History UsefulNotes / Christianity

13th Oct '17 8:12:02 PM ChaoticNovelist
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* ChristianityIsCatholic: Because Catholicism is one of the bigger sects and one of the oldest, some people everyone is like that.

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* ChristianityIsCatholic: Because Catholicism is one of the bigger sects and one of the oldest, some people think everyone is like that.



* NunsAreSpooky [[NunsAreFunny Funny]] and/or [[NaughtyNuns Naughty]]: Ideas about what women who spent their lives in seclusion away from men did all day are diverse to say the least.

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* NunsAreSpooky NunsAreSpooky: If not spooky then [[NunsAreFunny Funny]] and/or [[NaughtyNuns Naughty]]: Ideas Naughty]]. Yeah, ideas about what women who spent their lives in seclusion away from men did all day are diverse to say the least.
19th Sep '17 5:18:15 AM gemmabeta2
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A lot of modern Anabaptist descendants believe in nonviolence and separation from modern societies and countries. Anabaptists are not to be confused with Baptists, which are descended from more "mainline" Protestantism. Anabaptists are survived in the modern day by a number of different denominations, including the Amish, Mennonites, and Hutterites. These groups tend to be almost exclusively based in rural communities, though there are plenty of exceptions. To qualify the rosy portrait given above, it must be noted that many Anabaptists were violent theocrats. Incidentally, the Mennonites (from whom the Amish split in the 17th century) were always pacifists and separatists, which was the reason they survived persecution, not a result of persecution. Collectively, the Amish, Mennonite, Quakers, and Church of the Brethern (also anabaptist) are known as the "Historic Peace Churches" because of their pacifism, and most of the American and European laws regarding contentious objection in war were originally created with them in mind.

to:

A lot of modern Anabaptist descendants believe in nonviolence and separation from modern societies and countries. Anabaptists are not to be confused with Baptists, which are descended from more "mainline" Protestantism. Anabaptists are survived in the modern day by a number of different denominations, including the Amish, Mennonites, and Hutterites. These groups tend to be almost exclusively based in rural communities, though there are plenty of exceptions. To qualify the rosy portrait given above, it must be noted that many Anabaptists were violent theocrats. Incidentally, the Mennonites (from whom the Amish split in the 17th century) were always pacifists and separatists, which was the reason they survived persecution, not a result of persecution. Collectively, the Amish, Mennonite, Quakers, and Church of the Brethern (also anabaptist) are known as the "Historic Peace Churches" because of their pacifism, and most of the American and European laws regarding contentious conscientious objection in war were originally created with them in mind. mind.
19th Sep '17 5:17:23 AM gemmabeta2
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A lot of moderen Anabaptist descendants believe in nonviolence and separation from modern societies and countries. Anabaptists are not to be confused with Baptists, which are descended from more "mainline" Protestantism. Anabaptists are survived in the modern day by a number of different denominations, including the Amish, Mennonites, and Hutterites. These groups tend to be almost exclusively based in rural communities, though there are plenty of exceptions. To qualify the rosy portrait given above, it must be noted that many Anabaptists were violent theocrats. Incidentally, the Mennonites (from whom the Amish split in the 17th century) were always pacifists and separatists, which was the reason they survived persecution, not a result of persecution.

to:

A lot of moderen modern Anabaptist descendants believe in nonviolence and separation from modern societies and countries. Anabaptists are not to be confused with Baptists, which are descended from more "mainline" Protestantism. Anabaptists are survived in the modern day by a number of different denominations, including the Amish, Mennonites, and Hutterites. These groups tend to be almost exclusively based in rural communities, though there are plenty of exceptions. To qualify the rosy portrait given above, it must be noted that many Anabaptists were violent theocrats. Incidentally, the Mennonites (from whom the Amish split in the 17th century) were always pacifists and separatists, which was the reason they survived persecution, not a result of persecution. Collectively, the Amish, Mennonite, Quakers, and Church of the Brethern (also anabaptist) are known as the "Historic Peace Churches" because of their pacifism, and most of the American and European laws regarding contentious objection in war were originally created with them in mind.
16th Sep '17 12:54:30 PM nombretomado
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-->--'''JesusChrist''', [[Literature/TheFourGospels John]] 3:16, King James Version of Literature/TheBible

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-->--'''JesusChrist''', -->--'''UsefulNotes/JesusChrist''', [[Literature/TheFourGospels John]] 3:16, King James Version of Literature/TheBible
26th Aug '17 12:06:18 PM DustSnitch
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* Are we obligated to take our parents in when they reach old age? Can they be placed in nursing homes or assisted living facilities? If there is more than one child in a family, which one does the responsibility of elder care fall? What if they can't take that responsibility on, or are not willing to?
25th Aug '17 3:33:00 PM DustSnitch
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The last source, and the most controversial, is the Pope himself. Catholics believe the Pope is infallible when he speaks on matters of faith or morals and invokes his infallibility. This circumstance is known as ''ex cathedra'', which literally means "from the chair." When the Pope solemnly defines a doctrine or dogma, he is speaking ''ex cathedra''. In the grand scheme of the Church it is a very new idea, first officially pronounced in 1870, and which modern theologians recognize as having been exercised [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papal_infallibility#Instances_of_papal_infallibility only seven times in the history of the church, such as in 1950]]. Each of the seven times, the declaration has been about rather high-level theological issues surrounding the nature of Christ and salvation[[note]]Two are letters which define Christ as having two natures and two wills (fairly standard Chalcedonian Christology); one says, in essence, that yes, saints are a thing and are currently with God in Heaven (which is almost parodically Catholic); two denounce as heretical the points on salvation made by a seventeenth-century Flemish bishop and theologian named Jansen that amount to a program for turning Catholic theology into Calvinism Lite; one defines the rather esoteric doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, whose significance ties into the nature of Original Sin and Christ's role as redeemer; and the final one formally adopted and defined the doctrine of the Assumption of Mary, which holds that the Virgin Mary was bodily taken up to Heaven at the end of her natural life, an old doctrine the Church had long generally accepted and indeed more or less shared with the Orthodox (the Pope was vague enough on the point that the Orthodox doctrine is one of several valid interpretations of the Catholic one).[[/note]] rather than some specific moral or practical question.

Many people debate just how solemnly, and what language a pope has to speak to be doing so. However, if the term anathema (a bad thing, as in "let him be anathema") shows up, you're probably in ''ex cathedra'' territory. As a note, infallibility has nothing to do with impeccability, or sinlessness (Peter the Apostle, considered to be the first Pope by Catholics, denied Christ three times in The Bible).

Infallibility is viewed as a negative power, meaning that the Pope is incapable of speaking falsely when speaking ''ex cathedra'' on faith and morals. This does not extend to private letters, most public discourses, theological musings and what not, though they are to be accorded respect. Note that due to the principle of ''doctrinal development'' in Catholicism (the belief that new dogmas are simply ''existing'' beliefs that have been better understood and now ''explicitly'' defined, as opposed to doctrinal ''innovation'', which means coming up with new doctrine or changing existing ones), this rule applies ''retroactively''. But in practice, infallible teachings from the Pope are very rare; the Church doesn't keep an official list, but as noted above, there have been only seven in the Church's 2000-year history (of which ''one'', in 1950, has occurred since the First Vatican Council formally enunciated the doctrine).

to:

The last source, and the most controversial, is the Pope himself. Catholics believe the Pope is infallible when he speaks on matters of faith or morals and invokes his infallibility. This circumstance is known as ''ex cathedra'', which literally means "from the chair." When the Pope solemnly defines a doctrine or dogma, he is speaking ''ex cathedra''. In the grand scheme of the Church it is a very new idea, first officially pronounced in 1870, 1870[[note]] due to the principle of ''doctrinal development'' in Catholicism (the belief that new dogmas are simply ''existing'' beliefs that have been better understood and now ''explicitly'' defined, as opposed to doctrinal ''innovation'', which means coming up with new doctrine or changing existing ones), this rule applies ''retroactively''[[/note]], and which modern theologians recognize as having been exercised [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papal_infallibility#Instances_of_papal_infallibility only seven times in the history of the church, such as in 1950]]. Each of the seven times, the declaration has been about rather high-level theological issues surrounding the nature of Christ and salvation[[note]]Two are letters which define Christ as having two natures and two wills (fairly standard Chalcedonian Christology); one says, in essence, that yes, saints are a thing and are currently with God in Heaven (which is almost parodically Catholic); two denounce as heretical the points on salvation made by a seventeenth-century Flemish bishop and theologian named Jansen that amount to a program for turning Catholic theology into Calvinism Lite; one defines the rather esoteric doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, whose significance ties into the nature of Original Sin and Christ's role as redeemer; and the final one formally adopted and defined the doctrine of the Assumption of Mary, which holds that the Virgin Mary was bodily taken up to Heaven at the end of her natural life, an old doctrine the Church had long generally accepted and indeed more or less shared with the Orthodox (the Pope was vague enough on the point that the Orthodox doctrine is one of several valid interpretations of the Catholic one).[[/note]] rather than some specific moral or practical question.

Many people debate just how solemnly, and what language a pope has to speak to be doing so. However, if the term anathema (a bad thing, as in "let him be anathema") shows up, you're probably in ''ex cathedra'' territory. As a note, infallibility has nothing to do with impeccability, or sinlessness (Peter the Apostle, considered to be the first Pope by Catholics, denied Christ three times in The Bible).

Infallibility is viewed as a negative power, meaning that the Pope is incapable of speaking falsely when speaking ''ex cathedra'' on faith and morals. This does not extend to private letters, most public discourses, theological musings and what not, though they are to be accorded respect. Note that due to the principle of ''doctrinal development'' in Catholicism (the belief that new dogmas are simply ''existing'' beliefs that have been better understood and now ''explicitly'' defined, as opposed to doctrinal ''innovation'', which means coming up with new doctrine or changing existing ones), this rule applies ''retroactively''. But in practice, infallible teachings from the Pope are very rare; the Church doesn't keep an official list, but as noted above, there have been only seven in the Church's 2000-year history (of which ''one'', in 1950, has occurred since the First Vatican Council formally enunciated the doctrine).
question.



An important difference between Catholicism and some Protestant sects is that Catholics do not believe the Bible is meant to be read in its entirety like a historical textbook, rather conveying truth by means of [[Literature/BookOfPsalms poetry]], [[Literature/BookOfIsaiah prophesy]], [[Literature/BookOfCorinthians letter-writing]], and other genres. For example, Popes have endorsed the theory of evolution as both plausible and consistent with Catholic teaching, referring to the Creation story of Genesis as describing the creation of man by God "in simple and metaphorical language adapted to the mentality of a people but little cultured[[note]][[http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xii_enc_12081950_humani-generis.html Per Pius XII]][[/note]]." This reflects the greater emphasis that Catholicism puts on human reason and philosophy in terms of theological learning. Scholasticism, popularized by St. Thomas Aquinas, is a major influence on this way of thinking.

to:

An important difference between Catholicism and some Protestant sects is that Catholics do not believe the Bible is meant to be read in its entirety like a historical textbook, rather conveying truth by means of every genre between [[Literature/BookOfPsalms poetry]], [[Literature/BookOfIsaiah prophesy]], poetry]] and [[Literature/BookOfCorinthians letter-writing]], and other genres. letter-writing]]. For example, Popes have endorsed the theory of evolution as both plausible and consistent with Catholic teaching, referring to the Creation story of Genesis Literature/BookOfGenesis as describing the creation of man by God "in simple and metaphorical language adapted to the mentality of a people but little cultured[[note]][[http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xii_enc_12081950_humani-generis.html Per Pius XII]][[/note]]." This reflects the greater emphasis that Catholicism puts on human reason and philosophy in terms of theological learning. Scholasticism, popularized by St. Thomas Aquinas, is a major influence on this way of thinking.
25th Aug '17 3:20:23 PM DustSnitch
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* '''Catholic Christians''' believe that UsefulNotes/{{the Pope}} is the rightful successor of St. Peter, who was given the authority by Jesus to guide and direct the Christian Church on Earth, and that faith alone isn't sufficient except combined with acts. This last bit means that a Christian, to a Catholic, is someone who acknowledges s/he is a sinner, accepts Christ's offer of salvation, is forgiven by God on Christ's behalf, repents and changes his or her life to reflect this, and spreads the word to others, with the Church (e.g. Pope) being the final earthly authority for figuring out how to actually do that; once you have done that, you have to do good things and actually act like you believe and try to be a better person to be saved. Contrary to common misunderstanding, Catholics do believe in the Bible as strongly as Protestant Christians do, but their belief in the Church's authority simply means they do not believe that the Bible is the sole source of knowledge in determining how to be saved and live a moral life. The term "Roman Catholic" is both a misnomer and was once a derisive term. Their official name is simply "The Catholic Church," which has many liturgical variants, or rites, but all believing in the same core values mentioned. The Roman, or Latin Rite, is what resides in Rome and is the liturgy seem most by Westerners, including the U.S.

to:

* '''Catholic Christians''' believe that UsefulNotes/{{the Pope}} UsefulNotes/ThePope is the rightful successor of St. Peter, who was given the authority by Jesus to guide and direct the Christian Church on Earth, and that faith alone isn't sufficient except combined with acts. This last bit means that a Christian, to a Catholic, is someone who acknowledges s/he is a sinner, accepts Christ's offer of salvation, is forgiven by God on Christ's behalf, repents and changes his or her life to reflect this, and spreads the word to others, with the Church (e.g. Pope) being the final earthly authority for figuring out how to actually do that; once you have done that, you have to do good things and actually act like you believe and try to be a better person to be saved. Contrary to common misunderstanding, Catholics do believe in the Bible as strongly as Protestant Christians do, but their belief in the Church's authority simply means they do not believe that the Bible is the sole source of knowledge in determining how to be saved and live a moral life. The term "Roman Catholic" is both a misnomer and was once a derisive term. Their official name is simply "The Catholic Church," which has many liturgical variants, or rites, but all believing in the same core values mentioned. The Roman, or Latin Rite, is what resides in Rome and is the liturgy seem most by Westerners, including the U.S.



The largest sect in raw numbers (about one in six human beings are Catholic) and one of the two oldest types of Christianity, having coalesced in the 4th century AD after the Roman government began allowing Christians to practice openly. The leader of the Catholic Church, UsefulNotes/TPope, is the Bishop of Rome just as St. Peter was; in practice, the real authority of the Church is with its Bishops, each of whom is responsible for passing on the teachings of the Church intact within their dioceses. It should be kept in mind that Catholicism is comprised of diverse segments of believers and that inevitably, there's bound to be some arguments amongst themselves, and let's leave it at that.

to:

The largest sect in raw numbers (about one in six human beings are Catholic) and one of the two oldest types of Christianity, having coalesced in the 4th century AD after the Roman government began allowing Christians to practice openly. The leader of the Catholic Church, UsefulNotes/TPope, UsefulNotes/ThePope, is the Bishop of Rome just as St. Peter was; in practice, the real authority of the Church is with its Bishops, each of whom is responsible for passing on the teachings of the Church intact within their dioceses. It should be kept in mind that Catholicism is comprised of diverse segments of believers and that inevitably, there's bound to be some arguments amongst themselves, and let's leave it at that.
25th Aug '17 3:19:20 PM DustSnitch
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* [[HumansAreFlawed Sin is an inexorable part of the human experience]], owing to Adam's original act of defiance to God by eating the forbidden fruit (i.e., Original Sin). No matter how pious a life one may try to lead, it is inevitable that at some point one will commit a sin intolerable to God - and thus, divine salvation is necessary for all souls.



* Christianity is an expansion on or replacement of the covenant established between God and [[UsefulNotes/{{Judaism}} the Jewish people]] in the Old Testament. Key to this is the concept of blood sacrifice -- when sin transpires, blood must be spilled in its atonement. Whereas the ancient Jews fulfilled this necessity with intermittent animal sacrifices, Christ offered His own blood as a substitute, permanently, once and for all. Hence the sobriquet "Lamb of God"; whereas lambs were the preferred animal for sacrifice in the temple, Jesus became the lamb for the entire world.
* [[HumansAreFlawed Sin is an inexorable part of the human experience]], owing to Adam's original act of defiance to God by eating the forbidden fruit (i.e., Original Sin). No matter how pious a life one may try to lead, it is inevitable that at some point one will commit a sin intolerable to God - and thus, divine salvation is necessary for all souls.

to:

* Christianity is an expansion on or replacement of the covenant established between God and [[UsefulNotes/{{Judaism}} the Jewish people]] in the Old Testament. Key to this is the concept of blood sacrifice -- when sin transpires, blood must be spilled in its atonement. Whereas the ancient Jews fulfilled this necessity with intermittent animal sacrifices, Christ offered His own blood as a substitute, permanently, once and for all.by dying on the Cross. Hence the sobriquet "Lamb of God"; whereas lambs were the preferred animal for sacrifice in the temple, Jesus became the lamb for the entire world.
* [[HumansAreFlawed Sin is an inexorable part As a sign of God's power and the coming Resurrection of the human experience]], owing to Adam's original act of defiance to God by eating Dead, Jesus came back from the forbidden fruit (i.e., Original Sin). No matter how pious a life one may try dead three days after his Resurrection only to lead, it is inevitable that at some point one will commit a sin intolerable to God - ascend into Heaven after appearing and thus, divine salvation is necessary for all souls.preaching to his distraught followers.



* Traditional grammatical convention dictates that pronouns relating to God or to Christ be [[CapitalLettersAreMagic capitalized]] (e.g. "Him", "You", "His"), as you may have already noticed while reading this page. This also includes pronouns referencing Jesus and the Spirit, as they are also Him. This is done simply out of respect and is not a requirement, nor is it always practiced by non-Christians (never mind how thorny this would be for scripts that don't ''have'' capitalization, such as Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and, notably, Hebrew, Aramaic, and (Ancient) Greek). Some English-language Bibles rarely employ this practice. In addition, [[AmbiguousGender God's "gender" is an issue of huge debate]]; it's implied in the Bible that God doesn't have a gender, and "Him" is just a convenient handle, while others see the Bible as implying God as definitely male, or at least masculine. There is also little doubt that God-the-Son in the form of the flesh-and-blood Jesus who lived 2000 years ago was actually male.[[note]]Though even HE was identified with Sophia, or God's Wisdom, which was personified as female.[[/note]] Some people even argue that God is the Father, and Jesus is the Son, and the Holy Spirit is, in a sense, the Mother; A "Perfect" Family, if you will.

to:

* Traditional grammatical convention dictates that pronouns relating to God or to Christ be [[CapitalLettersAreMagic capitalized]] (e.g. "Him", "You", "His"), as you may have already noticed while reading this page. This also includes pronouns referencing Jesus and the Spirit, as they are also Him. This is done simply out of respect and is not a requirement, nor is it always practiced by non-Christians (never mind how thorny this would be for scripts that don't ''have'' capitalization, such as Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and, notably, Hebrew, Aramaic, Hebrew and (Ancient) Greek). Some English-language Bibles rarely employ this practice. In addition, [[AmbiguousGender God's "gender" is an issue of huge debate]]; it's implied in the Bible that God doesn't have a gender, and "Him" is just a convenient handle, while others see the Bible as implying God as definitely male, or at least masculine. There is also little doubt that God-the-Son in the form of the flesh-and-blood Jesus who lived 2000 years ago was actually male.[[note]]Though even HE was identified with Sophia, or God's Wisdom, which was personified as female.[[/note]] Some people even argue that God is the Father, and Jesus is the Son, and the Holy Spirit is, in a sense, the Mother; A "Perfect" Family, if you will.Ancient Greek).



* What exactly is {{Hell}}? Is it a place? Is it eternal? Are there [[FireAndBrimstoneHell literal flames]]? Can you [[EscapedFromHell escape it]]? Is it maybe a metaphor? Is it layered, with some [[CirclesOfHell circles]] being worse than others, as in Dante's ''[[Literature/TheDivineComedy Inferno]]''?

to:

* What exactly is {{Hell}}? Is it a place? place or state? Is it eternal? eternal or temporary? Are there [[FireAndBrimstoneHell literal flames]]? Can you [[EscapedFromHell escape it]]? Is it maybe a metaphor? Is it layered, with some [[CirclesOfHell circles]] being worse than others, as in Dante's ''[[Literature/TheDivineComedy Inferno]]''?



* Are some sins worse than others, or are [[AllCrimesAreEqual all sins equal]] in the eyes of God? Might there be mitigating circumstances? Are all sins forgiveable, or are there [[MoralEventHorizon some that cannot be forgiven?]] Is there a point where it's too late for forgiveness?

to:

* Are some sins worse than others, or are [[AllCrimesAreEqual all sins equal]] in the eyes of God? Might there be mitigating circumstances? Are all sins forgiveable, forgivable, or are there [[MoralEventHorizon some that cannot be forgiven?]] Is there a point where it's too late for forgiveness?



In other words, pretty much ''everything'' is up for debate.

to:

In other words, pretty much ''everything'' is up for debate.
debate outside of specific denominations.



The largest sect in raw numbers (about one in six human beings are Catholic) and one of the oldest types of Christianity, having coalesced in the 4th century AD after the Roman government began allowing Christians to practice openly. The leader of the Catholic Church, the Pope, is the Bishop of Rome just as St. Peter was; in practice, the real authority of the Church is with its Bishops, each of whom is responsible for passing on the teachings of the church intact within their dioceses. It should be kept in mind that Catholicism is comprised of diverse segments of believers and that inevitably, there's bound to be some arguments amongst themselves, and let's leave it at that.

to:

The largest sect in raw numbers (about one in six human beings are Catholic) and one of the two oldest types of Christianity, having coalesced in the 4th century AD after the Roman government began allowing Christians to practice openly. The leader of the Catholic Church, the Pope, UsefulNotes/TPope, is the Bishop of Rome just as St. Peter was; in practice, the real authority of the Church is with its Bishops, each of whom is responsible for passing on the teachings of the church Church intact within their dioceses. It should be kept in mind that Catholicism is comprised of diverse segments of believers and that inevitably, there's bound to be some arguments amongst themselves, and let's leave it at that.



The last source, and the most controversial, is the Pope himself. Catholics believe the Pope is infallible when he speaks on matters of faith or morals, leaving no wiggle room. This circumstance is known as ''ex cathedra'', which literally means "from the chair." When the Pope solemnly defines a doctrine or dogma, he is speaking ''ex cathedra''. In the grand scheme of the Church it is a very new idea, first officially pronounced in 1870, and which modern theologians recognize as having been exercised [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papal_infallibility#Instances_of_papal_infallibility only seven times in the history of the church, such as in 1950]]. Each of the seven times, the declaration has been about rather high-level theological issues surrounding the nature of Christ and salvation[[note]]Two are letters which define Christ as having two natures and two wills (fairly standard Chalcedonian Christology); one says, in essence, that yes, saints are a thing and are currently with God in Heaven (which is almost parodically Catholic); two denounce as heretical the points on salvation made by a seventeenth-century Flemish bishop and theologian named Jansen that amount to a program for turning Catholic theology into Calvinism Lite; one defines the rather esoteric doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, whose significance ties into the nature of Original Sin and Christ's role as redeemer; and the final one formally adopted and defined the doctrine of the Assumption of Mary, which holds that the Virgin Mary was bodily taken up to Heaven at the end of her natural life, an old doctrine the Church had long generally accepted and indeed more or less shared with the Orthodox (the Pope was vague enough on the point that the Orthodox doctrine is one of several valid interpretations of the Catholic one).[[/note]] rather than some specific moral or practical question.

to:

The last source, and the most controversial, is the Pope himself. Catholics believe the Pope is infallible when he speaks on matters of faith or morals, leaving no wiggle room.morals and invokes his infallibility. This circumstance is known as ''ex cathedra'', which literally means "from the chair." When the Pope solemnly defines a doctrine or dogma, he is speaking ''ex cathedra''. In the grand scheme of the Church it is a very new idea, first officially pronounced in 1870, and which modern theologians recognize as having been exercised [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papal_infallibility#Instances_of_papal_infallibility only seven times in the history of the church, such as in 1950]]. Each of the seven times, the declaration has been about rather high-level theological issues surrounding the nature of Christ and salvation[[note]]Two are letters which define Christ as having two natures and two wills (fairly standard Chalcedonian Christology); one says, in essence, that yes, saints are a thing and are currently with God in Heaven (which is almost parodically Catholic); two denounce as heretical the points on salvation made by a seventeenth-century Flemish bishop and theologian named Jansen that amount to a program for turning Catholic theology into Calvinism Lite; one defines the rather esoteric doctrine of the Immaculate Conception, whose significance ties into the nature of Original Sin and Christ's role as redeemer; and the final one formally adopted and defined the doctrine of the Assumption of Mary, which holds that the Virgin Mary was bodily taken up to Heaven at the end of her natural life, an old doctrine the Church had long generally accepted and indeed more or less shared with the Orthodox (the Pope was vague enough on the point that the Orthodox doctrine is one of several valid interpretations of the Catholic one).[[/note]] rather than some specific moral or practical question.



Catholicism recognizes seven "sacraments," signs of God's grace: Baptism, Communion (a remembrance of the Last Supper, and where Catholics believe Jesus acting through the priest turns the bread and wine into Himself), Confirmation (when people choose to become full members of the Church as adults), Marriage, Holy Orders (where clergy take their vows), Reconciliation (the act of confessing one's sins and performing penance for them, typically in the form of prayer), and Anointing of the Sick (sometimes, and not quite correctly, called "Last Rites"; Last Rites often includes the sacraments Anointing of the Sick and Reconciliation, but is not itself a sacrament). An important difference between Catholicism and some Protestant sects is that Catholics do not believe the Bible is entirely literal, only "divinely inspired." For example, Popes have endorsed the theory of evolution as both plausible and consistent with Catholic teaching, referring to the Creation story of Genesis as a metaphor or a poetic way of describing the creation of man by God. This reflects the greater emphasis that Catholicism puts on human reason and philosophy in terms of theological learning. Scholasticism, popularized by St. Thomas Aquinas, is a major influence on this way of thinking.

Another important Catholic tradition is the remembrance of Canonical Saints: people who have been found by the Church to have led holy lives, are considered examples for Catholics to follow, and are believed to have demonstrated they are in Heaven and have God's favor by granting what the church considers miracles (usually, healings without a certain medical explanation) to those who ask saints to "intercede" for them with God. There are at least 5,000 Canonical Saints (the most important being "The Virgin" Mary, who was Jesus' earthly mother), though some of them may be more legends than real people. Note that the word "saint" is often misinterpreted to mean an especially good person. In Catholic theology, anyone currently in heaven is a "saint" (hence the fact that the Church does not canonize living people); thus, anyone who died in a state of grace is a saint, regardless of what sort life they led. From the Church's point of view, if your beloved but long-dead grandmother died in a state of grace and is currently in Heaven, she is no less a saint than the Virgin Mary (well, Grandma ''is'' a lesser saint in stature than the Holy Virgin, being that the Holy Virgin was the Mother of God, but they're still both absolutely saints). However, again from the Church's view, we have no way of really being sure if your grandmother is in Heaven; even if she was a good person and a devout Catholic, she may have held some kind of private sin we don't know about that is even now keeping her in Purgatory.[[note]]Note that in many medieval conceptions of Purgatory, the process of purgation for even the lightest of sins took decades if not centuries. None of this is official, of course, since the Church has always been vague about Purgatory, but Dante's ''[[Literature/TheDivineComedy Purgatorio]]'' gives a reasonably clear view of this educated medieval opinion.[[/note]] Therefore, when a Catholic talks about the saints, they're usually talking about the ''canonical saints''--that is, the people the Church is pretty sure are in Heaven, based on some traditional methods of proof. Because you're trying to prove that a deceased person is in Heaven, and the only way (according to Church doctrine) that anyone in Heaven can influence events on Earth is through God, you're basically going to have to show that it's pretty clear that this person is talking to God, and that God is paying attention--thus the focus on miracles. The Church has thus set up a process of canonization; this process is long and involved, with four stages. The first is "Servant of God," which is basically an official statement that "this person was very good in life and could very well be in Heaven, but we need more time to investigate"; the second stage "Venerable", which amounts to saying "this person was good enough in life that it's fairly likely he/she is in Heaven, although we have no proof"; Beatification (entitling the beatificee to the title "Blessed") after the attribution of one miracle to the deceased's intercession, meaning "We now have strong but not incontrovertible evidence that this person is actually in Heaven"; and Canonization, after the attribution of a second miracle (roughly equivalent to saying "OK now there are ''two'' miracles; either this person's in Heaven or the Church collectively is a monkey's uncle"). Thus despite common usage, the Pope does not "make" people saints; only God can do that. The Pope is merely reporting on current events. This is also why the phenomenon of "local saints" exists: the Catholic residents of a given community may be absolutely convinced that a someone is in Heaven and speaking with God on their behalf, regardless of whether the Vatican has verified the attributed miracles to its own satisfaction.

to:

Catholicism recognizes seven "sacraments," signs of God's grace: Baptism, Communion (a remembrance of the Last Supper, and where Catholics believe Jesus acting through the priest turns the bread and wine into Himself), Confirmation (when people choose to become are made full members of the Church as adults), Marriage, Holy Orders (where clergy take their vows), Reconciliation [[{{Confessional}} Reconciliation]] (the act of confessing one's sins and performing penance for them, typically in the form of prayer), and Anointing of the Sick (sometimes, and not quite correctly, called "Last Rites"; Last Rites often includes the sacraments Anointing of the Sick and Reconciliation, but is not itself a sacrament). sacrament).

An important difference between Catholicism and some Protestant sects is that Catholics do not believe the Bible is entirely literal, only "divinely inspired." meant to be read in its entirety like a historical textbook, rather conveying truth by means of [[Literature/BookOfPsalms poetry]], [[Literature/BookOfIsaiah prophesy]], [[Literature/BookOfCorinthians letter-writing]], and other genres. For example, Popes have endorsed the theory of evolution as both plausible and consistent with Catholic teaching, referring to the Creation story of Genesis as a metaphor or a poetic way of describing the creation of man by God. God "in simple and metaphorical language adapted to the mentality of a people but little cultured[[note]][[http://w2.vatican.va/content/pius-xii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_p-xii_enc_12081950_humani-generis.html Per Pius XII]][[/note]]." This reflects the greater emphasis that Catholicism puts on human reason and philosophy in terms of theological learning. Scholasticism, popularized by St. Thomas Aquinas, is a major influence on this way of thinking.

Another important Catholic tradition is the remembrance of Canonical Saints: people who have been found by the Church to have led holy lives, are considered examples for Catholics to follow, and are believed to have demonstrated they are in Heaven and have God's favor by granting what the church considers miracles (usually, healings without a certain medical explanation) to those who ask saints to "intercede" for them with God. There are at least 5,000 Canonical Saints (the Saints, the most important being "The Virgin" the Virgin Mary, who was Jesus' earthly mother), though some mother. Unlike most Protestants, Catholics put a strong emphasis on praying to Saints, who act as intercessors to God by their heavenly union with him. This emphasis on prayers-to-saints is one of them may be more legends the primary reasons why the Virgin Mary is so important to Catholics, since there are few people better at chatting with God than real people. his mom.

Note that the word "saint" is often misinterpreted to mean an especially good person. In Catholic theology, anyone currently in heaven is a "saint" (hence the fact that the Church does not canonize living people); thus, anyone who died in a state of grace is a saint, regardless of what sort life they led. From the Church's point of view, if your beloved but long-dead grandmother died in a state of grace and is currently in Heaven, she is no less a saint than the Virgin Mary (well, Grandma ''is'' a lesser saint in stature than the Holy Virgin, being that the Holy Virgin was the Mother of God, but they're still both absolutely saints).Teresa. However, again from the Church's view, we have no way of really being sure if your grandmother is in Heaven; even if she was a good person and a devout Catholic, she may have held some kind of private sin we don't know about that is even now keeping her in Purgatory.[[note]]Note that in many medieval conceptions of Purgatory, the process of purgation for even the lightest of sins took decades if not centuries. None of this is official, of course, since the Church has always been vague about Purgatory, but Dante's ''[[Literature/TheDivineComedy Purgatorio]]'' gives a reasonably clear view of this educated medieval opinion.[[/note]] Therefore, when a Catholic talks about the saints, they're usually talking about the ''canonical saints''--that is, the people the Church is pretty sure are in Heaven, based on some traditional methods of proof. Because you're trying to prove that a deceased person is in Heaven, and the only way (according to Church doctrine) that anyone in Heaven can influence events on Earth is through God, you're basically going to have to show that it's pretty clear that this person is talking to God, and that God is paying attention--thus the focus on miracles. The Church has thus set up a process of canonization; this process is long and involved, with four stages. The first is stages:

#
"Servant of God," which is basically an official statement that "this person was very good in life and could very well be in Heaven, but we need more time to investigate"; the second stage "Venerable", investigate."
# "Venerable,"
which amounts to saying "this person was good enough in life that it's fairly likely he/she is in Heaven, although we have no proof"; Beatification (entitling proof."
# "Blessed," after
the beatificee to the title "Blessed") process of Beatification, after the attribution of one miracle to the deceased's intercession, meaning "We now have strong but not incontrovertible evidence that this person is actually in Heaven"; and Heaven."
# "Saint," after the process of
Canonization, after the attribution of a second miracle (roughly equivalent to saying "OK now there are ''two'' miracles; either this person's in Heaven or the Church collectively is a monkey's uncle"). uncle").

Thus despite common usage, the Pope does not "make" people saints; only God can do that. The Pope is merely reporting on current events. This is also why the phenomenon of "local saints" exists: the Catholic residents of a given community may be absolutely convinced that a someone is in Heaven and speaking with God on their behalf, regardless of whether the Vatican has verified the attributed miracles to its own satisfaction.
25th Aug '17 2:25:30 PM DustSnitch
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->''"For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life."''\\

to:

->''"For God so loved the world, that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in Him should not perish, but have everlasting life."''\\"''
25th Aug '17 2:25:15 PM DustSnitch
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--'''JesusChrist''', [[Literature/TheFourGospels John]] 3:16, King James Version of Literature/TheBible

to:

--'''JesusChrist''', -->--'''JesusChrist''', [[Literature/TheFourGospels John]] 3:16, King James Version of Literature/TheBible
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