and building new ones. This includes the massive [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palace_of_Culture_and_Science Warsaw Palace of Culture and Science]] (which is still the largest building in Poland and seventh in the European Union). They also improved areas such as women's employment, education, rights to abortion. But as usual, it was packaged by a heavy dose of repression, exile, execution and the heavy air of PoliceState machinery. While early attempts at reform, such as [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_October the Polish October]] in the Khruschev Thaw provided Poland greater autonomy than other satellite nations, it eventually led to a new series of purges and counter-purges in imitation of Stalin, and like Stalin in his twilight years, involved a period of nasty anti-semitism masqueraded as striking against cosmopolitans.

A culture of dissent started growing in Poland. A youth movement fascinated by the West (aided by the CIA backed Radio Free Europe) was taking root. Some of them ironically found expression in the National Film School in Łódź, which recieved Soviet support but this led to the Polish New Wave which included rebels, future solidarity activists and defectors (the likes of Andrezj Wajda, Andrezj Munk, Jerzy Skolimowski and Creator/RomanPolanski). By TheSeventies, a trade union movement known as Solidarity took form. This originated in the Gdansk shipyards and was led by Lech Wałęsa, an electrician by training. Solidarity aimed to be an independent trade union unconnected to the Communist party, which was seen as a violation of communist doctrine, a challenge to its authority and, by the west, as a symbolic [[DeaderThanDisco discrediting of the ideals]] of Communism, since Solidarność can't be equated with fascist/trotskyist/fifth columnist traitors. This movement got the support of [[MisfitMobilizationMoment the middle-classes, the intelligentsia, dissident communists, right-wingers and the Catholic Church]] and it led to a series of non-violent protests, civil disobedience campaigns and most ironically, fittingly of all, a worker's strike over the firing of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anna_Walentynowicz Anna Walentynowicz]] at the [[MeaningfulName Lenin Shipyard]]. Prime Minister Wojciech Jaruzelski, who was also General of the Army, declared Martial Law in 1981 and made Poland into a literal PoliceState for the next two years. Then in the course of TheEighties, Jaruzelski released the main leaders of Solidarity and then granted an amnesty in 1986, later claiming that he declared Martial Law to prevent intervention by the Soviet Union, a point disputed by many former opponents, but supported by Jaruzelski's former enemies such as Adam Michnik.

Poland became independent in 1989, and this played a role in the eventual dissolution of the Soviet Union. Solidarity activists and intellectuals such as Adam Michnik and Andezj Wajda always insisted that their movement was not a revolution, since in their view all revolutions were FullCircleRevolution. Upon peacefully taking power, they began a period of lustration[[note]]The word used to refer to Decommunization[[/note]] but fell short of actively imprisoning former officials of high rank in Soviet Poland, namely General Jaruzelski. There is also a number of grudges among former Solidarity activists about the new government's shift away from the trade unions that formed the basis of the initial strike and the development of a new elite class that some liken to the old Commonwealth. Independent Poland has had more than a few issues dealing with its past and its relationship with its neighbors. United Germany that formed after the collapse of the Berlin Wall recognized Poland's borders and accepted the permanent cession of its Eastern territories to Poland. Poland and Russia still have difficult relationships, mostly over the long history of war, occupation and repression, and the various contending memories, with Russia regarding Poland's enrollment into UsefulNotes/{{NATO}} as an expansion eastwards on the part of the West. There is also the rise of religious nationalism in Poland, where the Catholic Church has always been associated with Polish identity. Polish Armed Forces are also actively involved in TheWarOnTerror, posted in Afghanistan, and bases in Poland are used for rendition by American operatives.

to:

After the war, the country was taken over by the UsefulNotes/RedsWithRockets. Present-day Poland is formed by absorbing the Kresy and other territories, pushing its eastern border west a few hundred miles. To compensate the Polish, however, the Soviet Union deposited them in former Eastern Germany, including areas like Silesia and Pomerania that had historically been German. This triggered the largest population exchange in history, with Poles and Germans kicked out of their respective ancestral homes. This accounts for the country's suspiciously straight borders (the western border follows the line of the Oder and Neisse rivers) and the fact that Warsaw, originally chosen as the capital for its central location, is no longer especially central. The new Poland under the eye of Soviet Union big brother undertook the task of agrarian reform, altering Poland's class structure (which involved land seizures and collectivization), rebuilding wartorn buildings and building new ones. This includes the massive [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palace_of_Culture_and_Science Warsaw Palace of Culture and Science]] (which is still the largest building in Poland and seventh in the European Union). They also improved areas such as women's employment, education, rights That is not to abortion. But say the new government did not bring some improvements with it, but as usual, it was packaged by a heavy dose of repression, exile, execution and the heavy air of PoliceState machinery. While early attempts at reform, such as [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polish_October the Polish October]] in the Khruschev Thaw provided Poland greater autonomy than other satellite nations, it eventually led to a new series of purges and counter-purges in imitation of Stalin, and like Stalin in his twilight years, involved a period of nasty anti-semitism masqueraded as striking against cosmopolitans.

A culture of dissent started growing in Poland. A youth movement fascinated by the West (aided by the CIA backed Radio Free Europe) was taking root. Some of them ironically found expression in the National Film School in Łódź, which recieved Soviet support but this led to the Polish New Wave which included rebels, future solidarity activists and defectors (the likes of Andrezj Andrzej Wajda, Andrezj Andrzej Munk, Jerzy Skolimowski and Creator/RomanPolanski). By TheSeventies, various labour protests reached an organizational stage and a trade union movement known as Solidarity took form. This originated in the Gdansk shipyards and was led by Lech Wałęsa, an electrician by training. Solidarity aimed to be an independent trade union unconnected to the Communist party, which was seen as a violation of communist doctrine, a challenge to its authority and, by the west, as a symbolic [[DeaderThanDisco discrediting of the ideals]] of Communism, since Solidarność can't be equated with fascist/trotskyist/fifth columnist traitors. This movement got the support of [[MisfitMobilizationMoment the middle-classes, the intelligentsia, dissident communists, right-wingers and the Catholic Church]] and it led to a series of non-violent protests, civil disobedience campaigns and most ironically, fittingly of all, a worker's strike over the firing of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anna_Walentynowicz Anna Walentynowicz]] at the [[MeaningfulName Lenin Shipyard]]. Prime Minister Wojciech Jaruzelski, who was also General of the Army, declared Martial Law in 1981 and made Poland into a literal PoliceState for the next two years. Then in the course of TheEighties, Jaruzelski released the main leaders of Solidarity and then granted an amnesty in 1986, later claiming that he declared Martial Law to prevent intervention by the Soviet Union, a point disputed by many former opponents, but also supported by some of Jaruzelski's former enemies such as Adam Michnik.

Poland became independent in 1989, and this played a role in the eventual dissolution of the Soviet Union. Solidarity activists and intellectuals such as Adam Michnik and Andezj Andrzej Wajda always insisted that their movement was not a revolution, since in their view all revolutions were FullCircleRevolution. Upon peacefully taking power, they began a period of lustration[[note]]The word used to refer to Decommunization[[/note]] Decommunization -- the "lustration" of personal history of officials to see if (or how) they were involved with the former system.[[/note]] but fell short of actively imprisoning former officials of high rank in Soviet Poland, namely General Jaruzelski.Jaruzelski to begin with. There is also a number of grudges among former Solidarity activists about the new government's shift away from the trade unions that formed the basis of the initial strike and the development of a new elite class that some liken to the old Commonwealth. Independent Poland has had more than a few issues dealing with its past and its relationship with its neighbors. United Germany that formed after the collapse of the Berlin Wall recognized Poland's borders and accepted the permanent cession of its Eastern territories to Poland. Poland and Russia still have difficult relationships, mostly over the long history of war, occupation and repression, and the various contending memories, with Russia regarding Poland's enrollment into UsefulNotes/{{NATO}} as an expansion eastwards on the part of the West. There is also the rise of religious nationalism in Poland, where the Catholic Church has always been associated with Polish identity. Polish Armed Forces are also actively involved in TheWarOnTerror, posted in Afghanistan, and bases in Poland are used for rendition by American operatives.




Home of the trade unionist with the impressive moustache (who became President) and formerly had identical twins as its President and Prime Minister. Also home of a very famous and popular former [[UsefulNotes/ThePope pontiff]].



The other is making them pronounce the word ''pchła'' (''flea'') or ''żelatyna'' (''gelatin''). [[note]] The rest of Polish sadism towards foreigners consists of bureaucratic activities and as such does not belong here.[[/note]]

to:

The other is making them pronounce the word ''pchła'' (''flea'') or ''żelatyna'' (''gelatin''). [[note]] The [[note]]The rest of Polish sadism towards foreigners consists of bureaucratic activities and as such does not belong here.[[/note]]



There are, however, a few things about Polish that make this language a tad easier (or more interesting) to study. Despite the impressive number of its speakers, due to historical reasons, Polish has all but lost all its dialects save for a few minor ones. To put it simply, if three people were to have a discussion, one from Warsaw, one from Kraków, and one from Gdańsk, chances are that none of them would realize where the other two come from unless informed directly. In other words, once you have mastered standard official and colloquial Polish, you're all set to get the message across no matter where you go (and the people you will have trouble understanding will prove a hard nut to crack to native speakers as well). Moreover, Polish ortography is remarkably different from those of other Slavic languages which tend to get mixed up by beginners at times. Even if there are no peculiar Polish characters (such as ''ą'' or ''ę'') involved, if you see the letter ''w'' popping up a few times in an apparently Slavic text, you can tell with 99% accuracy that the whole thing's written in Polish.

to:

There are, however, a few things about Polish that make this language a tad easier (or more interesting) to study. Despite the impressive number of its speakers, due to historical reasons, Polish has all but lost all its dialects save for a few minor ones. To put it simply, if three people were to have a discussion, one from Warsaw, one from Kraków, and one from Gdańsk, chances are that none of them would realize where the other two come from unless informed directly. In other words, once you have mastered standard official and colloquial Polish, you're all set to get the message across no matter where you go (and the people you will have trouble understanding will prove a hard nut to crack to native speakers as well). [[note]]About the most recognizable regional cant is that of the highlanders of the Tatra mountains, kept alive by their pride in local origin, as well as the status of a sort of Poland's own NobleSavage. The Silesian dialect is considered by some a language separate from Polish, while the Kashubian language is officially recognized. Some leftovers of the Kresy accent still exist in the east, but the post-war shift of borders pretty much killed it. Apart from that, you can only hope for an occasional regional expression by which to recognize the origin of the speaker.[[/note]] Moreover, Polish ortography is remarkably different from those of other Slavic languages which tend to get mixed up by beginners at times. Even if there are no peculiar Polish characters (such as ''ą'' or ''ę'') involved, if you see the letter ''w'' popping up a few times in an apparently Slavic text, you can tell with 99% accuracy that the whole thing's written in Polish.



A note about noblemen's names - an old-style nobleman would list the coat of arms (''herb'') to which his family belonged as a part of his name. A gentleman Mr. Długoszowski may thus call himself "Wieniawa-Długoszowski" (as his family belongs to the Wieniawa coat of arms), or even "Długoszowski herbu Wieniawa". But as the nobility died as a social class, the coat of arms fell out of favour. Some people still use the hyphenated form nowadays, but it is a name like any other (ie. no ancestral castles to go with it). [[labelnote:Explanation]]To explain why does he do it this way, we need to bring up both the traditions of Polish nobility and the Roman naming customs. A coat of arms didn't belong to a single family, more like groups of families shared a single coat of arms. Think widely branched clan or something like that (adoption notwithstanding). So, while introducing himself he also lists his family's clan allegiance. The hyphenated form was inspired by the Roman convention of ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_naming_conventions tria nomina]]'', with the coat of arms standing for clan name ''nomen'' - and since it is handier if you want everyone to know about your family history (and in later times less pretentious), it gained popularity. Generally speaking, the more modern a setting, the lower chance somebody uses the "X of Y" form.[[/labelnote]] Double-barelled names returned after WorldWarII, where resistance fighters (and that included about 25% of survivors) often added their pseudonym to their full name, like general Bor-Komorowski.

Immigrants (and there were immigrants to UsefulNotes/PolishLithuanianCommonwealth, from Germany, Scotland and further) brought their own names, which were later polonised in spelling, if needed: a German calling himself "[[ADogNamedDog Deutscher]]" might be known as Dajczer to his neighbours. [[Franchise/SherlockHolmes Irena Adler]] is a perfectly plausible name for a singer from Warsaw. Lithuanian names have a very distinctive sound, like Daszuta or Żyłajtys [[note]] Modern Lithuanians tend to use their own versions of some names, like Mickevičius for Mickiewicz - he was their poet, too. Don't be confused[[/note]]. Some of these names are not inflected (e.g. Adler), some are - if in doubt, ask. PolishJews were forced into adopting surnames by the [[UsefulNotes/{{Russia}} partitioning]] [[UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}} powers]] [[UsefulNotes/{{Austria}} in XIX century]] - these were mostly the fruit of some clerk's "creativity" (in a pinch, Ashkenazi stereotypes like "-berg" or "-stein" are perfectly acceptable, polonised or not).

to:

A note about noblemen's names - an old-style nobleman would list the coat of arms (''herb'') to which his family belonged as a part of his name. A gentleman Mr. Długoszowski may thus call himself "Wieniawa-Długoszowski" (as his family belongs to the Wieniawa coat of arms), or even "Długoszowski herbu Wieniawa". But as the nobility died as a social class, the coat of arms fell out of favour. Some people still use the hyphenated form nowadays, but it is a name like any other (ie. no ancestral castles to go with it). [[labelnote:Explanation]]To explain why does he do it this way, we need to bring up both the traditions of Polish nobility and the Roman naming customs. A coat of arms didn't belong to a single family, more like groups of families shared a single coat of arms. Think widely branched clan or something like that (adoption notwithstanding). So, while introducing himself he also lists his family's clan allegiance. The hyphenated form was inspired by the Roman convention of ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_naming_conventions tria nomina]]'', with the coat of arms standing for clan name ''nomen'' - and since it is handier if you want everyone to know about your family history (and in later times less pretentious), it gained popularity. Generally speaking, the more modern a setting, the lower chance somebody uses the "X of Y" form.[[/labelnote]] Double-barelled names returned after WorldWarII, where also show up in mentions of people known for using pseudonyms, such as wartime resistance fighters (and that included about 25% of survivors) often added adding their pseudonym nom-de-guerre to their full name, like name (like general Bor-Komorowski.

Bor-Komorowski), and may be carried by married women (see below).

Immigrants (and there were immigrants to UsefulNotes/PolishLithuanianCommonwealth, from Germany, Scotland and further) brought their own names, which were later polonised in spelling, if needed: a German calling himself "[[ADogNamedDog Deutscher]]" might be known as Dajczer to his neighbours. [[Franchise/SherlockHolmes Irena Adler]] is a perfectly plausible name for a singer from Warsaw. Lithuanian names have a very distinctive sound, like Daszuta or Żyłajtys [[note]] Modern Lithuanians tend to use their own versions of some names, like Mickevičius for Mickiewicz - he was their poet, too. Don't be confused[[/note]]. Some of these names are not inflected (e.g. Adler), some are - if in doubt, ask. PolishJews were forced into adopting surnames by the [[UsefulNotes/{{Russia}} partitioning]] [[UsefulNotes/{{Prussia}} powers]] [[UsefulNotes/{{Austria}} in XIX century]] - -- these were mostly the fruit of some clerk's "creativity" (in "creativity", but in a pinch, Ashkenazi stereotypes like "-berg" or "-stein" are perfectly acceptable, polonised acceptable (polonised or not).



Many female celebrities, such as politicians and journalists, will choose to retain their maiden names. Unlike the West, however, they rarely opt to get rid of their husbands' names completely, instead attaching their maiden names to that of the husbands', joining the two by means of a dash. This phenomenon is virtually unheard of among more than 99% of society though. That does ''not'' mean that ''every'' woman with a two-part surname is necessarily her invention as there are plenty of rather old last names consisting of two separate words.

to:

Many female celebrities, such as politicians and journalists, will choose to retain their maiden names. Unlike the West, however, they rarely opt to get rid of their husbands' names completely, instead attaching their maiden names to that of the husbands', joining the two by means of a dash. This phenomenon is virtually unheard of among more than 99% of society gaining in popularity but still not common though. That does ''not'' mean that ''every'' woman with a two-part surname is necessarily her invention as there are plenty of rather old last names consisting of two separate words.



** Poles are quite insistent that Poland is [[SuspiciouslySpecificDenial not in Eastern Europe, but Central.]] It's a geopolitical and cultural matter, driven by resentment towards Russia.

to:

** Poles are quite insistent that Poland is [[SuspiciouslySpecificDenial not in Eastern Europe, but Central.]] It's a geopolitical and cultural matter, driven by resentment towards Russia.Russia and the allegiance to the Western cultural circle.


Added DiffLines:

* Webcomic/{{Polandball}}
27th Jul '16 4:52:05 PM Someoneman
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DuringTheWar, Poland suffered one of the most brutal occupation in the world (tied with Japan's occupation of Manchuria). UsefulNotes/TheHolocaust was carried out in Polish territory. The official start of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII is the Nazi Invasion of Poland which led to the declaration of war by Britian and France. The Poles [[DavidVersusGoliath fought brilliantly against overwhelming odds]], [[YouShallNotPass never surrendered]], and [[IShallReturn escaped to fight another day]]. The cavalry charging tanks was a myth, by the way; the incident that inspired this story involved a Polish cavalry division (actually mounted infantry, like most cavalry of the time, though with traditions and training) which routed a German infantry division but was counter-attacked by armoured cars. Additionally, while some Polish cavalry units ''did'' deliberately engage German armor, they did so dismounted while wielding [[BigFreakingGun anti-tank rifles]]. The Poles didn't take occupation lying down. As well as [[LaResistance organising a resistance movement]], tens of thousands of Polish men escaped from the country and [[GovernmentInExile made their way to Britain and France to continue the fight]], forming entire squadrons of airmen and divisions of ground troops. By the end of the war, there were ~250 thousand Poles fighting alongside the Western Allies, with another ~200 thousand aiding the Soviets. Suffice it to say that Poland had more than its fair share of AwesomeMoments during the period.

to:

DuringTheWar, Poland suffered one of the most brutal occupation in the world (tied with Japan's occupation of Manchuria). UsefulNotes/TheHolocaust was carried out in Polish territory. The official start of UsefulNotes/WorldWarII is the Nazi Invasion of Poland which led to the declaration of war by Britian and France. The Poles [[DavidVersusGoliath fought brilliantly against overwhelming odds]], [[YouShallNotPass never surrendered]], and [[IShallReturn escaped to fight another day]]. The cavalry charging tanks was a myth, by the way; the incident that inspired this story involved a Polish cavalry division (actually mounted infantry, like most cavalry of the time, though with traditions and training) which routed a German infantry division but was counter-attacked by armoured cars. Additionally, while some Polish cavalry units ''did'' deliberately engage German armor, they did so dismounted while wielding [[BigFreakingGun anti-tank rifles]]. The Poles didn't take occupation lying down. As well as [[LaResistance organising a resistance movement]], tens of thousands of Polish men escaped from the country and [[GovernmentInExile made their way to Britain and France to continue the fight]], forming entire squadrons of airmen and divisions of ground troops. By the end of the war, there were ~250 thousand Poles fighting alongside the Western Allies, with another ~200 thousand aiding the Soviets. Suffice it to say that Poland had more than its fair share of AwesomeMoments during the period.
Soviets.
14th Jul '16 9:13:25 AM Erpegis
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A note about noblemen's names - an old-style nobleman would list the coat of arms (''herb'') to which his family belonged as a part of his name. A gentleman Mr. Długoszowski may thus call himself "Wieniawa-Długoszowski" (as his family belongs to the Wieniawa coat of arms), or even "Długoszowski herbu Wieniawa". But as the nobility died as a social class, the coat of arms fell out of favour. Some people still use the hyphenated form nowadays, but it is a name like any other (ie. no ancestral castles to go with it). [[labelnote:Explanation]]To explain why does he do it this way, we need to bring up both the traditions of Polish nobility and the Roman naming customs. A coat of arms didn't belong to a single family, more like groups of families shared a single coat of arms. Think widely branched clan or something like that (adoption notwithstanding). So, while introducing himself he also lists his family's clan allegiance. The hyphenated form was inspired by the Roman convention of ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_naming_conventions tria nomina]]'', with the coat of arms standing for clan name ''nomen'' - and since it is handier if you want everyone to know about your family history (and in later times less pretentious), it gained popularity. Generally speaking, the more modern a setting, the lower chance somebody uses the "X of Y" form.[[/labelnote]]

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A note about noblemen's names - an old-style nobleman would list the coat of arms (''herb'') to which his family belonged as a part of his name. A gentleman Mr. Długoszowski may thus call himself "Wieniawa-Długoszowski" (as his family belongs to the Wieniawa coat of arms), or even "Długoszowski herbu Wieniawa". But as the nobility died as a social class, the coat of arms fell out of favour. Some people still use the hyphenated form nowadays, but it is a name like any other (ie. no ancestral castles to go with it). [[labelnote:Explanation]]To explain why does he do it this way, we need to bring up both the traditions of Polish nobility and the Roman naming customs. A coat of arms didn't belong to a single family, more like groups of families shared a single coat of arms. Think widely branched clan or something like that (adoption notwithstanding). So, while introducing himself he also lists his family's clan allegiance. The hyphenated form was inspired by the Roman convention of ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_naming_conventions tria nomina]]'', with the coat of arms standing for clan name ''nomen'' - and since it is handier if you want everyone to know about your family history (and in later times less pretentious), it gained popularity. Generally speaking, the more modern a setting, the lower chance somebody uses the "X of Y" form.[[/labelnote]]
[[/labelnote]] Double-barelled names returned after WorldWarII, where resistance fighters (and that included about 25% of survivors) often added their pseudonym to their full name, like general Bor-Komorowski.
13th Jul '16 8:55:30 AM Free_Rollin_BAMF
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Polish grammar is even harder than the pronunciation. There are thousands of rules, each with thousands of exceptions. Some (irregular) words do not obey any rule at all. Most meaningful words undergo inflection.

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Polish grammar is even harder than the pronunciation. There are thousands of rules, each with thousands of exceptions.exceptions (though generally a lot more consistency than most languages in general, and especially English). Some (irregular) words do not obey any rule at all. Most meaningful words undergo inflection.



In short, Polish language runs on ForTheEvulz. On the other hand however, Polish spelling is quite simple (almost phonetic) as compared to English (or traditional Chinese).

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In short, Polish language runs on ForTheEvulz. On the other hand however, Polish spelling is quite simple (almost phonetic) as compared to English (or traditional Chinese).
Chinese). Notably, the stress in Polish is consistent - always on the penultimate (second to last) syllable, or antepenultimate (third to last) for: first and second-person plural verb conjugations, and any words ending in -tyka. You can always tell exactly how a Polish word is pronounced based on how it's written, though, due to some redundancies among the characters, not necessarily the other way around.
13th Jul '16 8:33:54 AM Free_Rollin_BAMF
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On a side note, the word for "mr/mrs" is also the word for "lord/lady". Other Slavs (particularly Eastern) believe it says a lot about Poles and crack jokes about the Poles' delusions of self-importance.

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On a side note, the word for "mr/mrs" is also the word for "lord/lady". Other Slavs (particularly Eastern) believe it says a lot about Poles and crack jokes about the Poles' delusions of self-importance. \n (Funnily enough, the etymological origins of this tradition can easily be spun the other way around. Traditionally, the Polish peasantry in feudal times were not addressed with any honorific at all, where the English might use "mister," while the szlachta, or nobility (exceptionally large and inclusive compared to other European nations, including all legitimate descendants of its members and independent of any landed title, or lack of thereof), would be addressed either by title or by the common honorific, pan(i), the Polish equivalent of lord/lady. Partly because a modern Polish citizen holds basically the same social status as a member of the medieval szlachta, (i.e., voting rights and constitutional protections under the law, and not inherently much of anything else), and partly due to lacking any other way to formally address a social peer, (like the French "Monsieur"), the result was for the common people to adopt the term used by the former nobility, rather than the other way around, with the effect that now we seem really pretentious).



** Having said all that -- the history of Poland in the eyes of the Western world tends to be stereotyped in these two ways: either "ButtMonkey of Europe" or "[[IronWoobie plucky little country]]". In case the abridged story above doesn't make it clear: It's a modern stereotype. While history dealt Poland a particularly bad hand in the late 18th century, it was a master poker player before. Even then, it survived being disappeared by three superpowers for 123 years, and it can't really be blamed for getting the bottom deck of geographical borders as compared to other nations with large parts of water and mountainous borders to protect them.

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** Having said all that -- the history of Poland in the eyes of the Western world tends to be stereotyped in these two ways: either "ButtMonkey of Europe" or "[[IronWoobie plucky little country]]". In case the abridged story above doesn't make it clear: It's a modern stereotype. While history dealt Poland a particularly bad hand in the late 18th century, it was a master poker player before. before, having grown powerful and prosperous to become formally recognized as a Kingdom shortly after making its debut as a(n accepted) nation with its ruler's conversion to Christianity in the 10th century, and going on to grow into an economic and military powerhouse able to engage and emerge victorious from numerous conflicts with neighboring powers, including variously the Russian, Ottoman, and Holy Roman Empires. Even then, it survived being disappeared by three superpowers for 123 years, and it can't really be blamed for getting the bottom deck of geographical borders as compared to other nations with large parts of water and mountainous borders to protect them.
13th Jul '16 7:10:02 AM Free_Rollin_BAMF
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* ż (mira'''ge''', like 'dż', but without 'd', somehow may seem longer for English speakers; in transcription from Cyrillic this sound is rendered as "zh")

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* ż (mira'''ge''', like 'dż', but without 'd', somehow may seem longer for English speakers; in transcription from Cyrillic this sound is rendered as "zh")
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