History Main / TheLowMiddleAges

12th Mar '18 2:51:24 AM Estvyk
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* For that matter, ''all'' the many movie and literary versions of ''Myth/KingArthur'' are supposed to take place in this period, but you wouldn't usually know it because of the AnachronismStew which makes everything look like it's centuries later. The [[Film/KingArthur 2004 movie]] is a notable exception that tries for a late Roman/early medieval feel, making him a half-Celtic Roman officer, but it also takes a lot of license with history.

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* For that matter, ''all'' the many movie and literary versions of ''Myth/KingArthur'' are supposed to take place in this period, but you wouldn't usually know it because of the typical AnachronismStew which makes everything look like it's centuries later. The [[Film/KingArthur 2004 movie]] is a notable exception that tries for a late Roman/early medieval feel, making him a half-Celtic Roman officer, but it also takes a lot of license with history.
12th Mar '18 2:50:54 AM Estvyk
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* For that matter, ''all'' the many movie and literary versions of ''Myth/KingArthur'' are supposed to take place in this period but you wouldn't know it because of the AnachronismStew which makes everything look like it's centuries later. The [[Film/KingArthur 2004 movie]] is a notable exception that tries for a late Roman/early medieval feel, making him a half-Celtic Roman officer, but it also takes a lot of license with history.

to:

* For that matter, ''all'' the many movie and literary versions of ''Myth/KingArthur'' are supposed to take place in this period period, but you wouldn't usually know it because of the AnachronismStew which makes everything look like it's centuries later. The [[Film/KingArthur 2004 movie]] is a notable exception that tries for a late Roman/early medieval feel, making him a half-Celtic Roman officer, but it also takes a lot of license with history.
12th Mar '18 2:49:35 AM Estvyk
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* For that matter, nearly ''all'' the many movie and literary versions of ''Myth/KingArthur''. The [[Film/KingArthur 2004 movie]] is a notable exception.

to:

* For that matter, nearly ''all'' the many movie and literary versions of ''Myth/KingArthur''. ''Myth/KingArthur'' are supposed to take place in this period but you wouldn't know it because of the AnachronismStew which makes everything look like it's centuries later. The [[Film/KingArthur 2004 movie]] is a notable exception.exception that tries for a late Roman/early medieval feel, making him a half-Celtic Roman officer, but it also takes a lot of license with history.
22nd Feb '18 6:43:13 PM nombretomado
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* The ''Literature/{{Nibelungenlied}}'' and its derivatives, such as Creator/RichardWagner's ''Theatre/TheRingOfTheNibelung'' and Creator/FritzLang's ''Die Nibelungen'' : ''Siegfried'' and ''Kriemhilds Rache''

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* The ''Literature/{{Nibelungenlied}}'' and its derivatives, such as Creator/RichardWagner's Music/RichardWagner's ''Theatre/TheRingOfTheNibelung'' and Creator/FritzLang's ''Die Nibelungen'' : ''Siegfried'' and ''Kriemhilds Rache''



* Creator/RichardWagner's ''Theatre/TheRingOfTheNibelung'', as well as ''Parsifal'' and ''Lohengrin'', although the latter two are more often staged as if they took place in TheHighMiddleAges.

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* Creator/RichardWagner's Music/RichardWagner's ''Theatre/TheRingOfTheNibelung'', as well as ''Parsifal'' and ''Lohengrin'', although the latter two are more often staged as if they took place in TheHighMiddleAges.
30th Jan '18 10:11:35 PM DoktorSoviet
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By 1066, The Norman Conquests marked the end of the Low Middle Ages. Although the conflict was minor at the time, it would have major ramifications in the future, as the English gradually came to be a dominant power in world affairs many centuries later. The gist of the conflict is that Alfred, the King of England, had to fight two pretenders to his throne: the Norwegian Harald Hadrada (whose claim largely came from the aforementioned Danelaw) and the Norman William, now known as ''the Conqueror'' after he won the war at the Battle of Hastings.

to:

By 1066, The Norman Conquests marked the end of the Low Middle Ages. Although the conflict was minor at the time, it would have major ramifications in the future, as the English gradually came to be a dominant power in world affairs many centuries later. The gist of the conflict is that Alfred, Harold, the King of England, had to fight two pretenders to his throne: the Norwegian Harald Hadrada (whose claim largely came from the aforementioned Danelaw) and the Norman William, now known as ''the Conqueror'' after he won the war at the Battle of Hastings.
30th Jan '18 10:10:18 PM DoktorSoviet
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By 1066, The Norman Conquests marked the end of the Low Middle Ages. Although the conflict was minor at the time, it would have major ramifications in the future, as the English gradually came to be a dominant power in world affairs many centuries later. The gist of the conflict is that Alfred, the King of England, had to fight two pretenders to his thrown: the Norwegian Harald Hadrada (whose claim largely came from the aforementioned Danelaw) and the Norman William, now known as ''the Conqueror'' after he won the war at the Battle of Hastings.

to:

By 1066, The Norman Conquests marked the end of the Low Middle Ages. Although the conflict was minor at the time, it would have major ramifications in the future, as the English gradually came to be a dominant power in world affairs many centuries later. The gist of the conflict is that Alfred, the King of England, had to fight two pretenders to his thrown: throne: the Norwegian Harald Hadrada (whose claim largely came from the aforementioned Danelaw) and the Norman William, now known as ''the Conqueror'' after he won the war at the Battle of Hastings.
30th Jan '18 10:05:32 PM DoktorSoviet
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Muhammad had effectively united the tribes of Arabia and most had converted to Islam. Abu Bakr, the first Caliph, conquered Roman Syria and further gains were made by him and his successors in Persia, Mesopotamia, and North Africa. The Umayyad Caliphate came to power in 661 and made further conquests, using the Berbers on North Africa to conquer the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania and establish UsefulNotes/MoorishSpain. Most Christians fled north, but the Muslim armies just kept on advancing clear on into southern Gaul, which was now Frankish territory. The Franks, led by Charles Martel, dealt them a famous defeat at the Battle of Tours and effectively halted Muslim expansion into Europe.

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Muhammad had effectively united the tribes of Arabia and most had converted to Islam. Abu Bakr, the first Caliph, Caliph[[note]] although it would be pertinent to point out the Sunni-Shiite split, which originates at this time over the issue of the successor caliph. Essentially, Sunnis believed the ''ummah'', the religious community, had a right to choose the caliph. Shiites believed the caliph was divinely anointed to be Ali, Muhammad's cousin and son in law. Thus, Shiites reject the authority of the first three caliphs and consider Ali to be the first "proper" caliph (Ali had bided his time and allowed the other three to be elected, since he didn't want to start a war). Sunnis believe Ali to be the fourth caliph in the succession. This seemingly minor point has been the cause of countless death and suffering in the Islamic world.[[/note]], conquered Roman Syria and further gains were made by him and his successors in Persia, Mesopotamia, and North Africa. The Umayyad Caliphate came to power in 661 and made further conquests, using the Berbers on North Africa to conquer the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania and establish UsefulNotes/MoorishSpain. Most Christians fled north, but the Muslim armies just kept on advancing clear on into southern Gaul, which was now Frankish territory. The Franks, led by Charles Martel, dealt them a famous defeat at the Battle of Tours and effectively halted Muslim expansion into Europe.
30th Jan '18 9:59:49 PM DoktorSoviet
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None of these kingdoms were given much time to breathe. The Eastern Roman Empire wanted that territory back, so numerous wars were waged over former Roman holdings in Italy and elsewhere with varying success. By the end of the reign of Justinian, Italy, North Africa, and parts of Spain were back in Roman hands. However, this resurgence hit a major roadblock with the rise of [[UsefulNotes/Islam Islam]]. In the year 610, Muhammad reportedly received a vision of the angel Gabriel, who gradually revealed to him what would become the Quran. Muhammad preached this new religion in his hometown of Mecca, but found himself driven away by the pagan rulers, who saw him as subversive. He and his followers fled north to the city of Medina, in an event known as the Hijra. There, he helped create the Constitution of Medina, and agreement between the various tribes of the city. The Constitution of Medina was the first step to unifying the Arabs under a single banner [[note]] note that I said ''Arabs,'' not ''Muslims,'' because many of the signatories of the Constitution were Jewish.[[/note]] After some disputes involving the seizure of Muslim property and Muslim raids on Meccan caravans, the city of Mecca raised an army and marched north. They were repulsed twice by Muhammad and his allies in Medina, before Muhammad led his armies to victory and conquered Mecca. From then on, he led his armies across the peninsula, gathering the Arab tribes under his banner.

to:

None of these kingdoms were given much time to breathe. The Eastern Roman Empire wanted that territory back, so numerous wars were waged over former Roman holdings in Italy and elsewhere with varying success. By the end of the reign of Justinian, Italy, North Africa, and parts of Spain were back in Roman hands. However, this resurgence hit a major roadblock with the rise of [[UsefulNotes/Islam Islam]].{{Islam}}. In the year 610, Muhammad reportedly received a vision of the angel Gabriel, who gradually revealed to him what would become the Quran. Muhammad preached this new religion in his hometown of Mecca, but found himself driven away by the pagan rulers, who saw him as subversive. He and his followers fled north to the city of Medina, in an event known as the Hijra. There, he helped create the Constitution of Medina, and agreement between the various tribes of the city. The Constitution of Medina was the first step to unifying the Arabs under a single banner [[note]] note that I said ''Arabs,'' not ''Muslims,'' because many of the signatories of the Constitution were Jewish.[[/note]] After some disputes involving the seizure of Muslim property and Muslim raids on Meccan caravans, the city of Mecca raised an army and marched north. They were repulsed twice by Muhammad and his allies in Medina, before Muhammad led his armies to victory and conquered Mecca. From then on, he led his armies across the peninsula, gathering the Arab tribes under his banner.
30th Jan '18 9:59:22 PM DoktorSoviet
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[[folder:The Truth]]

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[[folder:The Truth]][[folder:In History]]



The crisis and the split were two massive reasons for the decline of the Western Roman Empire: the actions of Odaenathus, the King of the province of Palmyra -nowadays Syria- helped to mantain the unity in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire, giving much needed stability for the Emperors to restore order in the region and thus reducing the eventual impact of the conflict with the Palmyrian Empire; this was not the case in the West, where the war with the Gallic Empire and the incursion of Germanic marauding tribes laid waste to many of the cities and infraestructure, this coupled with the nearity of the Eastern provinces to the wealth of the Silk Route and greater power thanks to Odeanathus's actions gave way to a shift of power from the city of Rome to the East, which was cemented by Constantine's decision to move the capital to Byzantium. [[note]]then renamed Constantinople[[/note]] While the East grew rich from trade and prosperity [[note]]although it faced many internal issues and a threat to its cultural identity, like the West[[/note]], the West remained poor.

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The crisis and the split were two massive reasons for the decline of the Western Roman Empire: the actions of Odaenathus, the King of the province of Palmyra -nowadays Syria- helped to mantain the unity in the Eastern half of the Roman Empire, giving much needed stability for the Emperors to restore order in the region and thus reducing the eventual impact of the conflict with the Palmyrian Empire; this was not the case in the West, where the war with the Gallic Empire and the incursion of Germanic marauding tribes laid waste to many of the cities and infraestructure, infrastructure, this coupled with the nearity of the Eastern provinces to the wealth of the Silk Route and greater power thanks to Odeanathus's actions gave way to a shift of power from the city of Rome to the East, which was cemented by Constantine's decision to move the capital to Byzantium. [[note]]then renamed Constantinople[[/note]] While the East grew rich from trade and prosperity [[note]]although it faced many internal issues and a threat to its cultural identity, like the West[[/note]], the West remained poor.



The other problem following the Crisis was that Roman military power was forced to change. The legions as they had been know during the ''Pax Romana'' were reorganized from the already obsolete duality of legions and auxiliaries into two separate forces: the Limitanei, or frontier forces, were tasked with guarding the borderland of the Empire and to stave off any invasion for as long as they could; next were the Comitatenses, the mobile army, these would be the hammer to the anvil that were the defending Limitanei, pushing back and destroying any force that attacked the Empire, as well as moving to invade in case war demanded it. Alongside this division of functions came the specialization of tropes, gone were the days were the legions would consist only of heavy infantry and now the legions required all types of units to function: heavy and light cavalry, archers, infantry, spearmen or engineers no longer depended on your place of birth and cavalry itself begaan to take a place of power previously held only by thr legionnaries. Added to this was the employment of the Foederati, who were often cheaper. [[note]]If a soldier from Italy dies, that is one less man to collect taxes from and one less person outputting goods. If some barbaric German dies, it has no real financial impact on the Emperor.[[/note]]

to:

The other problem following the Crisis was that Roman military power was forced to change. The legions as they had been know during the ''Pax Romana'' were reorganized from the already obsolete duality of legions and auxiliaries into two separate forces: the Limitanei, or frontier forces, were tasked with guarding the borderland of the Empire and to stave off any invasion for as long as they could; next were the Comitatenses, the mobile army, these would be the hammer to the anvil that were the defending Limitanei, pushing back and destroying any force that attacked the Empire, as well as moving to invade in case war demanded it. Alongside this division of functions came the specialization of tropes, gone were the days were the legions would consist only of heavy infantry and now the legions required all types of units to function: heavy and light cavalry, archers, infantry, spearmen or engineers no longer depended on your place of birth and cavalry itself begaan to take a place of power previously held only by thr the legionnaries. Added to this was the employment of the Foederati, who were often cheaper. [[note]]If a soldier from Italy dies, that is one less man to collect taxes from and one less person outputting goods. If some barbaric German dies, it has no real financial impact on the Emperor.[[/note]]



None of these kingdoms were given much time to breathe. The Eastern Roman Empire wanted that territory back, so numerous wars were waged over former Roman holdings in Italy and elsewhere with varying success. By the end of the reign of the (in)famous Justinian, Italy, North Africa, and parts of Spain were back in Roman hands. However, this resurgence hit a major roadblock with the rise of Islam. Muhammad had effectively united the tribes of Arabia and most had converted to Islam. Abu Bakr, the first Caliph, conquered Roman Syria and further gains were made by him and his successors in Persia, Mesopotamia, and North Africa. The Umayyad Caliphate came to power in 661 and made further conquests, using the Berbers on North Africa to conquer the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania and establish UsefulNotes/MoorishSpain. Most Christians fled north, but the Muslim armies just kept on advancing clear on into southern Gaul, which was now Frankish territory. The Franks, led by Charles Martel, dealt them a famous defeat at the Battle of Tours and effectively halted Muslim expansion into Europe.

Around this time, we start to see the often exaggerated and mythical "dark ages" in which supposedly scientific advancement, social advancement, and learning came to a crushing halt. So what happened? Did people get stupider? Of course not. With the breakdown of the centralized Roman government in the West, trade and communication began grinding to a halt. The complex, urban metropolises once supported by Greco-Roman civilization would fall to pieces under the management of German administrators who had no concept of cities. Aqueducts fell into disrepair and were often deconstructed to be used as building materials, and famous Roman relics like the Colosseum became the ruins they are today.

to:

None of these kingdoms were given much time to breathe. The Eastern Roman Empire wanted that territory back, so numerous wars were waged over former Roman holdings in Italy and elsewhere with varying success. By the end of the reign of the (in)famous Justinian, Italy, North Africa, and parts of Spain were back in Roman hands. However, this resurgence hit a major roadblock with the rise of Islam. [[UsefulNotes/Islam Islam]]. In the year 610, Muhammad reportedly received a vision of the angel Gabriel, who gradually revealed to him what would become the Quran. Muhammad preached this new religion in his hometown of Mecca, but found himself driven away by the pagan rulers, who saw him as subversive. He and his followers fled north to the city of Medina, in an event known as the Hijra. There, he helped create the Constitution of Medina, and agreement between the various tribes of the city. The Constitution of Medina was the first step to unifying the Arabs under a single banner [[note]] note that I said ''Arabs,'' not ''Muslims,'' because many of the signatories of the Constitution were Jewish.[[/note]] After some disputes involving the seizure of Muslim property and Muslim raids on Meccan caravans, the city of Mecca raised an army and marched north. They were repulsed twice by Muhammad and his allies in Medina, before Muhammad led his armies to victory and conquered Mecca. From then on, he led his armies across the peninsula, gathering the Arab tribes under his banner.

Muhammad had effectively united the tribes of Arabia and most had converted to Islam. Abu Bakr, the first Caliph, conquered Roman Syria and further gains were made by him and his successors in Persia, Mesopotamia, and North Africa. The Umayyad Caliphate came to power in 661 and made further conquests, using the Berbers on North Africa to conquer the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania and establish UsefulNotes/MoorishSpain. Most Christians fled north, but the Muslim armies just kept on advancing clear on into southern Gaul, which was now Frankish territory. The Franks, led by Charles Martel, dealt them a famous defeat at the Battle of Tours and effectively halted Muslim expansion into Europe.

Around this time, we start to see the often exaggerated and mythical "dark ages" in which supposedly scientific advancement, social advancement, and learning came to a crushing halt. So what happened? Did people get stupider? Of course not. With the breakdown of the centralized Roman government in the West, trade and communication began grinding to a halt. The complex, urban metropolises once supported by Greco-Roman civilization would fall to pieces under the management of German administrators who had no concept of cities. Aqueducts fell into disrepair and were often deconstructed to be used as building materials, and famous Roman relics like the Colosseum became the ruins they are today.



Things were also going strong in the new Muslim world. By the time of Charlemagne's rule, the Umayyads had been overthrown, and the Abassids had taken over. There are too many scholarly works from the Muslim world in this time to even count, and numerous sources were translated and many books and theses were written. Schools were being established, as were hospitals. Being right along the largest trade route (the Silk Road) at the time helped the Islamic world progress. After all, to have writers, philosophers, and scientists, you need money to pay them.

to:

Things were also going strong in the new Muslim world. By the time of Charlemagne's rule, the Umayyads had been overthrown, and the Abassids Abbasids had taken over.over. The Abbasids had fought a revolution, starting in Northeastern Persia and eventually killing most of the Umayyad royal family. The remaining Umayyads escaped to Spain, where they set up an independent emirate. Despite the conflict, the Abbasids would oversee a golden age in Islam. There are too many scholarly works from the Muslim world in this time to even count, and numerous sources were translated and many books and theses were written. Schools were being established, as were hospitals. Being right along the largest trade route (the Silk Road) at the time helped the Islamic world progress. After all, to have writers, philosophers, and scientists, you need money to pay them.



Back in Europe, things weren't going so well. Following Charlemagne's death, his Empire was divided in three. There was the Kingdom of France, the Kingdom of Germany separated by the Kingdom of Lotharingia. The first two would survive well into the Main/TheHighMiddleAges, while most of Lotharingia would fall to Germany, which eventually took the Roman name, becoming the UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire, which would fall apart into quarreling states.

to:

Back in Europe, things weren't going so well. Following Charlemagne's death, his Empire was divided in three. There was the Kingdom of France, France and the Kingdom of Germany Germany, separated by the Kingdom of Lotharingia. The first two would survive well into the Main/TheHighMiddleAges, while most of Lotharingia would fall to Germany, which eventually took the Roman name, becoming the UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire, which would fall apart into quarreling states.



And as many historians are keen to point out, the Vikings did more than just [[Main/RapePillageAndBurn pillage and rape]] their way across Europe. They had a genuine interest in settling in foreign lands, indicating perhaps a food shortage or a power struggle back in Scandinavia. Whatever the case, the Vikings would settle throughout Europe. First they came to the British Isles, where they successfully set up several independent fiefdoms, the most famous being the Danelaw. They would rule these lands for a while before being forced out by the dominant Kingdom of Wessex. They also invaded Ireland and came to settle in what is now France[[note]]after an attempt to take Paris[[/note]], in the province of Normandy. This province -whose name obviously derives from the term "Norseman" for its Scandinavian settlers- would go on to be highly influential. Despite being subjects of the Carolingian crown, the Normans would continue to conquer and settle across Europe.



By 1066, The Norman Conquests marked the end of the Low Middle Ages. It was a transitory period for Europe, where kingdoms rose and fell in mere lifetimes and the social order shifted into a rigid class system. Although there was a serious lull in technological advancement, and indeed the medieval world was just a bit smaller than the Classical one, the Low Middle Ages were not as bad as they are often said to be. Our lack of first hand sources makes the time period seem dark and mysterious, but we know that only holds true for Western Europe (if at all), since the Muslim world was flourishing in a new age of prosperity.

to:

By 1066, The Norman Conquests marked the end of the Low Middle Ages. Although the conflict was minor at the time, it would have major ramifications in the future, as the English gradually came to be a dominant power in world affairs many centuries later. The gist of the conflict is that Alfred, the King of England, had to fight two pretenders to his thrown: the Norwegian Harald Hadrada (whose claim largely came from the aforementioned Danelaw) and the Norman William, now known as ''the Conqueror'' after he won the war at the Battle of Hastings.

It was a transitory period for Europe, where kingdoms rose and fell in mere lifetimes and the social order shifted into a rigid class system. Although there was a serious lull in technological advancement, and indeed the medieval world was just a bit smaller than the Classical one, the Low Middle Ages were not as bad as they are often said to be. Our lack of first hand sources makes the time period seem dark and mysterious, but we know that only holds true for Western Europe (if at all), since the Muslim world was flourishing in a new age of prosperity.
7th Jan '18 12:54:18 PM nombretomado
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* The Dark Age epoch of ''VideoGame/EmpireEarth'' encompasses both the later days of Rome and the beginnings of the MiddleAges (the available heroes for that period are JuliusCaesar and {{Charlemagne}}).

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* The Dark Age epoch of ''VideoGame/EmpireEarth'' encompasses both the later days of Rome and the beginnings of the MiddleAges (the available heroes for that period are JuliusCaesar UsefulNotes/JuliusCaesar and {{Charlemagne}}).UsefulNotes/{{Charlemagne}}).
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