History UsefulNotes / Armenia

31st May '16 6:08:15 AM Doug86
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Ottoman rule was a relief to the Armenians at first; the region had been completely devastated by invasions within decades of one another from the Seljuk Turks, Mongols, and the forces of Tamerlane. Christians in the empire were second class citizens and more heavily taxed, but the Armenians made due by mostly becoming merchants. Eastern Armenia changed hands a few times over the centuries between Persia, Russia, and the Ottomans, until Armenia was partitioned again between Russia and Turkey after the Russo-Turkish War, ultimately causing the Eastern-Western split in the Armenian language still present today. The Ottoman Armenians then fell under suspicion during the latter half of the 19th century, as the Ottoman Empire lost territory in Greece and the Balkans, and the remaining Christians in the empire became a scapegoat of sorts, resulting in sporadic government-condoned massacres of the Armenians, particularly in the 1890's. This finally came to a head during UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne under the Young Turks, and the matter of the Armenian Genocide that was to follow is still a very contentious one - few western observers doubt that there was a major humanitarian disaster in the area in 1915, precipitated by Turkish troops against the Ottoman Empire's Christian population, most of whom were put on death marches into the Syrian desert, when not massacred on the spot, killing over a million Armenians. And the common opinion of genocide scholars, in the face of overwhelming proof through contemporary photographic and eyewitness accounts, is that it falls under the definition of a genocide. The Young Turk government had delusions of creating a "racially pure" Pan-Turkish state stretching from Istanbul to Turkmenistan, something that the Armenians, Greeks and Assyrians stood in the way of, as well as of course Russia, who ended up defeating the Ottomans badly in the war and preventing the completion of the genocide.

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Ottoman rule was a relief to the Armenians at first; the region had been completely devastated by invasions within decades of one another from the Seljuk Turks, Mongols, and the forces of Tamerlane. Christians in the empire were second class citizens and more heavily taxed, but the Armenians made due by mostly becoming merchants. Eastern Armenia changed hands a few times over the centuries between Persia, Russia, and the Ottomans, until Armenia was partitioned again between Russia and Turkey after the Russo-Turkish War, ultimately causing the Eastern-Western split in the Armenian language still present today. The Ottoman Armenians then fell under suspicion during the latter half of the 19th century, as the Ottoman Empire lost territory in Greece and the Balkans, and the remaining Christians in the empire became a scapegoat of sorts, resulting in sporadic government-condoned massacres of the Armenians, particularly in the 1890's. This finally came to a head during UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne UsefulNotes/WorldWarI under the Young Turks, and the matter of the Armenian Genocide that was to follow is still a very contentious one - few western observers doubt that there was a major humanitarian disaster in the area in 1915, precipitated by Turkish troops against the Ottoman Empire's Christian population, most of whom were put on death marches into the Syrian desert, when not massacred on the spot, killing over a million Armenians. And the common opinion of genocide scholars, in the face of overwhelming proof through contemporary photographic and eyewitness accounts, is that it falls under the definition of a genocide. The Young Turk government had delusions of creating a "racially pure" Pan-Turkish state stretching from Istanbul to Turkmenistan, something that the Armenians, Greeks and Assyrians stood in the way of, as well as of course Russia, who ended up defeating the Ottomans badly in the war and preventing the completion of the genocide.



Getting back to history, shortly before the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne Armenia would become independent for a brief period, thanks to the Russian and Ottoman empires collapsing. You see, just before the Russian Empire fell, Russia had ([[OverlyLongGag as usual]]) [[CurbStompBattle soundly beaten]] Turkey and retaken most of the historically Armenian territories, and when Armenia became independent it had inherited these territories. In Russia's absence from the war the Armenians were used as an UnwittingPawn by the allies toward the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne, with England promising them military aid and more territory if they prevented the Turkish advance into Baku and allowed them to use their territory as a springboard into Russia during the Russian Civil War, only to go back on its promise once the war was over to focus on more strategically important territories. Such betrayals were par the course for most countries Britain had backed in the Middle East during the war. As a result of the allies' neglect, the country was quickly weakened by wars with its neighbors and though it put up a valiant effort not to be reconquered by Turkey, Armenia was eventually assimilated into the Soviet Union after only two years--contested lands were surrendered to Turkey, another in a long series of government concessions throughout the western USSR made out of a fear of an escalating invasion of the USSR by European states, the USA and Japan, and the belief that a worldwide revolution would make the losses irrelevant or that the lands would at least improve relations with Turkey. Not all Armenians took Soviet occupation laying down; the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, headed by Garegin Nzhdeh, led a successful rebellion in 1921 after the Soviets threatened to make Armenia's Zangezur region (modern Syunik) a part of the Azerbaijani SSR, forming the very short-lived Republic of Mountainous Armenia, and even capturing Yerevan for 42 days before being pushed back by the Soviets. The Red Army then pushed into Zangezur and quelled the rebellion, ensuring their surrender by promising to keep Zangezur a part of the Armenian SSR, as it remains today. In the aftermath, however, Artsakh, or Nagorno-Karabakh, was put under Azeri control, something that would come back to haunt everyone involved decades later.

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Getting back to history, shortly before the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne UsefulNotes/WorldWarI Armenia would become independent for a brief period, thanks to the Russian and Ottoman empires collapsing. You see, just before the Russian Empire fell, Russia had ([[OverlyLongGag as usual]]) [[CurbStompBattle soundly beaten]] Turkey and retaken most of the historically Armenian territories, and when Armenia became independent it had inherited these territories. In Russia's absence from the war the Armenians were used as an UnwittingPawn by the allies toward the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne, UsefulNotes/WorldWarI, with England promising them military aid and more territory if they prevented the Turkish advance into Baku and allowed them to use their territory as a springboard into Russia during the Russian Civil War, only to go back on its promise once the war was over to focus on more strategically important territories. Such betrayals were par the course for most countries Britain had backed in the Middle East during the war. As a result of the allies' neglect, the country was quickly weakened by wars with its neighbors and though it put up a valiant effort not to be reconquered by Turkey, Armenia was eventually assimilated into the Soviet Union after only two years--contested lands were surrendered to Turkey, another in a long series of government concessions throughout the western USSR made out of a fear of an escalating invasion of the USSR by European states, the USA and Japan, and the belief that a worldwide revolution would make the losses irrelevant or that the lands would at least improve relations with Turkey. Not all Armenians took Soviet occupation laying down; the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, headed by Garegin Nzhdeh, led a successful rebellion in 1921 after the Soviets threatened to make Armenia's Zangezur region (modern Syunik) a part of the Azerbaijani SSR, forming the very short-lived Republic of Mountainous Armenia, and even capturing Yerevan for 42 days before being pushed back by the Soviets. The Red Army then pushed into Zangezur and quelled the rebellion, ensuring their surrender by promising to keep Zangezur a part of the Armenian SSR, as it remains today. In the aftermath, however, Artsakh, or Nagorno-Karabakh, was put under Azeri control, something that would come back to haunt everyone involved decades later.



* Ivan Stepnaovich Isakov, born ''Hovhannes Ter-Isahakyan'', was a crucial commander for the Baltic and Black Sea Flotillas during the SecondWorldWar, and of ''three'' officers in all of Soviet history to be promoted to Admiral of the Fleet of the USSR (the naval equivalent of Marshal of the USSR), and postwar a leading member of the oceanographic committee of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, an an honorary member of the Armenian branch of the Academy.
* Sergei Alexandrovich Khudyakov, born ''Armenak Artem Khanferiants'', rounds out this quartet, was a veteran of the Russian Civil War in Baku--in a rare real-life example of a LegacyCharacter, Armenak was almost killed when a British gunboat sank the Red Guards-aligned steamer he was serving on, and was saved by a friend, the ''real'' Sergei Khudyakov. Khudyakov was subsequently killed fighting the White Army, and young Khanferiants adopted his name as a memorial. He served valorously on multiple fronts of the SecondWorldWar, rapidly being promoted to Aviation Marshal, but was tried and and executed for spying for the British in 1950. An later investigation in 1965 rehabilitated him (as well as identifying his birth name) and posthumously restored him to the rank of Marshal of Aviation--as such, he and the above three Soviet Armenian officers represented the highest-ranking officers of primary military branches of the Armoured Forces, Air Forces, Naval Forces and the Soviet Armed Forces as a whole!

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* Ivan Stepnaovich Isakov, born ''Hovhannes Ter-Isahakyan'', was a crucial commander for the Baltic and Black Sea Flotillas during the SecondWorldWar, UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, and of ''three'' officers in all of Soviet history to be promoted to Admiral of the Fleet of the USSR (the naval equivalent of Marshal of the USSR), and postwar a leading member of the oceanographic committee of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, an an honorary member of the Armenian branch of the Academy.
* Sergei Alexandrovich Khudyakov, born ''Armenak Artem Khanferiants'', rounds out this quartet, was a veteran of the Russian Civil War in Baku--in a rare real-life example of a LegacyCharacter, Armenak was almost killed when a British gunboat sank the Red Guards-aligned steamer he was serving on, and was saved by a friend, the ''real'' Sergei Khudyakov. Khudyakov was subsequently killed fighting the White Army, and young Khanferiants adopted his name as a memorial. He served valorously on multiple fronts of the SecondWorldWar, UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, rapidly being promoted to Aviation Marshal, but was tried and and executed for spying for the British in 1950. An later investigation in 1965 rehabilitated him (as well as identifying his birth name) and posthumously restored him to the rank of Marshal of Aviation--as such, he and the above three Soviet Armenian officers represented the highest-ranking officers of primary military branches of the Armoured Forces, Air Forces, Naval Forces and the Soviet Armed Forces as a whole!
18th May '16 7:44:59 AM Dimas28
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* {{Archenemy}}: Armenia's bad blood with Azerbaijan is legendary for many reasons that won't be discussed here. However, do take note that the enmity only extends to the current Republic of Azerbaijan; Armenians and Azeris have been coexisting peacefully in neighboring Iran's Azerbaijan Region for centuries.
** There's also another bad blood with Turkey due to the Armenian Genocide, which the latter's government blatantly refuses to recognize to this day.
** Not to mention Pakistan, which [[DisproportionateRetribution flat-out refuses to recognize Armenia as a country]] in support of Azerbaijan. ''Even when Azerbaijan itself actually recognizes Armenia''.
* ButtMonkey: My, there's a reason that not a few people has compared the Armenians' fate throughout history as being similar to the Jews, which should tell you what you need to now about its history. Down to the genocide part.


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* GhibliHills: Armenia is a high country overall (Yerevan is one of the highest capital cities in the world; it is definitely the highest in Europe) and mountains and forests dot the landscape, providing for some nice SceneryPorn (Mount Ararat has sometimes been compared to [[Literature/TheHobbit Erebor]]).


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** As noted in the description, Armenia is a ''very old'' country. It predated many advanced civilizations that currently exist around it; only neighboring Iran/Persia is close to it in its ancientness. It also holds the distinction as the oldest country in the world to adopt Christianity as a state religion, which it did in 301 AD, almost 80 years before the Roman Empire did in 380 AD (and loooong before any of the modern states that rose from the ashes of that empire did the same).


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** Even before the genocide, you can find substantial communities of Armenians all the way down to UsefulNotes/{{Jerusalem}}. In fact, Jerusalem's Old City was divided into the Jewish Quarter, the Christian Quarter, the Muslim Quarter, and the ''Armenian'' Quarter. However, because of [[UsefulNotes/ArabIsraeliConflict the current unpleasantness]] that envelops that city, the population is rapidly shrinking and is under the threat of extinction in just a few decades.


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* SinsOfOurFathers: Armenia hates Turkey because its government refuses to recognize the Armenian Genocide, even if the one who did that is Turkey's predecessor, the Ottoman Empire, and all of its perpetrators had died a long time ago. In the Turkish part, it's less of atoning for your crimes and more akin to [[BeYourself embracing your heritage]], no matter how horrible it is.


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* VestigialEmpire: The ancient Armenian state was much, much larger than the small country y'see in the world map today. At its utmost point, it encompassed a substantial part of present-day Eastern Turkey and overlapped with Kurdistan and Azerbaijan (the region, not the country). It also had two distinct subdivisions: Eastern (the present-day republic) and Western (Eastern Anatolia). The genocide was a huge blow because of how its extent destroyed an entire culture (Western Armenian speakers are currently moribund).
26th Apr '16 5:42:32 PM MarkLungo
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-->''An old Armenian is on his deathbed. "Listen closely children," he says. They lean in, ears straining. "Above all else, treasure the Jews." "Why the Jews, father?" they ask. "Because once they've been dealt with, we'll be next!" he says.''
-->-'''Russian joke'''

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-->''An ->''An old Armenian is on his deathbed. "Listen closely children," he says. They lean in, ears straining. "Above all else, treasure the Jews." "Why the Jews, father?" they ask. "Because once they've been dealt with, we'll be next!" he says.''
-->-'''Russian -->--'''Russian joke'''
9th Mar '16 2:06:45 PM evdebs
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* Anastas Mikoyan, Soviet politician considered to have been the second most powerful man in the USSR under Khrushchev. Brother of the above, he briefly served as Soviet head of government (chair of the presidium, a.k.a. president) and outlasted his political partner. This Mikoyan was also one of the very few people Stalin might have considered friends [note]It is said they used to get drunk together and complain about all the Russians they were surrounded with[/note], and was also responsible for commissioning ''The Book of Tasty and Healthy Food'', a cookbook/propaganda tract that reflected what Soviet food in the mid-20th century would have looked like had Soviet policies actually been capable of providing the ingredients to make traditional Russian cuisine. (Its readers were not fooled, but they bought it anyway.)

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* Anastas Mikoyan, Soviet politician considered to have been the second most powerful man in the USSR under Khrushchev. Brother of the above, he briefly served as Soviet head of government (chair of the presidium, a.k.a. president) and outlasted his political partner. This Mikoyan was also one of the very few people Stalin might have considered friends [note]It [[note]]It is said they used to get drunk together and complain about all the Russians they were surrounded with[/note], with. Mikoyan's love of and insistence on providing quality ice cream probably helped too.[[/note]], and was also responsible for commissioning ''The Book of Tasty and Healthy Food'', a cookbook/propaganda tract that reflected what Soviet food in the mid-20th century would have looked like had Soviet policies actually been capable of providing the ingredients to make traditional Russian cuisine. (Its readers were not fooled, but they bought it anyway.)) Russian-American food writer Anya von Bremzen has noted that the now-ubiquitous ''kotlety'', first introduced in Mikoyan's book, were essentially the broke Russian prole's version of an American hamburger.
9th Mar '16 2:03:45 PM evdebs
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* Anastas Mikoyan, Soviet politician considered to have been the second most powerful man in the USSR under Khrushchev. Brother of the above, he briefly served as Soviet head of government (chair of the presidium, a.k.a. president) and outlasted his political partner.

to:

* Anastas Mikoyan, Soviet politician considered to have been the second most powerful man in the USSR under Khrushchev. Brother of the above, he briefly served as Soviet head of government (chair of the presidium, a.k.a. president) and outlasted his political partner. This Mikoyan was also one of the very few people Stalin might have considered friends [note]It is said they used to get drunk together and complain about all the Russians they were surrounded with[/note], and was also responsible for commissioning ''The Book of Tasty and Healthy Food'', a cookbook/propaganda tract that reflected what Soviet food in the mid-20th century would have looked like had Soviet policies actually been capable of providing the ingredients to make traditional Russian cuisine. (Its readers were not fooled, but they bought it anyway.)
24th Jan '16 6:01:50 PM Surenity
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Armenia sits on the Europe/Asia boundary, but culturally it's considered European (being the first officially Christian country helped), plays its sport in European federations and usually competes in the EurovisionSongContest as mentioned. Armenia's loyalties to Europe came into some question in September 2013 however, when Armenia opted to join Russia's new Customs Union over a free-trade deal with UsefulNotes/TheEuropeanUnion, sparking a rivalry between the two organizations. Seeing as how Russia is a much closer and more essential ally to Armenia than the EU is, this decision went over a lot better in Armenia than it later would in Ukraine, though there were minor protests. It is still hoped by many EU members that Armenia can still make some kind of trading deal with the EU while also being part of the Customs Union, in light of it's rather unique geopolitical situation, but Russia likes to keep Armenia on a short leash, like the rest of the former Soviet states, so it remains to be seen. In fact, looking at the bigger picture, the closed border between Turkey and Armenia serves not just as a separation between Turks and Armenians, but as a boundary between NATO and Russia-aligned countries, the last modern vestige of the UsefulNotes/IronCurtain; one reason Russia sees Armenia as very valuable.

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Armenia sits on the Europe/Asia boundary, but culturally it's considered European (being the first officially Christian country helped), plays its sport in European federations and usually competes in the EurovisionSongContest as mentioned. Armenia's loyalties to Europe came into some question in September 2013 however, when Armenia opted to join Russia's new Customs Union over a free-trade deal with UsefulNotes/TheEuropeanUnion, sparking a rivalry between the two organizations. Seeing as how Russia is a much closer and more essential ally to Armenia than the EU is, this decision went over a lot better in Armenia than it later would in Ukraine, though there were minor protests. It is still hoped by many EU members that Armenia can still make some kind of trading deal with the EU while also being part of the Customs Union, in light of it's rather unique geopolitical situation, but Russia likes to keep Armenia on a short leash, like the rest of the former Soviet states, so it remains to be seen. In fact, looking at the bigger picture, the closed border between Turkey and Armenia serves not just as a separation between Turks and Armenians, but as a boundary between NATO and Russia-aligned countries, the last modern vestige of the UsefulNotes/IronCurtain; one reason Russia sees Armenia as very valuable.
valuable. Tensions late in 2015 between Russia and Turkey relating to the Syrian Civil War have led to this border possibly becoming a hot spot in the near future, and is heavily fortified by the Russians.
24th Jan '16 12:57:11 PM Morgenthaler
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After the initial celebrations when the country became independent, Armenia was essentially in shambles, faced with war, economic collapse, an energy shortage, and it still needed to clean up after the 1988 earthquake. Locals will recall the early 1990's as being a bleak and grim time where citizens of Yerevan were only allotted one hour of electricity per day, and in winter had to burn furniture, books and tree branches to stay warm. People began emigrating from the country in large numbers. Amazingly, Armenia eventually picked itself up and persevered; currently this is the longest Armenia has ever been independent since the Bagratuni Kingdom fell in 1045. Modern Armenia still has poor relations with Turkey, and also with its neighbor, Azerbaijan, over the region of UsefulNotes/NagornoKarabakh, nominally an autonomous Arminopohone part of the Azerbaijani SSR [[note]]ItsALongStory, but the gist of it is: Stalin's DivideAndConquer tactics (minus the usual infighting component--dramatic ethnic violence didn't rise until decades after Stalin's death) basically carved up the Caucasus and placed lots of ethnic groups that didn't like each other in the same administrative area, on basis of ancient communities that delved deeply into each other territories, in order to justify Soviet presence in the region. Nagorno-Karabakh, being a traditionally Armenian area, was made an autonomous oblast within Soviet Azerbaijan, a move that kept conflict at a minimum for decades while the Soviets kept forces there, and has also been suggested as meant to placate Turkey. What happened when the USSR collapsed and there was suddenly no force to stop open conflict should be easy to guess.[[/note]], but which the region's native Armenians, [[ArmosWithArmor with help from the country itself]], freed after a war between 1992-1994. It's now declared itself an independent country known as the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh (or Artsakh), which no one recognizes - no, not even Armenia, because the situation's basically been frozen ever since the 1994 ceasefire and [[StatusQuoIsGod understandably, the Armenian government is not eager to restart armed conflict]], though the Armenian president has gone on the record stating Armenia would recognize it if another war broke out. Azerbaijan, on the other hand, hasn't been quite as passive, and violates the ceasefire almost daily. The country is only stopped from unleashing a full-on war by international pressure, and the fact that it fared poorly last time. It would also mean firing on Russian Peacekeepers stationed in the area, which didn't work great for the last country that did that.[[note]]Georgia in 2008[[/note]].

to:

After the initial celebrations when the country became independent, Armenia was essentially in shambles, faced with war, economic collapse, an energy shortage, and it still needed to clean up after the 1988 earthquake. Locals will recall the early 1990's as being a bleak and grim time where citizens of Yerevan were only allotted one hour of electricity per day, and in winter had to burn furniture, books and tree branches to stay warm. People began emigrating from the country in large numbers. Amazingly, Armenia eventually picked itself up and persevered; currently this is the longest Armenia has ever been independent since the Bagratuni Kingdom fell in 1045. Modern Armenia still has poor relations with Turkey, and also with its neighbor, Azerbaijan, over the region of UsefulNotes/NagornoKarabakh, nominally an autonomous Arminopohone part of the Azerbaijani SSR [[note]]ItsALongStory, but the gist of it is: Stalin's DivideAndConquer tactics (minus the usual infighting component--dramatic ethnic violence didn't rise until decades after Stalin's death) basically carved up the Caucasus and placed lots of ethnic groups that didn't like each other in the same administrative area, on basis of ancient communities that delved deeply into each other territories, in order to justify Soviet presence in the region. Nagorno-Karabakh, being a traditionally Armenian area, was made an autonomous oblast within Soviet Azerbaijan, a move that kept conflict at a minimum for decades while the Soviets kept forces there, and has also been suggested as meant to placate Turkey. What happened when the USSR collapsed and there was suddenly no force to stop open conflict should be easy to guess.[[/note]], but which the region's native Armenians, [[ArmosWithArmor [[UsefulNotes/ArmosWithArmor with help from the country itself]], freed after a war between 1992-1994. It's now declared itself an independent country known as the Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh (or Artsakh), which no one recognizes - no, not even Armenia, because the situation's basically been frozen ever since the 1994 ceasefire and [[StatusQuoIsGod understandably, the Armenian government is not eager to restart armed conflict]], though the Armenian president has gone on the record stating Armenia would recognize it if another war broke out. Azerbaijan, on the other hand, hasn't been quite as passive, and violates the ceasefire almost daily. The country is only stopped from unleashing a full-on war by international pressure, and the fact that it fared poorly last time. It would also mean firing on Russian Peacekeepers stationed in the area, which didn't work great for the last country that did that.[[note]]Georgia in 2008[[/note]].
15th Jan '16 1:14:11 AM Dimas28
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* OlderThanTheyThink: The Armenian language has a ''huge'' amount of Persian/Persian-like vocabulary. Those aren't modern borrowings; it dated back to hundreds–no, ''thousands'' of years ago, back when Armenia was a part of the Achaemenids and Sassanids, and probably even older than that. They are so long ingrained that most Armenians don't see them as foreign borrowings anymore (unlike Russian), and this fact is actually the reason why for so many years linguists classified the language as Iranian until they realize just how even more different Armenian is. It's almost the same deal with the Ossetians of Russia, except that their language ''is'' Iranian.

to:

* OlderThanTheyThink: The Armenian language has a ''huge'' amount of Persian/Persian-like vocabulary. Those aren't modern borrowings; it most of them dated back to hundreds–no, ''thousands'' of years ago, back when Armenia was a part of the Achaemenids and Sassanids, and probably even older than that. They are so long ingrained that most Armenians don't see them as foreign borrowings anymore (unlike Russian), and this fact is actually the reason why for so many years linguists classified the language as Iranian until they realize realized just how even more different Armenian is. It's almost the same deal with the Ossetians of Russia, except that their language ''is'' Iranian.
15th Jan '16 1:05:37 AM Dimas28
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Added DiffLines:

* OlderThanTheyThink: The Armenian language has a ''huge'' amount of Persian/Persian-like vocabulary. Those aren't modern borrowings; it dated back to hundreds–no, ''thousands'' of years ago, back when Armenia was a part of the Achaemenids and Sassanids, and probably even older than that. They are so long ingrained that most Armenians don't see them as foreign borrowings anymore (unlike Russian), and this fact is actually the reason why for so many years linguists classified the language as Iranian until they realize just how even more different Armenian is. It's almost the same deal with the Ossetians of Russia, except that their language ''is'' Iranian.
** In general, Armenian-Iranian relations are this. Both regions/countries have been at each other cultural spheres for god knows how long. Case in point: Armenians call their homeland ''Hayastan'' – -stan being the ubiquitous Persian suffix to denote a country.
13th Nov '15 8:17:28 AM SomeoneElse17
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* Frankie Kazarian, a professional wrestler currently at Wrestling/{{TNA}}.

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* Frankie Kazarian, Wrestling/FrankieKazarian, a professional wrestler currently at Wrestling/RingOfHonor, well-known for his years with Wrestling/{{TNA}}.
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