History UsefulNotes / Peru

26th Nov '15 8:10:32 PM raziel365
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The Viceroyalty itself was a system used [[OlderThanWhatTheyThink before the stablishment of the American holdings]] and served as well to rule the other kingdoms attached to the spanish crown, in general has two periods that reflect the approaches of the ruling dynasties.

* The Habsburg Period: Also known as the Austrian period, it had the greatest parallels to the Middle Ages and even to the Roman Empire itself in its way to rule. The Habsburgs, having experiences with running [[THeHolyRomanEmpire empires]] before, used indirect rule, the influence of the Catholic Church and alliances with the local nobility to keep the Empire together, which they managed to at the cost of the Peninsular holdings being eclipsed by the American kingdoms they ruled, on the flip side, Hispanic America was left out of much of the modern changes that were happening in Europe at the time and only recieved it by hand of the Jesuit order.

to:

The Viceroyalty itself was a system used [[OlderThanWhatTheyThink [[OlderThanTheyThink before the stablishment of the American holdings]] and served as well to rule the other kingdoms attached to the spanish crown, in general has two periods that reflect the approaches of the ruling dynasties.

* The Habsburg Period: Also known as the Austrian period, it had the greatest parallels to the Middle Ages and even to the Roman Empire itself in its way to rule. The Habsburgs, having experiences with running [[THeHolyRomanEmpire [[HolyRomanEmpire empires]] before, used indirect rule, the influence of the Catholic Church and alliances with the local nobility to keep the Empire together, which they managed to at the cost of the Peninsular holdings being eclipsed by the American kingdoms they ruled, on the flip side, Hispanic America was left out of much of the modern changes that were happening in Europe at the time and only recieved it by hand of the Jesuit order.
26th Nov '15 8:09:58 PM raziel365
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* The Habsburg Period: Also known as the Austrian period, it had the greatest parallels to the Middle Ages and even the Roman Empire itself in its way to rule. The Habsburgs, having experiences with running [[THeHolyRomanEmpire empires]] before, used indirect rule, the influence of the Catholic Church and alliances with the local nobility to keep the Empire together, which they managed to at the cost of the Peninsular holdings being eclipsed by the American kingdoms they ruled.

*

to:

* The Habsburg Period: Also known as the Austrian period, it had the greatest parallels to the Middle Ages and even to the Roman Empire itself in its way to rule. The Habsburgs, having experiences with running [[THeHolyRomanEmpire empires]] before, used indirect rule, the influence of the Catholic Church and alliances with the local nobility to keep the Empire together, which they managed to at the cost of the Peninsular holdings being eclipsed by the American kingdoms they ruled.

*
ruled, on the flip side, Hispanic America was left out of much of the modern changes that were happening in Europe at the time and only recieved it by hand of the Jesuit order.

* The Bourbon Period: The French period, it paved the way to the modernisation of the American Kingdoms, creating more territorial divisons to better manage the Empire such as the Viceroyalties of Rio de la Plata, Nueva Granada and the captaincies general of Cuba, Phillipines, Chile, Venezuela, Guatemala, Yucatan and others. Like its parallel in Versailles, the period marked an age of cultural and intellectual flourishment. It also started the tendency of centralisation of power that would eventually lead to various problems ahead.
26th Nov '15 7:58:11 PM raziel365
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Atahualpa was to be killed in the pyre for the crimes of idolatry, polygamy, incest and the execution of his brother Huascar, the latter point being one of dubious certainty given that he indeed died but is not known if it was by the direct command of Atahualpa and the formers being extrajudicial accusations given that he was not part of the Spanish Empire and he couldn't be judged by under its law. Atahualpa made one last request and asked to be baptised so he would die by the garrote vil instead, a tool of extrangulation; baptised as Francisco, he was executed the 25th of July of 1533.

'''Colonial Period'''

to:

Atahualpa was to be killed in the pyre for the crimes of idolatry, polygamy, incest and the execution of his brother Huascar, the latter point being one of dubious certainty given that he indeed died but is not known if it was by the direct command of Atahualpa and the formers being extrajudicial accusations given that he was not part of the Spanish Empire and he couldn't be judged by under its law. Atahualpa made one last request and asked to be baptised so he would die by the garrote vil instead, a tool of extrangulation; baptised as Francisco, he was executed the 25th 26th of July of 1533.

'''Colonial '''Viceroyal Period'''


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The Viceroyalty period is equated as the Middle Ages of the American territories in control of Spain due to the development of a feudal-like system of land owning and the revival of titles and jobs not used in the Peninsula for being outdated, there was also the interaction between the local nobles or leaders who found themselves competing or collaborating with the new government. It must be noted as well that the Spanish Kings didn't saw themselves disturbing the continuity of the previous rulers and advocated to the concept of ''Translatio Imperii'' to justify their rule of the American Kingdoms.

The Viceroyalty itself was a system used [[OlderThanWhatTheyThink before the stablishment of the American holdings]] and served as well to rule the other kingdoms attached to the spanish crown, in general has two periods that reflect the approaches of the ruling dynasties.

* The Habsburg Period: Also known as the Austrian period, it had the greatest parallels to the Middle Ages and even the Roman Empire itself in its way to rule. The Habsburgs, having experiences with running [[THeHolyRomanEmpire empires]] before, used indirect rule, the influence of the Catholic Church and alliances with the local nobility to keep the Empire together, which they managed to at the cost of the Peninsular holdings being eclipsed by the American kingdoms they ruled.

*
26th Nov '15 7:38:06 PM raziel365
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Huayna Capac and his heir perished due to an illness never heard from before (most likely smallpox, a disease brought by the Spaniards), leaving a succesion crisis inside of the Empire. The elite of Cusco and the religious leaders supported Huascar as the next Inca to lead the Tawantinsuyu; however, Atahualpa, having the support of the army, lead a civil war that managed to capture Huascar and seize ''de facto'' control of the Tawantinsuyu.

It's in this frame of time that Francisco Pizarro and his ''conquistadores'' entered the territories of the Empire and made their way to Tumbes. Atahualpa, having heard of the bearded men before and knowing of their mortality (therefore, ruling out the possiblity of them being gods) arranged to meet them in Cajamarca, bringing with himself a thousand strong men as guards.

to:

Huayna Capac and his heir perished due to an illness never heard from before (most likely smallpox, a disease brought by the Spaniards), leaving a succesion crisis inside of the Empire. The elite of Cusco and the religious leaders supported Huascar as the next Inca to lead the Tawantinsuyu; however, Atahualpa, having the support of the army, lead a civil war that in which he managed to capture Huascar Huascar, take the Maskaypacha (crown) for himself and seize ''de facto'' control of the Tawantinsuyu.

It's in this frame of time that Francisco Pizarro and his ''conquistadores'' entered the territories of the Empire and made their way to Tumbes. Atahualpa, having heard of the bearded men before and knowing of their mortality (therefore, ruling out the possiblity of them being gods) arranged to meet them in Cajamarca, bringing with himself a thousand strong men as guards.
guards with other thousands in reserve for the ambush.



Atahualpa made a mistake in rellying only in his numerical advantage without having the foresight of any hidden cards the Spaniards could use against him, which so happened to be the horse and the cannons the Spaniards brought with them, which served to rout the guard and eventually lead to Atahualpas capture and execution.

to:

Atahualpa made a mistake in rellying only in his numerical advantage without having the foresight of any hidden cards the Spaniards could use against him, which so happened to be the horse and the cannons the Spaniards brought with them, which served to rout the guard and eventually lead to Atahualpas capture Atahualpa's capture.

Eventually, Atahualpa hoped to play with the greed of the Spaniards at his favour
and execution.
made an offer of a personal rescue of a rooms filled with gold and silver each. As time passed, the spaniards grew evermore paranoid due to the fear of being overrun and slain by the Inca's armies, something that seems to be a certainty as Atahualpa had given orders to his generals to await his word before moving.

Pizarro isn't thought to have desired for Atahualpa's subsequent trial and execution, and was even planning to have him shipped to Spain before the court of Charles I, however th urging of his men and his own nerves eventually won and made a mock trial to kill the Inca.

Atahualpa was to be killed in the pyre for the crimes of idolatry, polygamy, incest and the execution of his brother Huascar, the latter point being one of dubious certainty given that he indeed died but is not known if it was by the direct command of Atahualpa and the formers being extrajudicial accusations given that he was not part of the Spanish Empire and he couldn't be judged by under its law. Atahualpa made one last request and asked to be baptised so he would die by the garrote vil instead, a tool of extrangulation; baptised as Francisco, he was executed the 25th of July of 1533.
26th Nov '15 7:17:58 PM raziel365
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One of the major discussions is the apparent lack of writing amongst the Peruvian cultures until the end of the Precolumbine period. Aside from the Quipus, which were knotted cords that served for logistics and accounting, there have been two speculated ways of writing, one of them being beanform marks found in some places and the other bein the Tocapus, symbols found in the clothes of the higher ranked members of society and which are thought to be a hieroglyphical way of writing.



It's in this frame of time that Francisco Pizarro and his ''conquistadores'' entered the territories of the Empire and made their way to Tumbes. Atahualpa, having heard of the bearded men before and knowing of their mortality (therefore, ruling out the possiblity of them being gods) arranged to meet them in Cajamarca, bringing with himself a thousand strong men as guard.

What followed is still debated by historians, however it's agreed that Atahualpa intended to kill or capture the Spaniards and take whatever they had with him

to:

It's in this frame of time that Francisco Pizarro and his ''conquistadores'' entered the territories of the Empire and made their way to Tumbes. Atahualpa, having heard of the bearded men before and knowing of their mortality (therefore, ruling out the possiblity of them being gods) arranged to meet them in Cajamarca, bringing with himself a thousand strong men as guard.

guards.

Eventually, Pizarro and Atahualpa met in Cajamarca, the Spaniards frightened by the army before them (them being a few men) before being rallied by Pizarro to go on until they were surrounded, Pizarro used a translator to tell Atahualpa that he had to abandon his idolatric ways and submit to God and the King of Spain.
What followed is still debated by historians, however it's agreed that Atahualpa intended to kill or capture the Spaniards and take whatever they had with him
him, and when he was given the Bible, Atahualpa looked at it and later tossed it away, making his intentions to the Spaniards explicit.

Atahualpa made a mistake in rellying only in his numerical advantage without having the foresight of any hidden cards the Spaniards could use against him, which so happened to be the horse and the cannons the Spaniards brought with them, which served to rout the guard and eventually lead to Atahualpas capture and execution.
26th Nov '15 6:57:48 PM raziel365
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The events that lead to the fall of the Tawantinsuyu were both external and internal: The Incas practiced polygamy and the Inca himself could have many children

to:

The events that lead to the fall of the Tawantinsuyu were both external and internal: The Incas practiced polygamy and the Inca himself could have many children
several children born into the Panaca (Royal Family), whoever, there were rules and processes by which a son could be elected a legitimate Auqui (prince) in case the Inca died and, eventually, be crowned as the next Inca. Such princes were Huascar, born in the Panaca; and Atahualpa, son of Huayna Capac and a quitean princess, and thus barred from the normal line of succession.

Huayna Capac and his heir perished due to an illness never heard from before (most likely smallpox, a disease brought by the Spaniards), leaving a succesion crisis inside of the Empire. The elite of Cusco and the religious leaders supported Huascar as the next Inca to lead the Tawantinsuyu; however, Atahualpa, having the support of the army, lead a civil war that managed to capture Huascar and seize ''de facto'' control of the Tawantinsuyu.

It's in this frame of time that Francisco Pizarro and his ''conquistadores'' entered the territories of the Empire and made their way to Tumbes. Atahualpa, having heard of the bearded men before and knowing of their mortality (therefore, ruling out the possiblity of them being gods) arranged to meet them in Cajamarca, bringing with himself a thousand strong men as guard.

What followed is still debated by historians, however it's agreed that Atahualpa intended to kill or capture the Spaniards and take whatever they had with him
26th Nov '15 6:37:57 PM raziel365
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Its territory was home to various ancient cultures like the Norte Chico civilization, most known as Caral, the most ancient city in the American Continent (About 5000 years old), and various others; the Precolumbine history is studied in six stages:

* Initial Period: Ranges from the prehistory, covers the Caral civilization and diverse foundings as Toquepala and the temple of the crossed hands.
* The Early Horizon: Covers the time of the Chavin hegemony upon other cultures, such as the Paracas and its decadence.
* The Early Intermediate: Ranges between the decadence of Chavin and the rise of the Wari, the Nazca, the Moche and other cultures appeared in this period.
* The Middle Horizon: Spans the rise and fall of the Wari Empire in Perú, features other cultures such as the Chachapoyas.
* The Late Intermediate: Houses the time between the fall of Wari and the victory of the Inca Confederacy upon the Chancas, which would eventually lead to the Inca Empire, the cultures that appear are, amongst others, the Tiawanaco, the Chimu and The Inca Confederacy.
* The Late Horizon: Follows the rise of the Inca Empire, lead by Pachacutec, and its eventual expansion, which would be called the Tawantinsuyu and would eventually cover most of the northern territory of Chile, the coast and mountains of Perú as well as parts of the forests, Ecuador, and parts of Colombia and Bolivia; it ends with the capture of Atahualpa and his execution by Francisco Pizarro the 26th of July of 1533.

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Its The territory of Perú was home to various many of the ancient cultures of América like the Norte Chico civilization, most known as Caral, which built the most ancient city in the American Continent (About 5000 years old), old) most known as Caral, and various others; the others. The Precolumbine history history, so called to alude the time before the arrival of Europe, is studied in six stages:

stages, with three general divisions of time.

It must be noted that the term ''Horizon'' arose to denote a time when a culture had hegemony or primacy over the others contemporany to it, and therefore, set a trend amongst them. While such thing could be done by conventional conquest, they are not synonimous.

* The Archaic Period:
**
Initial Period: Ranges from the through prehistory, covers covering the Caral civilization civilisation and diverse foundings such as Toquepala and the temple of the crossed hands.
*
Kotosh.
**
The Early Horizon: Covers the time of the Chavin hegemony upon other cultures, such as the Paracas and its decadence.
* The Classical Period
**
The Early Intermediate: Ranges between the decadence of Chavin and the rise of the Wari, the Nazca, the Moche and other cultures appeared in this period.
* ** The Middle Horizon: Spans the rise and fall of the Wari Empire in Perú, features other cultures such as the Chachapoyas.
* The Postclassical Period
**
The Late Intermediate: Houses the time between the fall of Wari and the victory of the Inca Confederacy upon the Chancas, which would eventually lead to the Inca Empire, the cultures that appear are, amongst others, the Tiawanaco, the Chimu and The Inca Confederacy.
* ** The Late Horizon: Follows the rise of the Inca Empire, lead by Pachacutec, and its eventual expansion, which would be called the Tawantinsuyu and would eventually cover most of the northern territory of Chile, the coast and mountains of Perú as well as parts of the forests, Ecuador, and parts of Colombia and Bolivia; it ends with the capture of Atahualpa and his execution by Francisco Pizarro the 26th of July of 1533.
1533.

The events that lead to the fall of the Tawantinsuyu were both external and internal: The Incas practiced polygamy and the Inca himself could have many children



Classically, it is said that the Inca Empire peacefully died right the moment Atahualpa was killed, which is a '''BIG''' misconception, the truth is that after his death, his other generals continued the fight against the Spaniards, however, they were aided by various indigenous people who saw in them a chance to free themselves from the Tawantinsuyu and, ironically, the Inca elite who were enemies of Atahualpa. Eventually, this would lead to the coronations as puppet rulers first of Túpac Hualpa as a who died three months after his coronation, and then Manco Inca who, like Túpac Hualpa and Atahualpa, was a son of Huayna Cápac.

to:

Classically, it is said that the Inca Empire peacefully died right the moment Atahualpa was killed, which is a '''BIG''' misconception, the truth is that after his death, his other generals continued the fight against the Spaniards, however, they were aided by various indigenous people who saw in them a chance to free themselves from the Tawantinsuyu and, ironically, the Inca elite who were enemies of Atahualpa. Eventually, this would lead to the coronations as of puppet rulers first of such as Túpac Hualpa as a Hualpa, who died three months after his coronation, and then Manco Inca who, like who was another brother of Túpac Hualpa and Atahualpa, was a son of Huayna Cápac.
Atahualpa.
20th Sep '15 6:55:46 PM nombretomado
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Eventually, the eighteen century saw the decline of the Vice-royalty power, the rebellions of Tupac Amaru II, Jose Santos Atahualpa and Mateo Pumacahua led to the implementation of increasingly strict rules regarding the indean population that only got worst during the UsefulNotes/{{Napoleonic Wars}} when several cities refused to recognize spanish authority and established it's own ''juntas''. Interestingly, during this period, Lima remained a strong royalist bastion, thanks to the fact that the city held a privileged position in the colonies, with its own nobility and merchant society that relied on strong commercial ties with the metropolis.


to:

Eventually, the eighteen century saw the decline of the Vice-royalty power, the rebellions of Tupac Amaru II, Jose Santos Atahualpa and Mateo Pumacahua led to the implementation of increasingly strict rules regarding the indean population that only got worst during the UsefulNotes/{{Napoleonic Wars}} UsefulNotes/TheNapoleonicWars when several cities refused to recognize spanish authority and established it's own ''juntas''. Interestingly, during this period, Lima remained a strong royalist bastion, thanks to the fact that the city held a privileged position in the colonies, with its own nobility and merchant society that relied on strong commercial ties with the metropolis.

28th Jul '15 6:52:00 PM raziel365
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Despite this reforms, the eighteen century saw the decline of the Vice-royalty power, the rebellions of Tupac Amaru II, Jose Santos Atahualpa and Mateo Pumacahua led to the implementation of increasingly strict rules regarding the indean population that only got worst during the UsefulNotes/{{Napoleonic Wars}} when several cities refused to recognize spanish authority and established it's own ''juntas''. Interestingly, during this period, Lima remained a strong royalist bastion, thanks to the fact that the city held a privileged position in the colonies, with its own nobility and merchant society that relied on strong commercial ties with the metropolis.


to:

Despite Ironically, this reforms, reforms eventually alienated the Viceroyalties since it also ended some of the old alliances with the local nobility and the federal type of control that was the signature of the Habsburg Monarchy was left aside in favour of a stronger centralization of power in the metropolis.

Eventually,
the eighteen century saw the decline of the Vice-royalty power, the rebellions of Tupac Amaru II, Jose Santos Atahualpa and Mateo Pumacahua led to the implementation of increasingly strict rules regarding the indean population that only got worst during the UsefulNotes/{{Napoleonic Wars}} when several cities refused to recognize spanish authority and established it's own ''juntas''. Interestingly, during this period, Lima remained a strong royalist bastion, thanks to the fact that the city held a privileged position in the colonies, with its own nobility and merchant society that relied on strong commercial ties with the metropolis.





In 1968, the Armed Forces, led by General Juan Velasco Alvarado, staged a coup against president Fernando Belaunde. In 1975, the general was deposed and the regime started to become a democracy again. Following a period of instability in the 80s and early 90 characterized by a general inflation and the surgent of guerrillas in the countryside, the country finally gained a political stability in the 2000s. From here, it had its usual problems of crime, corruption and drug trafficking, coupled with a sustaining economic growth.

to:

\nIn this century there were also the roots of the problems that would eventually afflict the country, namely, the ever growing segregation of the people of Amerindian ascendency or factions by the ''criollos''.

In 1968, after a rather scandalous agreement of the president towards a Canadian company for the extraction of oil in Talara, the Armed Forces, led by General Juan Velasco Alvarado, staged a coup against president Fernando Belaunde. Belaunde and deposed him under the excuse of "acting on behalf of the people of Peru", this lead towards the last military dictatorship in Peru. Velasco broke relationships with the US after it tried to force him to make the Canadian company stay in Peru, something that he refused and proceeded to nationalize the oil produced in Talara. This made the US declared a blockade against Peru but, to the joy to the peruvians, many countries in Latinamerica, such as Mexico were sympathetic towards the cause and didn't followed the blockade. Afterwards he made some reforms to cut down the power of the ''Hacendados'', who were landowners and were the power behind the Aristocratic Republic, eventually proclaiming the Agrarian Reform which, while well intended, ended up leaving the land in the hands of people with little to no education who eventually satisfied themselves with an agriculture of self-substantion. In his last years, he began to arm the country for a planned invasion against Chile in order to recover the lost province of Arica and Tarapaca, however, General Morales Bermudez, whose wife was Chilean, instigated a coup against him.

In 1975, the general was deposed and the regime under Morales Bermudez started to become a democracy again.again, all the while appeasing the US with whom Velasco had broken ties with after the coup. Following a period of instability in the 80s and early 90 characterized by a general inflation and the surgent of guerrillas in the countryside, the country finally gained a political stability in the 2000s. From here, it had its usual problems of crime, corruption and drug trafficking, coupled with a sustaining economic growth.
3rd Jun '15 7:56:40 AM AgProv
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Added DiffLines:

[[folder: Notable Peruvians]]:
* Creator/MichaelBentine. Although born in England, comedian, author and TV presenter Bentine was a Peruvian citizen through his father. He was bilingual in Spanish and never forgot his roots in this country, fronting appeals in the UK for aid after natural disasters in Peru. He visited frequently, and, as a member of the family that founded Peru's first airline company, was familiar with the country, its strengths and weaknesses, and worked tirelessly to raise awareness of its existence outside South America.

[[/folder]]
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