History UsefulNotes / Armenia

1st Jan '17 9:40:19 PM Surenity
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** The first president of the modern republic, Levon Der Petrosyan, was forced to resign in 1998 after advocating a land-for-peace settlement of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict, which goes to show just how unpopular the idea was and still is in Armenia.
31st Dec '16 6:47:22 PM nombretomado
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More Armenians live outside Armenia than inside - latest estimates are that, of 9 million Armenians worldwide, 3 million live in Armenia and the rest are scattered around the world, mainly in Russia (1 to 2 million), the US (0.5 - 1 million) and France (300 to 500 thousand), whose large Armenian population means that France often gives Armenia high votes in the EurovisionSongContest, and is one of the few countries in Europe that will stick up for Armenia on issues like genocide recognition and Karabakh. Surprisingly there are still Armenians in Turkey, mostly situated in Istanbul. Official estimates of the population are between 40 to 70 thousand. However - those are just the ones who admit to being Armenian; some experts guess there may be several million "crypto-Armenians" in Turkey who've been Islamized and either don't know about their Armenian ancestry or are keeping it secret. There is also the matter of the Hemshin peoples, an ethnic group originating from Islamized Armenians from the early Medieval period which still resides in northern Turkey, and has been in recent years less likely to hide their roots.

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More Armenians live outside Armenia than inside - latest estimates are that, of 9 million Armenians worldwide, 3 million live in Armenia and the rest are scattered around the world, mainly in Russia (1 to 2 million), the US (0.5 - 1 million) and France (300 to 500 thousand), whose large Armenian population means that France often gives Armenia high votes in the EurovisionSongContest, Series/EurovisionSongContest, and is one of the few countries in Europe that will stick up for Armenia on issues like genocide recognition and Karabakh. Surprisingly there are still Armenians in Turkey, mostly situated in Istanbul. Official estimates of the population are between 40 to 70 thousand. However - those are just the ones who admit to being Armenian; some experts guess there may be several million "crypto-Armenians" in Turkey who've been Islamized and either don't know about their Armenian ancestry or are keeping it secret. There is also the matter of the Hemshin peoples, an ethnic group originating from Islamized Armenians from the early Medieval period which still resides in northern Turkey, and has been in recent years less likely to hide their roots.



Armenia sits on the Europe/Asia boundary, but culturally it's considered European (being the first officially Christian country helped), plays its sport in European federations and usually competes in the EurovisionSongContest as mentioned. Armenia's loyalties to Europe came into some question in September 2013 however, when Armenia opted to join Russia's new Customs Union over a free-trade deal with UsefulNotes/TheEuropeanUnion, sparking a rivalry between the two organizations. Seeing as how Russia is a much closer and more essential ally to Armenia than the EU is, this decision went over a lot better in Armenia than it later would in Ukraine, though there were minor protests. It is still hoped by many EU members that Armenia can still make some kind of trading deal with the EU while also being part of the Customs Union, in light of it's rather unique geopolitical situation, but Russia likes to keep Armenia on a short leash, like the rest of the former Soviet states, so it remains to be seen. In fact, looking at the bigger picture, the closed border between Turkey and Armenia serves not just as a separation between Turks and Armenians, but as a boundary between NATO and Russia-aligned countries, the last modern vestige of the UsefulNotes/IronCurtain; one reason Russia sees Armenia as very valuable. Tensions late in 2015 between Russia and Turkey relating to the Syrian Civil War have led to this border possibly becoming a hot spot in the near future, and is heavily fortified by the Russians.

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Armenia sits on the Europe/Asia boundary, but culturally it's considered European (being the first officially Christian country helped), plays its sport in European federations and usually competes in the EurovisionSongContest Series/EurovisionSongContest as mentioned. Armenia's loyalties to Europe came into some question in September 2013 however, when Armenia opted to join Russia's new Customs Union over a free-trade deal with UsefulNotes/TheEuropeanUnion, sparking a rivalry between the two organizations. Seeing as how Russia is a much closer and more essential ally to Armenia than the EU is, this decision went over a lot better in Armenia than it later would in Ukraine, though there were minor protests. It is still hoped by many EU members that Armenia can still make some kind of trading deal with the EU while also being part of the Customs Union, in light of it's rather unique geopolitical situation, but Russia likes to keep Armenia on a short leash, like the rest of the former Soviet states, so it remains to be seen. In fact, looking at the bigger picture, the closed border between Turkey and Armenia serves not just as a separation between Turks and Armenians, but as a boundary between NATO and Russia-aligned countries, the last modern vestige of the UsefulNotes/IronCurtain; one reason Russia sees Armenia as very valuable. Tensions late in 2015 between Russia and Turkey relating to the Syrian Civil War have led to this border possibly becoming a hot spot in the near future, and is heavily fortified by the Russians.
29th Nov '16 11:46:38 AM Surenity
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Turkey, showing solidarity with its ally Azerbaijan, shut its borders with Armenia during the war, and the borders remain closed to this day. Which only adds insult to injury when you consider Armenia's former historic lands that Turkey annexed in the 1920's, including Mt. Ararat, sits just on the other side of the border. Armenia has since depended on friendly ties with Georgia and Iran to get anything imported and exported, so despite the strain the blockades have caused, the country has managed. On the other side, Russia, despite having pretty amicable relations with both Turkey and Azerbaijan, has generally sided with Armenia in the Karabakh matter, and it's an open secret that the war was basically won with the Russian equipment and aid. Of course, exactly because of its good relations with all involved countries Russia has the ''least'' incentive to restart the conflict, or as some political analysts suggest, solving it [[note]] an Armenian victory would mean there'd be two independent Armenian countries that would no longer require Russia's military aid; an Azeri victory would mean Russia would lose much of it's influence in the region as well[[/note]]. UsefulNotes/{{Pakistan}}, being closely allied with both Turkey and Azerbaijan, refuses to even recognize Armenia as a sovereign state; in retaliation Armenia recognized the disputed territory of Kashmir as part of India, and enjoys healthy relations with India.

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Turkey, showing solidarity with its ally Azerbaijan, shut its borders with Armenia during the war, and the borders remain closed to this day. Which only adds insult to injury when you consider Armenia's former historic lands that Turkey annexed in the 1920's, including Mt. Ararat, sits just on the other side of the border. Armenia has since depended on friendly ties with Georgia and Iran to get anything imported and exported, so despite the strain the blockades have caused, the country has managed. On the other side, Russia, despite having pretty amicable relations with both Turkey and Azerbaijan, has generally sided with Armenia in the Karabakh matter, and it's an open secret that the war was basically won with the Russian equipment and aid. Of course, exactly because of its good relations with all involved countries Russia has the ''least'' incentive to restart the conflict, or as some political analysts suggest, solving it [[note]] an Armenian victory would mean there'd be two independent Armenian countries that would no longer require Russia's military aid; an Azeri victory would mean Russia would lose much of it's influence in the region as well[[/note]]. UsefulNotes/{{Pakistan}}, being closely allied with both Turkey and Azerbaijan, refuses to even recognize Armenia as a sovereign state; state, and firmly sides with Azerbaijan on the Nagorno-Karabakh issue; in retaliation Armenia recognized the disputed territory of Kashmir as part of India, and enjoys healthy relations with India.
India. Armenia also blocked Pakistan from becoming an observer state in the CSTO.
5th Nov '16 4:52:50 PM nombretomado
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* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffrey_Zakarian Geoffrey Zakarian]], restaurateur, chef, regular judge on ''Series/{{Chopped}}'', and newest IronChef.

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* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoffrey_Zakarian Geoffrey Zakarian]], restaurateur, chef, regular judge on ''Series/{{Chopped}}'', and newest IronChef.Series/IronChef.
11th Sep '16 9:33:08 AM Surenity
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* ZeroPercentApprovalRating: Serge Sargsyan is the most unpopular president in the modern republic's short history, as is his government in general, who are accused of being corrupt oligarchs that embezzle money from the rest of the country. The dissent came to a fever pitch in the summer of 2016 when a revolutionary group called Sasna Dzerer took over a police station in Yerevan, protesting against rumors that the government was going to cede parts of Nagorno-Karabakh to Azerbaijan and demanding the president's resignation, holding police officers hostage for nearly two weeks until being forced to surrender. The incident had the effect of ruining what little popularity the president may still have had at home and in the diaspora.
10th Sep '16 6:14:48 PM Surenity
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* GermansLoveDavidHasslehoff: Since independence, and after the power shortage in the 1990's, American culture has caught on a lot. ''WesternAnimation/SpongebobSquarepants'' and ''WesternAnimation/DespicableMe'' are enormously popular with the kids, as is ''WesternAnimation/TomAndJerry'' due to it not needing to be translated. As for music, Music/SystemOfADown is of course well-liked, as is Music/KanyeWest after his 2015 visit to the country.

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* GermansLoveDavidHasslehoff: GermansLoveDavidHasselhoff: Since independence, and after the power shortage in the 1990's, American culture has caught on a lot. ''WesternAnimation/SpongebobSquarepants'' and ''WesternAnimation/DespicableMe'' are enormously popular with the kids, as is ''WesternAnimation/TomAndJerry'' due to it not needing to be translated. As for music, Music/SystemOfADown is of course well-liked, as is Music/KanyeWest after his 2015 visit to the country.
10th Sep '16 6:14:17 PM Surenity
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Added DiffLines:

* GermansLoveDavidHasslehoff: Since independence, and after the power shortage in the 1990's, American culture has caught on a lot. ''WesternAnimation/SpongebobSquarepants'' and ''WesternAnimation/DespicableMe'' are enormously popular with the kids, as is ''WesternAnimation/TomAndJerry'' due to it not needing to be translated. As for music, Music/SystemOfADown is of course well-liked, as is Music/KanyeWest after his 2015 visit to the country.
6th Sep '16 10:07:53 AM Surenity
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In any case, the Turkish government often goes to great lengths to force other countries not to pass any legislation acknowledging the Armenian Genocide. This has not stopped quite a number of countries from doing so anyway, however. Most obviously, the Soviet government (the federal to Armenia's republican government), in response to 1965 demonstrations among the Armenian diaspora in the USSR, commissioned the construction of the massive monument at Tsitsernakaberd, overlooking Yerevan, finished in 1967, officially in memorial to the lives lost in the event, the first of its kind. The monument and associated museum were extensively visited by both Soviet leaders and international representatives. You can even be arrested and fined for denying the genocide in Switzerland, Greece and Slovakia, as you can any other recognized genocide [[note]] The law almost passed in France as well, where Holocaust denial is already illegal, and may still pass in the future if it can be deemed constitutional, though since President Sarkozy was voted out of office, the process has stalled.[[/note]]

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In any case, the Turkish government often goes to great lengths to force other countries not to pass any legislation acknowledging the Armenian Genocide. This has not stopped quite a number of countries from doing so anyway, however. Most obviously, the Soviet government (the federal to Armenia's republican government), in response to 1965 demonstrations among the Armenian diaspora in the USSR, commissioned the construction of the massive monument at Tsitsernakaberd, overlooking Yerevan, finished in 1967, officially in memorial to the lives lost in the event, the first of its kind. The monument and associated museum were extensively visited by both Soviet leaders and international representatives. You can even be arrested and fined for denying the genocide in France, Switzerland, Greece and Slovakia, as you can any other recognized genocide [[note]] The law almost passed in France as well, where Holocaust denial is already illegal, and may still pass in the future if it can be deemed constitutional, though since President Sarkozy was voted out of office, the process has stalled.[[/note]]
genocide.
6th Sep '16 2:22:40 AM Morgenthaler
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Armenia continued to fall under the rule of almost anyone building an empire for the next thousand years or so with only brief moments of independence in between; of note being the Bagratuni Kingdom between 885 and 1045, which came about after the Arabs relinquished control of the area in hopes of appeasing the Armenians and gaining an ally against the [[ByzantineEmpire Eastern Roman Empire]]. The kingdom however was destined to fall due to the Armenian nakharar families [[FeudingFamilies not liking one another very much]], and splitting their land off into independent kingdoms, which one by one would then be conquered by the Eastern Romans. The Romans didn't have the means to defend Armenia once they had it again, paving the way for the Seljuk Turk invasions. The next two hundred years were chaotic for Greater Armenia, as it was then invaded by the Mongolians, Georgia, Tamerlane's forces, only to finally fall under Ottoman Turkish rule for the majority of the last millennium (its location, between the Black and Caspian seas, makes it a hot commodity for empire builders, unfortunately for the Armenians themselves).

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Armenia continued to fall under the rule of almost anyone building an empire for the next thousand years or so with only brief moments of independence in between; of note being the Bagratuni Kingdom between 885 and 1045, which came about after the Arabs relinquished control of the area in hopes of appeasing the Armenians and gaining an ally against the [[ByzantineEmpire [[UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire Eastern Roman Empire]]. The kingdom however was destined to fall due to the Armenian nakharar families [[FeudingFamilies not liking one another very much]], and splitting their land off into independent kingdoms, which one by one would then be conquered by the Eastern Romans. The Romans didn't have the means to defend Armenia once they had it again, paving the way for the Seljuk Turk invasions. The next two hundred years were chaotic for Greater Armenia, as it was then invaded by the Mongolians, Georgia, Tamerlane's forces, only to finally fall under Ottoman Turkish rule for the majority of the last millennium (its location, between the Black and Caspian seas, makes it a hot commodity for empire builders, unfortunately for the Armenians themselves).



* A disproportionate amount of [[ByzantineEmpire Eastern Roman]] emperors were Armenian, such as Heraclius, Basil I the [[NonindicativeName Macedonian]], and John I Tzimiskes.

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* A disproportionate amount of [[ByzantineEmpire [[UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire Eastern Roman]] emperors were Armenian, such as Heraclius, Basil I the [[NonindicativeName Macedonian]], and John I Tzimiskes.



* Rabo Karabekian, the Armenian-American protagonist of the novel ''Bluebeard'' by KurtVonnegut.

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* Rabo Karabekian, the Armenian-American protagonist of the novel ''Bluebeard'' by KurtVonnegut.Creator/KurtVonnegut.
31st May '16 6:08:15 AM Doug86
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Ottoman rule was a relief to the Armenians at first; the region had been completely devastated by invasions within decades of one another from the Seljuk Turks, Mongols, and the forces of Tamerlane. Christians in the empire were second class citizens and more heavily taxed, but the Armenians made due by mostly becoming merchants. Eastern Armenia changed hands a few times over the centuries between Persia, Russia, and the Ottomans, until Armenia was partitioned again between Russia and Turkey after the Russo-Turkish War, ultimately causing the Eastern-Western split in the Armenian language still present today. The Ottoman Armenians then fell under suspicion during the latter half of the 19th century, as the Ottoman Empire lost territory in Greece and the Balkans, and the remaining Christians in the empire became a scapegoat of sorts, resulting in sporadic government-condoned massacres of the Armenians, particularly in the 1890's. This finally came to a head during UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne under the Young Turks, and the matter of the Armenian Genocide that was to follow is still a very contentious one - few western observers doubt that there was a major humanitarian disaster in the area in 1915, precipitated by Turkish troops against the Ottoman Empire's Christian population, most of whom were put on death marches into the Syrian desert, when not massacred on the spot, killing over a million Armenians. And the common opinion of genocide scholars, in the face of overwhelming proof through contemporary photographic and eyewitness accounts, is that it falls under the definition of a genocide. The Young Turk government had delusions of creating a "racially pure" Pan-Turkish state stretching from Istanbul to Turkmenistan, something that the Armenians, Greeks and Assyrians stood in the way of, as well as of course Russia, who ended up defeating the Ottomans badly in the war and preventing the completion of the genocide.

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Ottoman rule was a relief to the Armenians at first; the region had been completely devastated by invasions within decades of one another from the Seljuk Turks, Mongols, and the forces of Tamerlane. Christians in the empire were second class citizens and more heavily taxed, but the Armenians made due by mostly becoming merchants. Eastern Armenia changed hands a few times over the centuries between Persia, Russia, and the Ottomans, until Armenia was partitioned again between Russia and Turkey after the Russo-Turkish War, ultimately causing the Eastern-Western split in the Armenian language still present today. The Ottoman Armenians then fell under suspicion during the latter half of the 19th century, as the Ottoman Empire lost territory in Greece and the Balkans, and the remaining Christians in the empire became a scapegoat of sorts, resulting in sporadic government-condoned massacres of the Armenians, particularly in the 1890's. This finally came to a head during UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne UsefulNotes/WorldWarI under the Young Turks, and the matter of the Armenian Genocide that was to follow is still a very contentious one - few western observers doubt that there was a major humanitarian disaster in the area in 1915, precipitated by Turkish troops against the Ottoman Empire's Christian population, most of whom were put on death marches into the Syrian desert, when not massacred on the spot, killing over a million Armenians. And the common opinion of genocide scholars, in the face of overwhelming proof through contemporary photographic and eyewitness accounts, is that it falls under the definition of a genocide. The Young Turk government had delusions of creating a "racially pure" Pan-Turkish state stretching from Istanbul to Turkmenistan, something that the Armenians, Greeks and Assyrians stood in the way of, as well as of course Russia, who ended up defeating the Ottomans badly in the war and preventing the completion of the genocide.



Getting back to history, shortly before the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne Armenia would become independent for a brief period, thanks to the Russian and Ottoman empires collapsing. You see, just before the Russian Empire fell, Russia had ([[OverlyLongGag as usual]]) [[CurbStompBattle soundly beaten]] Turkey and retaken most of the historically Armenian territories, and when Armenia became independent it had inherited these territories. In Russia's absence from the war the Armenians were used as an UnwittingPawn by the allies toward the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne, with England promising them military aid and more territory if they prevented the Turkish advance into Baku and allowed them to use their territory as a springboard into Russia during the Russian Civil War, only to go back on its promise once the war was over to focus on more strategically important territories. Such betrayals were par the course for most countries Britain had backed in the Middle East during the war. As a result of the allies' neglect, the country was quickly weakened by wars with its neighbors and though it put up a valiant effort not to be reconquered by Turkey, Armenia was eventually assimilated into the Soviet Union after only two years--contested lands were surrendered to Turkey, another in a long series of government concessions throughout the western USSR made out of a fear of an escalating invasion of the USSR by European states, the USA and Japan, and the belief that a worldwide revolution would make the losses irrelevant or that the lands would at least improve relations with Turkey. Not all Armenians took Soviet occupation laying down; the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, headed by Garegin Nzhdeh, led a successful rebellion in 1921 after the Soviets threatened to make Armenia's Zangezur region (modern Syunik) a part of the Azerbaijani SSR, forming the very short-lived Republic of Mountainous Armenia, and even capturing Yerevan for 42 days before being pushed back by the Soviets. The Red Army then pushed into Zangezur and quelled the rebellion, ensuring their surrender by promising to keep Zangezur a part of the Armenian SSR, as it remains today. In the aftermath, however, Artsakh, or Nagorno-Karabakh, was put under Azeri control, something that would come back to haunt everyone involved decades later.

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Getting back to history, shortly before the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne UsefulNotes/WorldWarI Armenia would become independent for a brief period, thanks to the Russian and Ottoman empires collapsing. You see, just before the Russian Empire fell, Russia had ([[OverlyLongGag as usual]]) [[CurbStompBattle soundly beaten]] Turkey and retaken most of the historically Armenian territories, and when Armenia became independent it had inherited these territories. In Russia's absence from the war the Armenians were used as an UnwittingPawn by the allies toward the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne, UsefulNotes/WorldWarI, with England promising them military aid and more territory if they prevented the Turkish advance into Baku and allowed them to use their territory as a springboard into Russia during the Russian Civil War, only to go back on its promise once the war was over to focus on more strategically important territories. Such betrayals were par the course for most countries Britain had backed in the Middle East during the war. As a result of the allies' neglect, the country was quickly weakened by wars with its neighbors and though it put up a valiant effort not to be reconquered by Turkey, Armenia was eventually assimilated into the Soviet Union after only two years--contested lands were surrendered to Turkey, another in a long series of government concessions throughout the western USSR made out of a fear of an escalating invasion of the USSR by European states, the USA and Japan, and the belief that a worldwide revolution would make the losses irrelevant or that the lands would at least improve relations with Turkey. Not all Armenians took Soviet occupation laying down; the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, headed by Garegin Nzhdeh, led a successful rebellion in 1921 after the Soviets threatened to make Armenia's Zangezur region (modern Syunik) a part of the Azerbaijani SSR, forming the very short-lived Republic of Mountainous Armenia, and even capturing Yerevan for 42 days before being pushed back by the Soviets. The Red Army then pushed into Zangezur and quelled the rebellion, ensuring their surrender by promising to keep Zangezur a part of the Armenian SSR, as it remains today. In the aftermath, however, Artsakh, or Nagorno-Karabakh, was put under Azeri control, something that would come back to haunt everyone involved decades later.



* Ivan Stepnaovich Isakov, born ''Hovhannes Ter-Isahakyan'', was a crucial commander for the Baltic and Black Sea Flotillas during the SecondWorldWar, and of ''three'' officers in all of Soviet history to be promoted to Admiral of the Fleet of the USSR (the naval equivalent of Marshal of the USSR), and postwar a leading member of the oceanographic committee of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, an an honorary member of the Armenian branch of the Academy.
* Sergei Alexandrovich Khudyakov, born ''Armenak Artem Khanferiants'', rounds out this quartet, was a veteran of the Russian Civil War in Baku--in a rare real-life example of a LegacyCharacter, Armenak was almost killed when a British gunboat sank the Red Guards-aligned steamer he was serving on, and was saved by a friend, the ''real'' Sergei Khudyakov. Khudyakov was subsequently killed fighting the White Army, and young Khanferiants adopted his name as a memorial. He served valorously on multiple fronts of the SecondWorldWar, rapidly being promoted to Aviation Marshal, but was tried and and executed for spying for the British in 1950. An later investigation in 1965 rehabilitated him (as well as identifying his birth name) and posthumously restored him to the rank of Marshal of Aviation--as such, he and the above three Soviet Armenian officers represented the highest-ranking officers of primary military branches of the Armoured Forces, Air Forces, Naval Forces and the Soviet Armed Forces as a whole!

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* Ivan Stepnaovich Isakov, born ''Hovhannes Ter-Isahakyan'', was a crucial commander for the Baltic and Black Sea Flotillas during the SecondWorldWar, UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, and of ''three'' officers in all of Soviet history to be promoted to Admiral of the Fleet of the USSR (the naval equivalent of Marshal of the USSR), and postwar a leading member of the oceanographic committee of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, an an honorary member of the Armenian branch of the Academy.
* Sergei Alexandrovich Khudyakov, born ''Armenak Artem Khanferiants'', rounds out this quartet, was a veteran of the Russian Civil War in Baku--in a rare real-life example of a LegacyCharacter, Armenak was almost killed when a British gunboat sank the Red Guards-aligned steamer he was serving on, and was saved by a friend, the ''real'' Sergei Khudyakov. Khudyakov was subsequently killed fighting the White Army, and young Khanferiants adopted his name as a memorial. He served valorously on multiple fronts of the SecondWorldWar, UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, rapidly being promoted to Aviation Marshal, but was tried and and executed for spying for the British in 1950. An later investigation in 1965 rehabilitated him (as well as identifying his birth name) and posthumously restored him to the rank of Marshal of Aviation--as such, he and the above three Soviet Armenian officers represented the highest-ranking officers of primary military branches of the Armoured Forces, Air Forces, Naval Forces and the Soviet Armed Forces as a whole!
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http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.Armenia