History UsefulNotes / NazisWithGnarlyWeapons

20th Feb '17 1:30:19 AM Saveelich
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The standard soldiers of the Wehrmacht have been {{Mooks}} since (and even during) the UsefulNotes/SecondWorldWar. They're generally considered AcceptableTargets, so to speak. [[ImperialStormtrooperMarksmanshipAcademy They can't shoot straight]] (contrary to their RealLife counterparts).

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The standard soldiers of the Wehrmacht have been {{Mooks}} since (and even during) the UsefulNotes/SecondWorldWar. They're generally considered AcceptableTargets, so to speak. [[ImperialStormtrooperMarksmanshipAcademy They can't shoot straight]] (contrary to their RealLife counterparts).
counterparts). Most of this is averted in German movies, which tend to have the most realistic portrayals.
20th Oct '16 9:47:08 AM Morgenthaler
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On 22/6/1941 the Wehrmacht invaded the USSR with 2.7 million combat troops, 120k trucks, 500k cars and motorbikes, and ''624k horses''. As the war ground on the Wehrmacht became ''less'' motorised because even in May 1941 they were losing more trucks per month (2%) than they were producing (1%), the replacements also being of inferior quality. As early as March 1942 the Panzer Divisions were outfitting their motorcycle reconnaisance troops with bicycles, and by 1943 the Wehrmacht was the ''least''-motorised military force of the war bar [[KatanasOfTheRisingSun the IJA]] [[NoMoreEmperors and NRA]].

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On 22/6/1941 the Wehrmacht invaded the USSR with 2.7 million combat troops, 120k trucks, 500k cars and motorbikes, and ''624k horses''. As the war ground on the Wehrmacht became ''less'' motorised because even in May 1941 they were losing more trucks per month (2%) than they were producing (1%), the replacements also being of inferior quality. As early as March 1942 the Panzer Divisions were outfitting their motorcycle reconnaisance troops with bicycles, and by 1943 the Wehrmacht was the ''least''-motorised military force of the war bar [[KatanasOfTheRisingSun [[UsefulNotes/KatanasOfTheRisingSun the IJA]] [[NoMoreEmperors [[UsefulNotes/NoMoreEmperors and NRA]].
19th Sep '16 5:58:47 AM morane
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It is a [[CommonKnowledge myth]] that the entirety of the Waffen SS was elite. Many of them actually received poorer equipment and training than their Heer counterparts, and only three divisions are generally considered by militaria experts to be elite, namely the [[PraetorianGuard 1st SS Division Leibstandarte (Life Guard) Adolf Hitler, Hitler's personal bodyguard]], the 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich, infamous for their [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oradour-sur-Glane#Massacre actions]] at the French town of Oradour-sur-Glane (it says something that the officer responsible would probably have been [[EvenEvilHasStandards tried for war crimes even if Germany had won the war)]] and the 3rd SS Division Totenkopf, infamous for both their Death's Head insignia and their roots in the prewar Totenkopfverbände (Death's Head Organisation), which administered the prewar (and [[FromBadToWorse slightly less brutal]]) concentration camp system. In fact many of the enlisted men in the earlier days of the 3rd SS Division had been guards at conectration camps. Other few Waffen SS divisions [[note]]at least 5th SS Panzer Division ''Wiking'', 9th SS Panzer Division ''Hohenstaufen'', 10th SS Panzer Division ''Frundsberg'', 11th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division ''Nordland'', 12th SS Panzer Division ''Hitlerjugend'', 28th SS Volunteer Grenadier Division ''Wallonien'' and 34th SS Volunteer Grenadier Division ''Landstorm Nederland''[[/note]] claimed elite status similar to the first 3 divisions, due to both [[TrainingFromHell their arduous training]] and the [[TheLastDance fierce resistance]] [[TakingYouWithMe they displayed]] when facing enemies, ''Hitlerjugend'' being renowned for their fierce attitude during the Normandy battles. The SS was notorious for scavenging enemy weapons, especially the Soviet SVT-40, which was used because their own semiautomatic rifles were so seldom supplied. Nevertheless, those SS divisions which were genuinely elite - ''Das Reich'', ''Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler'', ''Wiking'' - often received top of the line equipment, sometimes over better qualified ''Heer'' units. Despite all their advanced weaponry, no Waffen-SS unit ever achieved a better kill ratio than the Heer's best troops, such as the '' Großdeutschland'' Panzergrenadiers.

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It is a [[CommonKnowledge myth]] that the entirety of the Waffen SS was elite. Many of them actually received poorer equipment and training than their Heer counterparts, and only three divisions are generally considered by militaria experts to be elite, namely the [[PraetorianGuard 1st SS Division Leibstandarte (Life Guard) Adolf Hitler, Hitler's personal bodyguard]], the 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich, infamous for their [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oradour-sur-Glane#Massacre actions]] at the French town of Oradour-sur-Glane (it says something that the officer responsible would probably have been [[EvenEvilHasStandards tried for war crimes even if Germany had won the war)]] and the 3rd SS Division Totenkopf, infamous for both their Death's Head insignia and their roots in the prewar Totenkopfverbände (Death's Head Organisation), which administered the prewar (and [[FromBadToWorse slightly less brutal]]) concentration camp system. In fact many of the enlisted men in the earlier days of the 3rd SS Division had been guards at conectration camps. Other few Waffen SS divisions [[note]]at least 5th SS Panzer Division ''Wiking'', 9th SS Panzer Division ''Hohenstaufen'', 10th SS Panzer Division ''Frundsberg'', 11th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division ''Nordland'', 12th SS Panzer Division ''Hitlerjugend'', 28th SS Volunteer Grenadier Division ''Wallonien'' and 34th SS Volunteer Grenadier Division ''Landstorm Nederland''[[/note]] claimed elite status similar to the first 3 divisions, due to both [[TrainingFromHell their arduous training]] and the [[TheLastDance fierce resistance]] [[TakingYouWithMe they displayed]] when facing enemies, ''Hitlerjugend'' being renowned for their fierce attitude during the Normandy battles. The SS was notorious for scavenging enemy weapons, especially the Soviet SVT-40, which was used because their own semiautomatic rifles were so seldom supplied. Nevertheless, those SS divisions which were genuinely elite - ''Das Reich'', ''Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler'', ''Wiking'' - often received top of the line equipment, sometimes over better qualified ''Heer'' units. Despite all their advanced weaponry, no Waffen-SS unit ever achieved a better kill ratio than the Heer's best troops, such as the '' Großdeutschland'' Panzergrenadiers.
Panzergrenadiers. One formation deserves special mentioning: 36th Waffen Grenadier Division ''Dirlewanger'', historically recognized as the most eminent criminal unit in the Waffen-SS, which was first composed of convicted thieves and poachers and used as an anti-partisan unit, but soon its ranks were swelled by other criminals and sexual offenders (Oskar Dirlewanger himself was a convicted paedophile). It soon gained notoriety as "worst of the worst" and it committed many notorious war crimes and massacres - to the extent [[EvenEvilHasStandards other SS formations shunned it and Heer formations outright hated it]].
19th Sep '16 5:52:30 AM morane
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Added DiffLines:

* '''13th Waffen-SS Grenadier Division "''Handschar''"''': These guys were a nasty lot. Originally recruited from Croat and Muslim Bosnian volunteers at Balkans, they were mostly used on anti-partisan duties and against Tito's Communists and Serbian Chetniks in Yugoslavia. Being extremely ill-disciplined, the German superiors described the ''Handschar'' volunteers as "completely useless as soldiers, but experts on terrorizing defenceless civilians". It took an oath of allegiance to both Adolf Hitler and the Croatian leader Ante Pavelić. The division fought briefly in the Syrmia region north of the Sava river prior to crossing into northeastern Bosnia. After crossing the Sava, it established a designated "security zone" in northeastern Bosnia between the Sava, Bosna, Drina and Spreča rivers. It also fought outside the security zone on several occasions, and earned a reputation for brutality and savagery, not only during combat operations, but also through atrocities committed against Serb and Jewish civilians. In late 1944, parts of the division were transferred briefly to the Zagreb area, after which the non-German members began to desert in large numbers. Over the winter of 194445, it was sent to the Baranja region where it fought against the Red Army and Bulgarians throughout southern Hungary, falling back via a series of defensive lines until they were inside the Reich frontier. Most of the remaining Bosnian Muslims left at this point and attempted to return to Bosnia. The rest retreated further west, hoping to surrender to the western Allies. Most of the remaining members became prisoners of the British Army. Subsequently, 38 officers were extradited to Yugoslavia to face criminal charges, and 10 were executed. As a bizarre detail there were no military chaplains in Waffen-SS units in general, but each ''Handschar'' battalion had a military imam.
30th Aug '16 3:37:00 AM Morgenthaler
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* '''20th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Estonian)''': Finno-Ugric peoples weren't originally high on the Aryan scale of Nazi Party, but after having seen the [[FinnsWithFearsomeForests Finnish performance]] against the Soviets and the situation becoming dire in late 1943, the SS decided to raise a division of Estonian volunteers to defend Estonia from Soviet onslaught. Thousands of volunteers signed up. They were given military training and in Spring 1944 after the general conscription-mobilization was announced in Estonia on 31 January 1944 by the German occupying authorities, the cadre of the 3rd Estonian SS Volunteer Brigade, renamed the 20th Estonian SS Volunteer Division on 23 January 1944, was returned to Estonia and reformed. Additionally 38,000 men were conscripted in Estonia and other Estonian units that had fought on various fronts in the German Army, and the Finnish Infantry Regiment 200 were rushed to Estonia. Estonian officers and men in other units that fell under the conscription proclamation and had returned to Estonia had their rank prefix changed from "SS" to "Waffen" (Hauptscharführer would be referred to as a Waffen-Hauptscharführer rather than SS-Hauptscharführer). The wearing of SS runes on the collar was discontinued, and these formations began wearing Estonian national insignia instead. The Estonian troops defended their small homeland ferociously. Little love was lost between Germany and Estonia, but they all knew what was the fate of small nations under Soviet rule, and they fought successfully against twentyfold Soviet overpower, winning several battles and causing over 150,000 casualties to the Soviets. When Estonia was finally overrun, many of the SS men fled to Sweden over the Baltic sea and after the war to US and UK.

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* '''20th Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS (1st Estonian)''': Finno-Ugric peoples weren't originally high on the Aryan scale of Nazi Party, but after having seen the [[FinnsWithFearsomeForests [[UsefulNotes/FinnsWithFearsomeForests Finnish performance]] against the Soviets and the situation becoming dire in late 1943, the SS decided to raise a division of Estonian volunteers to defend Estonia from Soviet onslaught. Thousands of volunteers signed up. They were given military training and in Spring 1944 after the general conscription-mobilization was announced in Estonia on 31 January 1944 by the German occupying authorities, the cadre of the 3rd Estonian SS Volunteer Brigade, renamed the 20th Estonian SS Volunteer Division on 23 January 1944, was returned to Estonia and reformed. Additionally 38,000 men were conscripted in Estonia and other Estonian units that had fought on various fronts in the German Army, and the Finnish Infantry Regiment 200 were rushed to Estonia. Estonian officers and men in other units that fell under the conscription proclamation and had returned to Estonia had their rank prefix changed from "SS" to "Waffen" (Hauptscharführer would be referred to as a Waffen-Hauptscharführer rather than SS-Hauptscharführer). The wearing of SS runes on the collar was discontinued, and these formations began wearing Estonian national insignia instead. The Estonian troops defended their small homeland ferociously. Little love was lost between Germany and Estonia, but they all knew what was the fate of small nations under Soviet rule, and they fought successfully against twentyfold Soviet overpower, winning several battles and causing over 150,000 casualties to the Soviets. When Estonia was finally overrun, many of the SS men fled to Sweden over the Baltic sea and after the war to US and UK.
29th Aug '16 11:08:57 AM Morgenthaler
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* Second: Hans Krebs[[note]]As of 1945. The office of Chief of the General Staff was held by several people: General Ludwig Beck, from 1935-38, who later committed suicide after the failure of the July 20 plot; Colonel-General Franz Halder, from 1938-42, who survived the war and died in 1972, leaving copious diaries behind; Colonel-General Kurt Zeitzler; from 1942-44, brought in after Halder started talking too much truth to power, he survived the war and died in 1962; Lieutenant-General Kurt Heusinger, 1944-44, implicated in the July 20 plot, insufficient evidence to connect him, but ended his career. He had a later role in the formation of the ''[[WeAreNotTheWehrmacht Bundeswehr]]''; Colonel-General Heinz Guderian, 1944-45, fired after a screaming match with his best friend (Hitler) in which he 'politely suggested' surrendering to the Western Allies and and continuing to fight the Soviets; and finally General Krebs, who, along with his closest friend Wilhelm Burgdorf, shot himself in the ''Fuhrerbunker'' in the dying days of the war.[[/note]]

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* Second: Hans Krebs[[note]]As of 1945. The office of Chief of the General Staff was held by several people: General Ludwig Beck, from 1935-38, who later committed suicide after the failure of the July 20 plot; Colonel-General Franz Halder, from 1938-42, who survived the war and died in 1972, leaving copious diaries behind; Colonel-General Kurt Zeitzler; from 1942-44, brought in after Halder started talking too much truth to power, he survived the war and died in 1962; Lieutenant-General Kurt Heusinger, 1944-44, implicated in the July 20 plot, insufficient evidence to connect him, but ended his career. He had a later role in the formation of the ''[[WeAreNotTheWehrmacht ''[[UsefulNotes/WeAreNotTheWehrmacht Bundeswehr]]''; Colonel-General Heinz Guderian, 1944-45, fired after a screaming match with his best friend (Hitler) in which he 'politely suggested' surrendering to the Western Allies and and continuing to fight the Soviets; and finally General Krebs, who, along with his closest friend Wilhelm Burgdorf, shot himself in the ''Fuhrerbunker'' in the dying days of the war.[[/note]]
28th Aug '16 3:30:46 AM Morgenthaler
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The Waffen SS was a mostly-volunteer organisation with many recruits from across Europe, ranging from Germans to Austrians to White Russians to French to Scandinavians to Muslim Bosniaks and even to Indians. In some ways, a Nazi version of the [[GaulsWithGrenades French Foreign Legion]]. At its height, it consisted of around 1,000,000 total personnel. The reason for this being the fact Heer could not recruit men who were not German citizens for being bound by pre-war military regulations, while the SS was not - they were responsible practically in all matters to Heinrich Himmler and above him to [[UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler the Führer]] himself. Some notable examples are here:

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The Waffen SS was a mostly-volunteer organisation with many recruits from across Europe, ranging from Germans to Austrians to White Russians to French to Scandinavians to Muslim Bosniaks and even to Indians. In some ways, a Nazi version of the [[GaulsWithGrenades [[UsefulNotes/GaulsWithGrenades French Foreign Legion]]. At its height, it consisted of around 1,000,000 total personnel. The reason for this being the fact Heer could not recruit men who were not German citizens for being bound by pre-war military regulations, while the SS was not - they were responsible practically in all matters to Heinrich Himmler and above him to [[UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler the Führer]] himself. Some notable examples are here:
10th Jul '16 3:00:32 PM Nautilus1
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All half-tracks designed within Germany used a similar cleverly-designed ''[[GratuitousGerman Schachtellaufwerk]]'' chassis, scaled to their respective size, which proved their undoing: to allow high road speeds, all track links were fitted on needle bearings with individual sealing and lubrication. [[AwesomeButImpractical Hundreds of roller-bearings for each]] [[PrecisionFStrike damn]] vehicle. No wonder they could not make more than a few thousands of each type.

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All half-tracks designed for military purpose within Germany used a similar cleverly-designed ''[[GratuitousGerman Schachtellaufwerk]]'' chassis, scaled to their respective size, which proved their undoing: to allow high road speeds, all track links were fitted on needle bearings with individual sealing and lubrication. [[AwesomeButImpractical Hundreds of roller-bearings for each]] [[PrecisionFStrike damn]] vehicle. No wonder they could not make more than a few thousands of each type.
15th Jun '16 6:17:55 PM Doug86
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The Wehrmacht's officers were somewhere inbetween the leadership and the rank-and-file when it came to support for Nazism, though there was a clear shift towards Nazism over time. Within the ''Wehrmacht'' there was a fairly clear division between the branches in terms of politics; the Luftwaffe was the most Nazi-fied service as it had only been re-created under Hitler's regime; the Army didn't really start to become Nazified until 1938-40 when the conservative Commander-in-Chief was replaced and before then had been largely conservative, especially in its pre-war [[BlueBlood Junker]]-dominated officer corps (and until 1943-44 Wehrmacht soldiers were freer to crack jokes about Hitler than they were at home); and (as anyone who's seen ''Film/DasBoot'' can tell you) the Navy was the least ideological service and ''still'' wasn't Nazi-fied even in 1944-45. The navy in particular is occasionally considered to have been a hotbed of democratic and leftist sentiment (sailors of the High Seas Fleet had started the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Revolution_of_1918%E2%80%9319 German Revolution]] at the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne). Hitler himself was known to joke that he had "a conservative army, a Nazi air force, and a communist navy" (another version of the same joke is that Nazi Germany had Frederick the Great's army, Kaiser Wilhelm's navy and Hitler's air force).

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The Wehrmacht's officers were somewhere inbetween the leadership and the rank-and-file when it came to support for Nazism, though there was a clear shift towards Nazism over time. Within the ''Wehrmacht'' there was a fairly clear division between the branches in terms of politics; the Luftwaffe was the most Nazi-fied service as it had only been re-created under Hitler's regime; the Army didn't really start to become Nazified until 1938-40 when the conservative Commander-in-Chief was replaced and before then had been largely conservative, especially in its pre-war [[BlueBlood Junker]]-dominated officer corps (and until 1943-44 Wehrmacht soldiers were freer to crack jokes about Hitler than they were at home); and (as anyone who's seen ''Film/DasBoot'' can tell you) the Navy was the least ideological service and ''still'' wasn't Nazi-fied even in 1944-45. The navy in particular is occasionally considered to have been a hotbed of democratic and leftist sentiment (sailors of the High Seas Fleet had started the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/German_Revolution_of_1918%E2%80%9319 German Revolution]] at the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne).UsefulNotes/WorldWarI). Hitler himself was known to joke that he had "a conservative army, a Nazi air force, and a communist navy" (another version of the same joke is that Nazi Germany had Frederick the Great's army, Kaiser Wilhelm's navy and Hitler's air force).



The idea that the Wehrmacht was a professional and a-political institution which bravely opposed the excesses of the Nazi regime was encouraged by the self-serving memoirs of those Wehrmacht generals that escaped execution after the war, who promoted the idea of the "[[http://harvardpress.typepad.com/hup_publicity/2006/07/the_wehrmacht_a.html clean Wehrmacht]]". The Wehrmacht was ''not'' clean. It was less 'dirty' than the SS, but by normal standards it was still incredibly cruel and brutal. This was encouraged by the Wehrmacht's proclamations prior to the execution of ''[[WorldWarTwo Unternehmen Barbarossa]]'' in 1941 (which they made of their own free will) that a Soviet citizen disobeying an order given by Wehrmacht employee was a crime punishable by death and that no Wehrmacht employee would ever be tried for any actions taken against any Soviet citizen. To quote section II.1 of the OKH (Army High Command) ''Barbarossa Decree'' of 13/5/1941: "[[http://users.clas.ufl.edu/ggiles/barbaros.html For acts which members of the Wehrmacht or its retinue commit against enemy civilians, there is no compulsion to prosecute, even when the act represents at the same time a military crime or offense.]]"

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The idea that the Wehrmacht was a professional and a-political institution which bravely opposed the excesses of the Nazi regime was encouraged by the self-serving memoirs of those Wehrmacht generals that escaped execution after the war, who promoted the idea of the "[[http://harvardpress.typepad.com/hup_publicity/2006/07/the_wehrmacht_a.html clean Wehrmacht]]". The Wehrmacht was ''not'' clean. It was less 'dirty' than the SS, but by normal standards it was still incredibly cruel and brutal. This was encouraged by the Wehrmacht's proclamations prior to the execution of ''[[WorldWarTwo ''[[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII Unternehmen Barbarossa]]'' in 1941 (which they made of their own free will) that a Soviet citizen disobeying an order given by Wehrmacht employee was a crime punishable by death and that no Wehrmacht employee would ever be tried for any actions taken against any Soviet citizen. To quote section II.1 of the OKH (Army High Command) ''Barbarossa Decree'' of 13/5/1941: "[[http://users.clas.ufl.edu/ggiles/barbaros.html For acts which members of the Wehrmacht or its retinue commit against enemy civilians, there is no compulsion to prosecute, even when the act represents at the same time a military crime or offense.]]"



The iconic pistol associated with Nazis is the Pistole 08, universally known as the "Luger", and also as ''Parabellum''. The pistol was actually used in UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne, but was gradually being replaced by the Walther P38 after 1938. The pistol just [[http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/02/Parabellum_1586.jpg looks evil]] ([[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Walter_HP_Speerwerke_1428.jpg so does the P38]], just that it's [[OurWeaponsWillBeBoxyInTheFuture slightly boxier]]) and enough were [[{{Plunder}} collected as trophies]] by Allied soldiers to ensure continued currency. As with the K98 example above, however, despite its refinements in mass production technology there were simply not enough P38s to go around that the Luger could be removed from service (even had any of the servicemen who were lucky enough to have one been inclined to do so), so the two sidearms soldiered along side by side for the duration of the war. The P38 is also associated with another evil figure in modern culture, [[TheTransformers Megatron]]. Another iconic pistol is the Walther PPK; the gun that Film/JamesBond uses is also the one that Hitler used to kill himself.

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The iconic pistol associated with Nazis is the Pistole 08, universally known as the "Luger", and also as ''Parabellum''. The pistol was actually used in UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne, UsefulNotes/WorldWarI, but was gradually being replaced by the Walther P38 after 1938. The pistol just [[http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/02/Parabellum_1586.jpg looks evil]] ([[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Walter_HP_Speerwerke_1428.jpg so does the P38]], just that it's [[OurWeaponsWillBeBoxyInTheFuture slightly boxier]]) and enough were [[{{Plunder}} collected as trophies]] by Allied soldiers to ensure continued currency. As with the K98 example above, however, despite its refinements in mass production technology there were simply not enough P38s to go around that the Luger could be removed from service (even had any of the servicemen who were lucky enough to have one been inclined to do so), so the two sidearms soldiered along side by side for the duration of the war. The P38 is also associated with another evil figure in modern culture, [[TheTransformers Megatron]]. Another iconic pistol is the Walther PPK; the gun that Film/JamesBond uses is also the one that Hitler used to kill himself.



[[ThoseWackyNazis Where do]] [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarTwo we start?]]

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[[ThoseWackyNazis Where do]] [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarTwo [[UsefulNotes/WorldWarII we start?]]
30th May '16 1:25:02 PM Ulkomaalainen
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UsefulNotes/NaziGermany fielded soldiers from a number of armed organisations for conventional warfare, anticipatory-retaliatory anti-partisan warfare, and prejudicial counter-intelligence operations. These were subordinated to two major organisations, the ''SS'' (''Schutzstaffel'' - lit. 'protection quadron') and the Wehrmacht (Military). The ''SS'' was created from the merger of paramilitary groups associated with the Nazi Party with Germany's major police forces upon their seizure of power in 1933, and was originally focused on unconventional enemies. The ''Wehrmacht'' was created from the ''Reichswehr'', the military of the German Republic (1918-1933), in 1935 and had an initial focus on conventional enemies.

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UsefulNotes/NaziGermany fielded soldiers from a number of armed organisations for conventional warfare, anticipatory-retaliatory anti-partisan warfare, and prejudicial counter-intelligence operations. These were subordinated to two major organisations, the ''SS'' (''Schutzstaffel'' - lit. 'protection quadron') squadron') and the Wehrmacht (Military). The ''SS'' was created from the merger of paramilitary groups associated with the Nazi Party with Germany's major police forces upon their seizure of power in 1933, and was originally focused on unconventional enemies. The ''Wehrmacht'' was created from the ''Reichswehr'', the military of the German Republic (1918-1933), in 1935 and had an initial focus on conventional enemies.
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