History USefulNotes / Buddhism

29th Apr '16 11:53:24 PM Fireblood
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** Avici hell means "without waves". One can translate it to ''The Ceaseless''. With a cosmology where a trillion of trillion years is a mere metric for time, this should clarify that the cosmic judgment of karma only reserves Avici for the worst of the worst only.
** Also, considering the cyclic nature of Buddhist cosmology, even sins fit for Avici is not truly irredeemable. Still, that is only ''theoretical''. Nobody who has fallen into Avici, since the beginning of reality an infinity of years ago, has been redeemed yet.

to:

** Avici hell means "without waves". One can translate it to ''The Ceaseless''. With a cosmology where a trillion of trillion years is a mere metric for time, this should clarify that the cosmic judgment of karma only reserves Avici for the worst of the worst only.
** Also, considering the cyclic nature of Buddhist cosmology, even sins fit for Avici is are not truly irredeemable. Still, that is only ''theoretical''. Nobody who has fallen into Avici, since the beginning of reality an infinity of years ago, has been redeemed yet.



** The Chinese take this seriously enough (with enough Chinese being Buddhists themselves) that [[SeriousBusiness Tibetan Buddhist monks are specifically required to obtain official Communist Party approval before they can re-incarnate.]] This is also a convenient means of political control.

to:

** The Chinese take this seriously enough (with enough Chinese being Buddhists themselves) that [[SeriousBusiness Tibetan Buddhist monks are specifically required to obtain official Communist Party approval before they can re-incarnate.reincarnate.]] This is also a convenient means of political control.



* StopHelpingMe: One legend has the the god Sakra come and ask spiritual advice from Buddha. He explains that he often sought wisdom from human sages. However, when they learned that he was actually a god, [[GoneHorriblyRight they ended up worshiping him instead.]]
* TheseAreThingsManWasNotMeantToKnow: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourteen_unanswerable_questions 14 Unanswerable Questions.]] These aren't actually meant to be deep secrets or eldritch lore. Insead, they are things that can't be answered and so you shouldn't waste time worrying about. Basically four questions, or not, or both or neither. This obviously leaves 16 rather than 14 due to varying counts or whether or not including the boths and neithers or only for some questions.

to:

* StopHelpingMe: One legend has the the god Sakra come and ask spiritual advice from Buddha. He explains that he often sought wisdom from human sages. However, when they learned that he was actually a god, [[GoneHorriblyRight they ended up worshiping him instead.]]
* TheseAreThingsManWasNotMeantToKnow: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourteen_unanswerable_questions 14 Unanswerable Questions.]] These aren't actually meant to be deep secrets or eldritch lore. Insead, Instead, they are things that can't be answered and so you shouldn't waste time worrying about. Basically four questions, or not, or both or neither. This obviously leaves 16 rather than 14 due to varying counts or whether or not including the boths and neithers or only for some questions.
7th Apr '16 8:04:44 AM Dimas28
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Added DiffLines:

* UsefulNotes/{{Bhutan}}
7th Apr '16 7:58:49 AM Dimas28
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Added DiffLines:

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!!Countries Where Buddhism is Popular (in decreasing order of believers)

* UsefulNotes/{{China}}, including UsefulNotes/{{Tibet}} (contains the most self-professing Buddhists in the world, though they're not the majority)
* UsefulNotes/{{Thailand}} (the most populous Buddhist-majority country in the world)
* UsefulNotes/ThatSouthEastAsianCountry
* UsefulNotes/{{Japan}}
* UsefulNotes/SriLanka
* UsefulNotes/SouthKorea (slowly eroded by UsefulNotes/{{Christianity}} in recent years, but remains an important cultural heritage)
* UsefulNotes/{{Cambodia}}
* UsefulNotes/{{Vietnam}} (less than a quarter, but has a larger number than those listed below)
* UsefulNotes/{{Laos}}
* UsefulNotes/{{Malaysia}} (same as Vietnam)
* UsefulNotes/{{Mongolia}}
* The Republic of Kalmykia and the Tuvan Republic of UsefulNotes/{{Russia}} (the former being the only Buddhist-majority polity in Europe)
18th Mar '16 9:28:27 AM SantosLHalper
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* ForeignRemake / HijackedByJesus: Believe or not, the story of Siddhartha Gautama. [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barlaam_and_Josaphat Seriously.]] One of the reasons Buddhism declined in India is because Hinduism co-opted it into its own religion, making the Buddha an avatar of Vishnu.

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* ForeignRemake / HijackedByJesus: Believe or not, the story of Siddhartha Gautama. [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barlaam_and_Josaphat Seriously.]] One of the reasons Buddhism declined in India is because Hinduism co-opted it into its own religion, making the Buddha an avatar of Vishnu. Then when the story of Buddha spread, it came to Medieval Europe and Buddha became the Christian [[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02297a.htm St Josaphat]].
15th Feb '16 12:29:06 AM Hadjorim
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* No forms of Buddhism explicitly teach the existence of a ''creator'' god. Nevertheless, some schools have practices that call on higher powers, sometimes including the Buddha. While these devotions have been called "prayer-like," they are for all intents and purposes indistinguishable from prayer. Other schools reject the existence of all godlike beings. Others believe that gods (and demons) are simply other forms of life and no better than humans. In all cases, however, whether one believes in gods or not, or whether one worships them or not, they are considered irrelevant to the actual point of Buddhism -- the attainment of Enlightenment, which even gods must strive for.

to:

* No forms of Buddhism explicitly teach the existence of a ''creator'' god, nor is the Buddha a god. Nevertheless, some schools have practices that call on higher powers, sometimes including the Buddha. While these devotions have been called "prayer-like," they are for all intents and purposes indistinguishable from prayer. Other schools reject the existence of all godlike beings. Others believe that gods (and demons) are simply other forms of life and no better than humans. In all cases, however, whether one believes in gods or not, or whether one worships them or not, they are considered irrelevant to the actual point of Buddhism -- the attainment of Enlightenment, which even gods must strive for.
15th Feb '16 12:26:42 AM Hadjorim
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* Buddhism is not necessarily a form of UsefulNotes/{{Atheism}}. Some variations are perfectly compatible with atheism, but not all. Buddhism is, more or less, an offshoot of UsefulNotes/{{Hinduism}}, so the oldest school(s) pretty much teach the existence of the same gods. Even most schools that lack "gods" still retain supernatural elements. Those that dispense with the supernatural entirely tend to be found mostly in the West.

to:

* Buddhism is not necessarily a form of UsefulNotes/{{Atheism}}. Some variations are perfectly compatible with atheism, but not all. Buddhism is, more or less, an offshoot of UsefulNotes/{{Hinduism}}, so the oldest school(s) schools pretty much teach the existence of the same gods. Even most schools that lack "gods" still retain supernatural elements. Those that dispense with the supernatural entirely tend to be found mostly in the West.
1st Dec '15 3:22:07 PM DarkStarling
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* TheseAreThingsManWasNotMeantToKnow: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourteen_unanswerable_questions 14 Unanswerable Questions.]] Basically four questions, or not, or both or neither. This obviously leaves 16 rather than 14 due to varying counts or whether or not including the boths and neithers or only for some questions.

to:

* TheseAreThingsManWasNotMeantToKnow: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourteen_unanswerable_questions 14 Unanswerable Questions.]] These aren't actually meant to be deep secrets or eldritch lore. Insead, they are things that can't be answered and so you shouldn't waste time worrying about. Basically four questions, or not, or both or neither. This obviously leaves 16 rather than 14 due to varying counts or whether or not including the boths and neithers or only for some questions.
16th Nov '15 7:05:24 PM Fireblood
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* EnlightenmentSuperpowers: Buddhism teaches that as a being becomes enlightened they will gain abilities such as telekinesis or telepathy.



* MeditationPowerup: Tranquility leads to enlightened asskicking -- The legendary Shaolin Monastery is a Chan (Also known as Zen in Japan and the US) Buddhist Monastery that uses martial arts as a form of meditation. In a broader view, Zazen and other forms of meditation allow for impressive feats of concentration, which allow for other, equally impressive, feats.
** Also, various supernatural powers are said to be gained by meditation!
* MessianicArchetype: Boddhisattvas!
* MoralEventHorizon: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icchantika Icchantikas]] are sentient beings who have crossed this. Texts vary in if they are or are not beyond redemption. Varying version of the Nirvana Sutra have differing opinions as well.
** The icchantika is, according to some Mahayana Buddhist scriptures, the most base and spiritually deluded of all types of being. The term implies being given over to total hedonism and greed. In the Tathagatagarbha sutras, some of which pay particular attention to the icchantikas, the term is frequently used of those persons who do not believe in the Buddha, his eternal Selfhood and his Dharma (Truth) or in karma; who seriously transgress against the Buddhist moral codes and vinaya; and who speak disparagingly and dismissively of the reality of the immortal Buddha-nature (Buddha-dhatu) or (essentially the same thing) the Tathagatagarbha present within all beings (including icchantikas themselves, though it is more hidden from their consciousness than in other individuals due to the massive accretions of sinfulness and delusion which conceal it from their sight). The two shortest versions of the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra - one translated by Fa-xian, and the other a middle-length Tibetan version of the sutra - indicate that the icchantika has so totally severed all his/her roots of goodness that he/she can never attain Liberation and Nirvana. The full-length Dharmakshema version of the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra, in contrast, insists that even the icchantika can eventually find release into Nirvana, since no phenomenon is fixed (including this type of allegedly deluded person) and that change for the better and best is always a possibility. Other scriptures (such as the Lankavatara Sutra) indicate that the icchantikas will be saved through the liberational power of the Buddha - who, it is claimed, will never abandon any being.

to:

* MeditationPowerup: Tranquility leads to enlightened asskicking -- asskicking. The legendary Shaolin Monastery monastery is a Chan (Also (also known as Zen in Japan and the US) Buddhist Monastery monastery that uses martial arts as a form of meditation. In a broader view, Zazen and other forms of meditation allow for impressive feats of concentration, which allow for other, equally impressive, feats.
** Also, various supernatural powers are said to be gained by meditation!
meditation.
* MessianicArchetype: Boddhisattvas!
Boddhisattvas.
* MoralEventHorizon: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Icchantika Icchantikas]] are sentient beings who have crossed this. Texts vary in if they are or are not beyond redemption. Varying version versions of the Nirvana Sutra have differing opinions as well.
** The icchantika is, according to some Mahayana Buddhist scriptures, the most base and spiritually deluded of all types of being. The term implies being given over to total hedonism and greed. In the Tathagatagarbha sutras, some of which pay particular attention to the icchantikas, the term is frequently used of those persons who do not believe in the Buddha, his eternal Selfhood selfhood and his Dharma (Truth) (truth) or in karma; who seriously transgress against the Buddhist moral codes and vinaya; and who speak disparagingly and dismissively of the reality of the immortal Buddha-nature (Buddha-dhatu) or (essentially the same thing) the Tathagatagarbha present within all beings (including icchantikas themselves, though it is more hidden from their consciousness than in other individuals due to the massive accretions of sinfulness and delusion which conceal it from their sight). The two shortest versions of the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra - one translated by Fa-xian, and the other a middle-length Tibetan version of the sutra - indicate that the icchantika has so totally severed all his/her roots of goodness that he/she can never attain Liberation and Nirvana. The full-length Dharmakshema version of the Mahayana Mahaparinirvana Sutra, in contrast, insists that even the icchantika can eventually find release into Nirvana, since no phenomenon is fixed (including this type of allegedly deluded person) and that change for the better and best is always a possibility. Other scriptures (such as the Lankavatara Sutra) indicate that the icchantikas will be saved through the liberational power of the Buddha - who, it is claimed, will never abandon any being.



** Also, considering the cyclic nature of Buddhist cosmology, even sins fit for Avici is not truly irredeemable. Still, that is only ''theoretical''. Nobody who has fallen into Avici, since the beginning of reality an infinity years ago, has been redeemed yet.

to:

** Also, considering the cyclic nature of Buddhist cosmology, even sins fit for Avici is not truly irredeemable. Still, that is only ''theoretical''. Nobody who has fallen into Avici, since the beginning of reality an infinity of years ago, has been redeemed yet.



* NoSwastikas: Defied, Buddhism ([[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swastika along with just about everyone actually]]) was using that symbol long before there was a Nazi Party. If you see a swastika in an East Asian product its very probably not a Nazi one.

to:

* NoSwastikas: Defied, {{Defied}}, Buddhism ([[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swastika along with just about everyone actually]]) was using that symbol long before there was a Nazi Party. If you see a swastika in an East Asian product its very probably not a Nazi one.



* NobleDemon: Theravada's text note that there are plenty of Asuras in heaven. These Asuras are incarnation of people who did good deed with wrong motive. For example, helping the poor to impress public.
* OlderThanFeudalism: Buddha lived approximately 563 BCE to 483 BCE (traditional dating in the range of 566-560 BCE to 486-480BCE with newer dating in the range of 491-480 BCE to 411-400 BCE).

to:

* NobleDemon: Theravada's text texts note that there are plenty of Asuras in heaven. These Asuras are incarnation incarnations of people who did good deed deeds with the wrong motive. For example, helping the poor to impress the public.
* OlderThanFeudalism: Buddha lived from approximately 563 BCE to 483 BCE (traditional dating in the range of 566-560 BCE to 486-480BCE 486-480BCE, with newer dating in the range of 491-480 BCE to 411-400 BCE).



** An interesting note is how matter of fact the treatment of the supernatural can be in some Buddhist traditions. For example, in many Tibetan monasteries part of the oath you take when you become a monk is that you are not a spirit disguised as a human being. Other monasteries are placed specifically to be bindings for demons, oracles and divination are fairly common practice for lamas, and there are many lamas who have repeatedly reincarnated and continued their teaching. Part of the reason Chinas destruction of monasteries and abuse of monks during the cultural revolution was so devastating was the way knowledge of the spiritual landscape and the whereabouts of reincarnated lamas was lost.

to:

** An interesting note is how matter of fact the treatment of the supernatural can be in some Buddhist traditions. For example, in many Tibetan monasteries part of the oath you take when you become a monk is that you are not a spirit disguised as a human being. Other monasteries are placed specifically to be bindings for demons, oracles and divination are fairly common practice for lamas, and there are many lamas who have repeatedly reincarnated and continued their teaching. Part of the reason Chinas China's destruction of monasteries and abuse of monks during the cultural revolution was so devastating was the way knowledge of the spiritual landscape and the whereabouts of reincarnated lamas was lost.



* SelfImmolation:The Bodhisattva Bhaisajyaguru(vaiduryaprabharaja) gives us one of the oldest examples as in the Lotus Sutra.

to:

* SelfImmolation:The SelfImmolation: The Bodhisattva Bhaisajyaguru(vaiduryaprabharaja) Bhaisajyaguru (vaiduryaprabharaja) gives us one of the oldest examples as in the Lotus Sutra.



* TheseAreThingsManWasNotMeantToKnow: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourteen_unanswerable_questions 14 Unanswerable Questions]] Basically four questions, or not, or both or neither. This obviously leaves 16 rather than 14 due to varying counts or wheter or not including the boths and neithers or only for some questions.
** Is the world eternal? or not? or both? or neither?
** Is the world finite? or not? or both? or neither?
** Is the self the body? or not? (or both? or neither?)
** Does the Tathagata (Buddha) exist after death? or not? (or both? or neither?)

to:

* TheseAreThingsManWasNotMeantToKnow: [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourteen_unanswerable_questions 14 Unanswerable Questions]] Questions.]] Basically four questions, or not, or both or neither. This obviously leaves 16 rather than 14 due to varying counts or wheter whether or not including the boths and neithers or only for some questions.
** Is the world eternal? or Or not? or Or both? or Or neither?
** Is the world finite? or Or not? or Or both? or Or neither?
** Is the self the body? or Or not? (or Or both? or neither?)
Or neither?
** Does the Tathagata (Buddha) exist after death? or Or not? (or Or both? or neither?)Or neither?



* TheUnfettered: Literaly, as the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fetter_%28Buddhism%29 ten fetters]] are what keep people from Nirvana!
** 1. belief in a self (Pali: sakkāya-diṭṭhi) 2. doubt or uncertainty, especially about the teachings (vicikicchā) 3. attachment to rites and rituals (sīlabbata-parāmāso) 4. sensual desire (kāmacchando) 5. ill will (vyāpādo or byāpādo) 6. lust for material existence, lust for material rebirth (rūparāgo) 7. lust for immaterial existence, lust for rebirth in a formless realm (arūparāgo) 8. conceit (māno) 9. restlessness (uddhaccaŋ) 10. ignorance (avijjā)

to:

* TheUnfettered: Literaly, Literally, as the [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fetter_%28Buddhism%29 ten fetters]] are what keep people from Nirvana!
Nirvana.
** 1. belief Belief in a self (Pali: sakkāya-diṭṭhi) 2. doubt Doubt or uncertainty, especially about the teachings (vicikicchā) 3. attachment Attachment to rites and rituals (sīlabbata-parāmāso) 4. sensual Sensual desire (kāmacchando) 5. ill Ill will (vyāpādo or byāpādo) 6. lust Lust for material existence, lust for material rebirth (rūparāgo) 7. lust Lust for immaterial existence, lust for rebirth in a formless realm (arūparāgo) 8. conceit Conceit (māno) 9. restlessness Restlessness (uddhaccaŋ) 10. ignorance Ignorance (avijjā)
16th Nov '15 6:46:51 PM Fireblood
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* GodIsEvil: A complex trope. Mara (the Buddhist devil) is a Deva of the highest heaven of the desire realm and rules of the desire realm. To be specific in Kamadhatu (Desire realm), there is Parinirmita-vasavartin or Paranimmita-vasavatti (The Heaven of Devas with Power over other's Creations). Put another way, Mara is less a god of evil and more a god of anti-enlightenment.

to:

* GodIsEvil: A complex trope. Mara (the Buddhist devil) is a Deva of the highest heaven of the desire realm and rules of the desire realm. To be specific in Kamadhatu (Desire (the desire realm), there is Parinirmita-vasavartin or Paranimmita-vasavatti (The Heaven of Devas with Power over other's Creations). Put another way, Mara is less a god of evil and more a god of anti-enlightenment.



* HeartIsAnAwesomePower: The Buddha miraculously calmed Naalgiri (an enraged elephant) simply by emanating maitri (loving kindness) and karuna (compassion)! This is also how evil spirits get converted into good and then, vow to protect Buddhism, thus explaining the legion of Dharmapalas protecting Buddhism!

to:

* HeartIsAnAwesomePower: The Buddha miraculously calmed Naalgiri (an enraged elephant) simply by emanating maitri (loving kindness) and karuna (compassion)! This is also how evil spirits get converted into good and then, then vow to protect Buddhism, thus explaining the legion of Dharmapalas protecting Buddhism!Buddhism.



* HumansAreSpecial: ZigZaggingTrope. We are not any more (or less) special than any other lifeform... But because we live a balanced life, we have the best chance to attain enlightenment and are the only race that can become Buddhas. Pretas and dwellers of [[{{Hell}} Naraka]] suffer too much to better themselves. Animals are dominated by instinct and can't fully understand dharma. Asuras are DrunkWithPower, and Devas' lives are so filled with comfort that most of them do not care about the future at all.
** Sometimes some text like the Lotus Sutra say non-humans can attain enlightenment like the Nagaraja's daughter (a naga, a type of deva). All stress, however, that doing so is much more difficult than for a human.

to:

* HumansAreSpecial: ZigZaggingTrope. We are not any more (or less) special than any other lifeform...life form... But because we live a balanced life, we have the best chance to attain enlightenment and are the only race that can become Buddhas. Pretas and dwellers of [[{{Hell}} Naraka]] suffer too much to better themselves. Animals are dominated by instinct and can't fully understand dharma. Asuras are DrunkWithPower, and Devas' lives are so filled with comfort that most of them do not care about the future at all.
** Sometimes some text Some textw like the Lotus Sutra say says non-humans can attain enlightenment like enlightenment, such as the Nagaraja's daughter (a naga, a type of deva). All stress, however, that doing so is much more difficult than for a human.
16th Nov '15 6:15:38 PM Fireblood
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* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theravada Theravada]]: Found mostly in South East Asia, India and UsefulNotes/SriLanka, Theravada is the oldest existing vehicle and therefore most similar to the earliest forms of Buddhism. It emphasizes self-liberation through enlightenment by following the Eightfold Path. This school is also the most conservative in terms of theology: The non-existence of Self is emphasized, and the worship of gods and higher powers is discouraged. In fact, Theravada claims the Buddha specifically rejected the existence of any "divine foundation," whether this be called "Brahman," "The Ultimate Reality," or something else. In this school, the Buddha is considered a mere human who reached Enlightenment through his own efforts. Karma is a natural and impersonal process, beyond the ability of humans to influence.
* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahayana Mahayana]]: The "Greater Vehicle." Mahayana Buddhism is the largest in terms of numbers. It teaches the "Bodhisattva-path," where a being seeks nirvana not for their own benefit, but chooses to return to existence to help others until all are freed from the cycle of rebirth. This school tends to be more liberal in terms of theology: Various higher beings are revered or worshipped, and it is not quite so harsh in terms of non-existence of Self. In Mahayana, the Buddha is not considered a "mere human," but an incarnation of the Ultimate Reality who came to help humans on their path to Enlightenment. Further unlike Theravada, negative karma can be purged by meditation, or by the recitation of mantras or sacred names.

to:

* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theravada Theravada]]: The "Lesser Vehicle." Found mostly in South East Asia, India and UsefulNotes/SriLanka, Theravada is the oldest existing vehicle and therefore most similar to the earliest forms of Buddhism. It emphasizes self-liberation through enlightenment by following the Eightfold Path. This school is also the most conservative in terms of theology: The non-existence of Self is emphasized, and the worship of gods and higher powers is discouraged. In fact, Theravada claims the Buddha specifically rejected the existence of any "divine foundation," whether this be called "Brahman," "The Ultimate Reality," or something else. In this school, the Buddha is considered a mere human who reached Enlightenment through his own efforts. Karma is a natural and impersonal process, beyond the ability of humans to influence.
* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahayana Mahayana]]: The "Greater Vehicle." Mahayana Buddhism is the largest in terms of numbers. It teaches the "Bodhisattva-path," where a being seeks nirvana not for their own benefit, but chooses to return to existence to help others until all are freed from the cycle of rebirth. This school tends to be more liberal in terms of theology: Various various higher beings are revered or worshipped, worshiped, and it is not quite so harsh in terms of non-existence of Self.the self. In Mahayana, the Buddha is not considered a "mere human," but an incarnation of the Ultimate Reality who came to help humans on their path to Enlightenment. Further unlike Theravada, negative karma can be purged by meditation, or by the recitation of mantras or sacred names.
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