History Main / BasedOnAGreatBigLie

4th May '16 3:16:47 PM TheRedRedKroovy
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* As a result of ExecutiveMeddling, ''Film/AlienAbductionIncidentInLakeCounty'' was billed as being based on actual events, against the wishes of the director.

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* As a result of ExecutiveMeddling, ''Film/AlienAbductionIncidentInLakeCounty'' was billed as being based on actual events, against the wishes of the director. Ironically, it's a remake of a little-seen 1989 horror film, ''UFO Abduction'', that's subject to an {{urban legend|s}} that inverts this trope. [[http://web.archive.org/web/20130607045143/http://www.badmovieplanet.com/3btheater/a/alienabductionII.html A phenomenal case of bad luck]][[note]]The master copy of the film, along with most of the VHS copies and promotional material, were destroyed in a fire at the distribution warehouse where they were held, leaving only a few surviving VHS tapes that had been sent out to a handful of small video stores across the US.[[/note]] saw it receive only a ''very'' limited DirectToVideo release, such that it flew under the radar of even the most dedicated horror fans until, in the early '90s, it resurfaced in ufologist circles (with the beginning and end credits removed) as an actual account of an AlienAbduction that came to be called "the [=McPherson=] Tape". When the film's creator Dean Alioto attempted to clear things up after he was contacted by programs like ''Series/UnsolvedMysteries'' and ''Encounters'', it was assumed that [[FictionAsCoverUp he was part of the cover-up]], with his remake of the film (the aforementioned ''Incident in Lake County'') merely being another attempt to fool the gullible masses.
24th Apr '16 12:04:06 AM MasoTey
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* In an example that overlaps with CutAndPasteTranslation, Anne Carson's ''Literature/AutobiographyOfRed'' includes a rewrite of Stesichoros' Geryoneis that is almost entirely Carson's original work, but is prefaced by an essay that seems designed to mislead the reader into thinking it's simply a translation. Since it's full of pretty obvious anachronisms -- hot plates, weekends, glass-bottomed boats -- a certain amount of playfulness must be in effect.

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* In an example that overlaps with CutAndPasteTranslation, Anne Carson's ''Literature/AutobiographyOfRed'' includes a rewrite of Stesichoros' Geryoneis ''Geryoneis'' that is almost entirely Carson's original work, but is prefaced by an essay that seems designed to mislead the reader into thinking it's simply a translation. Since it's full of pretty obvious anachronisms -- hot plates, weekends, glass-bottomed boats -- a certain amount of playfulness must be in effect.
24th Apr '16 12:03:27 AM MasoTey
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Added DiffLines:

* In an example that overlaps with CutAndPasteTranslation, Anne Carson's ''Literature/AutobiographyOfRed'' includes a rewrite of Stesichoros' Geryoneis that is almost entirely Carson's original work, but is prefaced by an essay that seems designed to mislead the reader into thinking it's simply a translation. Since it's full of pretty obvious anachronisms -- hot plates, weekends, glass-bottomed boats -- a certain amount of playfulness must be in effect.
7th Apr '16 5:24:25 AM GlitteringFlowers
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** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurel_Rose_Willson Laurel Rose Willson's]] ''[[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/07/02/the-prodigal-witch-ix-lauren-stratford/ Satan's]] [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/07/20/the-prodigal-witch-ix-lauren-stratford-part-ii/ Underground]]'', published under the name Lauren Stratford, spoke of the author being brought up as a "[[BabyFactory baby breeder]]" by a Satanic cult, giving birth to babies to be used in sacrifices or {{snuff film}}s. The evangelical magazine ''Cornerstone'' [[http://www.holysmoke.org/sdhok/side.htm exposed it as a hoax]] when it pointed out that the dates and events she gave didn't line up with hospital and school records. Willson later reappeared [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/07/20/the-prodigal-witch-ix-lauren-stratford-part-iii/ as "Laura Grabowski"]], claiming to be a survivor of Auschwitz-Birkenau and a victim of [[MadDoctor Dr. Josef Mengele]]; this, too, was exposed as a fraud when a Jewish group investigated her claims.
** [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/03/17/the-prodigal-witch-part-ii-mike-warnke/ Mike Warnke's]] ''The Satan Seller'' was an account of serving as a "Satanic high priest" before coming to Christianity. ''Cornerstone'' debunked this one [[http://www.holysmoke.org/sdhok/warnke.htm in much the same way]].

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** [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurel_Rose_Willson Laurel Rose Willson's]] ''[[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/07/02/the-prodigal-witch-ix-lauren-stratford/ Satan's]] [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/07/20/the-prodigal-witch-ix-lauren-stratford-part-ii/ Underground]]'', published under the name Lauren Stratford, spoke of the author being brought up as a "[[BabyFactory baby breeder]]" by a Satanic cult, giving birth to babies to be used in sacrifices or {{snuff film}}s. The evangelical magazine ''Cornerstone'' [[http://www.holysmoke.[[https://web.archive.org/web/20140813230052/http://holysmoke.org/sdhok/side.htm exposed it as a hoax]] when not only it pointed out that the dates and events she gave didn't line up with hospital and school records.records, but it also mentioned several incidents of Willson's past in which she falsely accused her family and specially her mother of abusing her. Willson later reappeared [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/07/20/the-prodigal-witch-ix-lauren-stratford-part-iii/ as "Laura Grabowski"]], claiming to be a survivor of Auschwitz-Birkenau and a victim of [[MadDoctor Dr. Josef Mengele]]; this, too, was exposed as a fraud when a Jewish group investigated her claims.
** [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/03/17/the-prodigal-witch-part-ii-mike-warnke/ Mike Warnke's]] ''The Satan Seller'' was an account of serving as a "Satanic high priest" before coming to Christianity. ''Cornerstone'' debunked this one [[http://www.[[https://web.archive.org/web/20150227004334/http://www.holysmoke.org/sdhok/warnke.htm in much the same way]].



** Also infamous was ''Jay's Journal'', about a teenage boy lured into Satanism who ultimately kills himself. It was such a lie that Sparks got ''sued by the real Jay's family''. Jay was actually a boy named [[http://web.archive.org/web/20040723080129/http://www.slweekly.com/editorial/2004/feat_2004-06-03.cfm Alden Barrett]], who really did commit suicide in 1971. His mother, believing that ''Go Ask Alice'' was real, asked Sparks to publish an edition of his diary. But only a fragment of the book comes from Alden's diary. His grave has been desecrated repeatedly, his family has split apart, and his brother left the Mormons and wrote a book, ''A Place In The Sun'', about how horrible and false ''Jay's Journal'' was. The family also sponsored a rock opera, ''[[http://www.ericdsnider.com/theater/a-place-in-the-sun/ A Place In The Sun]]'', based on their testimony.

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** Also infamous was ''Jay's Journal'', about a teenage boy lured into Satanism who ultimately kills himself. It was such a lie that Sparks got ''sued by the real Jay's family''. Jay was actually a boy named [[http://web.archive.org/web/20040723080129/http://www.slweekly.com/editorial/2004/feat_2004-06-03.cfm Alden Barrett]], who really did commit suicide in 1971. His mother, believing that ''Go Ask Alice'' was real, asked Sparks to publish an edition of his diary. But only a fragment of the book comes from Alden's diary. His grave has been desecrated repeatedly, his family has split apart, and his brother left the Mormons and wrote a book, ''A Place In The Sun'', about how horrible and false ''Jay's Journal'' was. The family also sponsored a rock opera, ''[[http://www.ericdsnider.com/theater/a-place-in-the-sun/ also named A Place In The Sun]]'', based on their testimony.



* American-Jordanian author Norma Khouri wrote ''Forbidden Love'', a memoir detailing her life in Jordan and her friendship with a Muslim woman named Dalia, who was murdered by her family in an honour killing for meeting a Christian man in secret. Even before publication, Khouri was confronted by Jordanian feminist and pro-women's rights activist Amal al-Sabbagh, who noted that Khouri had completely misrepresented [[ArtisticLicenseLaw Jordan's legal system]] and also gotten [[ArtisticLicenseGeography certain locations wrong.]] Khouri dismissed this criticism (or more accurately, [[http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/07/23/1090464851887.html threw a hissy-fit]]), claiming that al-Sabbagh was just trying to protect Jordan's image. Then an Australian literary critic did some digging after publication; in addition to the ArtisticLicense, she discovered that Khouri hadn't even been in Jordan at all during the book's timeframe and that [[http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/07/26/1090693899061.html Khouri and her American husband ran away from America]] after their involvement in several frauds. At this, the publisher hastily recalled the book. Khouri admitted to taking some liberties with the original story but still insists that the story is true, despite all evidence to the contrary.

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* American-Jordanian author Norma Khouri wrote ''Forbidden Love'', a memoir detailing her life in Jordan and her friendship with a Muslim woman named Dalia, who was murdered by her family in an honour killing for meeting a Christian man in secret. Even before publication, Khouri was confronted by Jordanian feminist and pro-women's rights activist Amal al-Sabbagh, who noted that Khouri had completely misrepresented [[ArtisticLicenseLaw Jordan's legal system]] and also gotten [[ArtisticLicenseGeography certain many important locations wrong.]] Khouri dismissed this criticism (or more accurately, [[http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/07/23/1090464851887.html threw a hissy-fit]]), claiming that al-Sabbagh was just trying to protect Jordan's image. Then an Australian literary critic did some digging after publication; in addition to the ArtisticLicense, she discovered that Khouri hadn't even been in Jordan at all during the book's timeframe and '''and''' that [[http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/07/26/1090693899061.html Khouri and her American husband ran away from America]] after their involvement in several frauds. At this, the publisher hastily recalled the book. Khouri admitted to taking some liberties with the original story but still insists that the story is true, despite all evidence to the contrary.



** The 1995 Holocaust memoir ''Fragments'' was supposedly written by Jewish musician and luthier [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binjamin_Wilkomirski Binjamin Wilkomirski]], depicting the author's "childhood time" in Auschwitz-Birkenau through a rather unusual narrative, allegedly akin to a young boy's view. In 1997, however, Swiss journalist Daniel Ganzifried (son of a Holocaust survivor) argued that Wilkomirski was actually Bruno Grosjean-Dossekker, a Swiss gentile born from a singe mother and who had been adopted by a rich local family as a little boy. Wilkomirski claimed that he was a Jewish child adopted by a gentile family who re-named him Bruno, giving him the name of their dead son; however, further investigation by historian Stefan Maechler confirmed Ganzifried's claims. One of the strongest pieces of evidence against the author was how he "recognized" a fellow Auschwitz survivor, the aforementioned "Laura Grabowski".

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** The 1995 Holocaust memoir ''Fragments'' was supposedly written by Jewish Latvian-Jewish musician and luthier [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binjamin_Wilkomirski Binjamin Wilkomirski]], depicting the author's "childhood time" in Auschwitz-Birkenau through a rather unusual narrative, allegedly akin to a young boy's child's view. In 1997, however, the Swiss journalist Daniel Ganzifried (son of a Holocaust survivor) argued that Wilkomirski was actually Bruno Grosjean-Dossekker, a Swiss gentile born from a singe single mother and who had been adopted by a rich local family as a little boy. Wilkomirski claimed that he was a Jewish Latvian-Jewish child adopted by a gentile family who and re-named him Bruno, giving him the name of their Bruno after said family's dead son; however, further investigation by historian Stefan Maechler confirmed Ganzifried's claims. One of the strongest pieces of evidence against the author was how he "recognized" a fellow Auschwitz survivor, the aforementioned "Laura Grabowski".
1st Apr '16 3:50:38 PM GoldenSeals
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* The book ''Michelle Remembers'' is perhaps the most (in)famous alleged written account of Satanic ritual abuse. It has now been widely discredited, mostly by many healthy doses of FridgeLogic -- for example, a supposedly nonreligious 5-year-old having the presence of mind to rebuke Satanists with a cross, an 81-day ritual that summons the Devil himself during which none of the Satanists apparently need to eat, use the bathroom, or show up at work, and a fatal car wreck that strangely didn't turn up in a newspaper that reported on wrecks of even less serious nature at the time. One of the worst parts is that Michelle (who later divorced her husband to marry the psychologist she was relating all of this to) blames her involvement in the abuse on her mother, who died of cancer when Michelle was 14. [[http://www.witchvox.com/va/dt_va.html?a=cabc&c=whs&id=4349 This]] article gives a detailed analysis of the book.

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* ** The book ''Michelle Remembers'' is perhaps the most (in)famous alleged written account of Satanic ritual abuse. It has now been widely discredited, mostly by many healthy doses of FridgeLogic -- for example, a supposedly nonreligious 5-year-old having the presence of mind to rebuke Satanists with a cross, an 81-day ritual that summons the Devil himself during which none of the Satanists apparently need to eat, use the bathroom, or show up at work, and a fatal car wreck that strangely didn't turn up in a newspaper that reported on wrecks of even less serious nature at the time. One of the worst parts is that Michelle (who later divorced her husband to marry the psychologist she was relating all of this to) blames her involvement in the abuse on her mother, who died of cancer when Michelle was 14. [[http://www.witchvox.com/va/dt_va.html?a=cabc&c=whs&id=4349 This]] article gives a detailed analysis of the book.
1st Apr '16 3:49:54 PM GoldenSeals
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* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_Godby_Johnson Anthony Godby Johnson's]] ''[[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2006/08/03/anthony-godby-johnson-the-invisible-boy-2/ A Rock and a Hard Place]]'' is the memoir of a young boy whose AbusiveParents molested him and sold him to their friends for sexual purposes, until he contracted AIDS. Eventually, he ran away and was adopted by a social worker named Vicki Johnson. However, none of it actually happened; authorities and reporters (including Keith Olbermann, who was one of the "kid"'s biggest supporters at first) became suspicious when they realized that Vicki Johnson was the only person who had ever seen the boy, and that Johnson had pretended to be him while talking to them on the phone. The family of a New Jersey traffic engineer realized that the supposed author photo was one of the guy as a little boy, and the person who took said photo was his former school teacher Joanna Victoria Fraginals... alias Vicki Johnson. Oprah fell for this one, again.
** Armistead Maupin, one of the many authors taken in by the hoax, wrote ''The Night Listener'' about the experience. However, it's a RomanAClef, and the first-person narrator, a Maupin [[AuthorAvatar stand-in]], says several times that he's been known to embellish the truth. It's a very good book about this trope, and it also inspired a movie where the late Creator/RobinWilliams played the main character. (''A Rock and a Hard Place," on the other hand, isn't very well-written, particularly once the reader realizes that its author is not an 11 year old.)

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* [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthony_Godby_Johnson Anthony Godby Johnson's]] ''[[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2006/08/03/anthony-godby-johnson-the-invisible-boy-2/ A Rock and a Hard Place]]'' is the memoir of a young boy whose AbusiveParents molested him and sold him to their friends for sexual purposes, until he contracted AIDS. Eventually, he ran away and was adopted by a social worker named Vicki Johnson. However, none of it actually happened; authorities and reporters (including Keith Olbermann, who was one of the "kid"'s biggest supporters at first) became suspicious when they realized that Vicki Johnson was the only person who had ever seen the boy, and that Johnson had pretended to be him while talking to them on the phone. The family of a New Jersey traffic engineer realized that the supposed author photo was one of the guy as a little boy, and the person who took said photo was his former school teacher Joanna Victoria Fraginals... alias Vicki Johnson. Oprah fell for this one, again.
too.
** Armistead Maupin, one of the many authors taken in by the hoax, wrote ''The Night Listener'' about the experience. However, it's a RomanAClef, and the first-person narrator, a Maupin [[AuthorAvatar stand-in]], says several times that he's been known to embellish the truth. It's a very good book about this trope, and it also inspired a movie where the late Creator/RobinWilliams played the main character. (''A Rock and a Hard Place," Place'', on the other hand, isn't very well-written, particularly once the reader realizes that its author is not an 11 year old.)
1st Apr '16 3:46:20 PM GoldenSeals
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* ''Film/TheLastSamurai'' is based on an odd amalgamation of the historical Satsuma rebellion and the part played in the earlier Boshin war by French officer Jules Brunet. It also borrows heavily from other fictional works, such as ''Film/DancesWithWolves'' and James Clavell's ''[[Literature/AsianSaga Shogun]]''. The "guns vs. swords" plot is particularly ironic, considering that even the real "last samurai" of the Satsuma rebellion openly embraced modern weaponry for the tactical advantages it offered.[[note]]For a period of time prior to the unification of Japan, samurai (and the peasant soldiers serving under their command)[[/note]] used guns more prolifically than any other group on Earth. Any reluctance to use guns was simply to reserve them for serious crises.[[/note]] The decline of the samurai class in real life came about in a much slower and less dramatic fashion and there were certainly no embittered American Civil War heroes involved.

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* ''Film/TheLastSamurai'' is based on an odd amalgamation of the historical Satsuma rebellion and the part played in the earlier Boshin war by French officer Jules Brunet. It also borrows heavily from other fictional works, such as ''Film/DancesWithWolves'' and James Clavell's ''[[Literature/AsianSaga Shogun]]''. The "guns vs. swords" plot is particularly ironic, considering that even the real "last samurai" of the Satsuma rebellion openly embraced modern weaponry for the tactical advantages it offered.[[note]]For a period of time prior to the unification of Japan, samurai (and the peasant soldiers serving under their command)[[/note]] command) used guns more prolifically than any other group on Earth. Any reluctance to use guns was simply to reserve them for serious crises.[[/note]] The decline of the samurai class in real life came about in a much slower and less dramatic fashion and there were certainly no embittered American Civil War heroes involved.
1st Apr '16 3:44:06 PM GoldenSeals
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* Played with regarding ''Comicbook/FromHell'', which is based on one of the myriad theories behind the murders of UsefulNotes/JackTheRipper (specifically, a variation on the theory that the murders were committed by a high-ranking member of Victorian society on the orders of Queen Victoria to prevent the victims from revealing the existence of an illegitimate heir to the throne). Creator/AlanMoore has publicly acknowledged that he doesn't believe a single word of this particular theory, but it worked for the story he wanted to tell.

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* Played with regarding ''Comicbook/FromHell'', which is based on one of the myriad theories behind the murders of UsefulNotes/JackTheRipper (specifically, -- specifically, a variation on the theory that the murders were committed by a high-ranking member of Victorian society on the orders of Queen Victoria herself to prevent the victims from revealing the existence of an illegitimate heir to the throne).throne. Creator/AlanMoore has publicly acknowledged that he doesn't believe a single word of this particular theory, but it worked for the story he wanted to tell.



* The story of ''Disney/{{Pocahontas}}'' used by Disney and others is pretty much entirely bunk despite it being billed in its original form (the writings of John Smith) as true. Researchers reviewing Smith's other works quickly realized he had a penchant for making up absolutely insane stories about himself and passing them off as fact (if taken as true, Smith [[TheAce was a demi-god of manliness and combat skill who found success, riches and sex wherever he went]]). Conveniently, the story wasn't published until after Pocahontas had died, leaving Smith's claims and exaggerations uncontested.
** While Disney never claimed it was actually a true story, their version wasn't even true if you take Smith's story at face value. Among other things, Disney's Pocahontas is pretty clearly around 18 or so while Smith claims she was about 12, and The Other Wiki's engraving of the historical Pocahontas/Rebecca Rolfe (who was at the time of the engraving about 21) has a lot more in common with voodoo god Baron Saturday than with the Disney hottie.
** According to the animation team, they're on this page on purpose, deliberately throwing out the research they did do in order to make a ''legend'' rather than just a story.

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* The story of ''Disney/{{Pocahontas}}'' used by Disney is a bit of a strange case. This and others is pretty much entirely bunk despite it being billed in its original form (the most other works about Pocahontas are based on the writings of John Smith) as Smith, which are commonly believed to be true. Researchers reviewing However, research into Smith's other works quickly realized he reveals this to be bunk, because Smith had a penchant for making up absolutely insane stories about habit of portraying himself and passing them off as fact (if taken as true, Smith an entirely unrealistic [[TheAce was a demi-god of manliness and combat skill who found success, riches and sex wherever he went]]). Conveniently, the story wasn't published until after went]]. It was also problematic in that Smith claimed Pocahontas had died, leaving Smith's claims and exaggerations uncontested.
** While
was only about 12 years old when they met. Disney never claimed it was actually eventually decided to go this route on purpose, throwing out their research and making the film into a "legend" rather than a true story, their version wasn't even true if you take Smith's story at face value. Among other things, Disney's Pocahontas is pretty clearly around 18 or so while Smith claims she was about 12, and The Other Wiki's story. It still doesn't change the fact that TheOtherWiki's engraving of the historical Pocahontas/Rebecca Rolfe (who was at the time of the engraving about 21) has a lot more in common with voodoo god Baron Saturday than with the Disney hottie.
** According to the animation team, they're on this page on purpose, deliberately throwing out the research they did do in order to make a ''legend'' rather than just a story.
hottie.



** 1927 documentary ''Film/{{Chang}}'' takes a similar approach, with the Lao of northern Thailand acting out a story crafted by the filmmakers. Incidents like the tiger attack and the herd of elephants trampling the village were staged for the cameras (the elephants were tamed and had to be coaxed into trampling the natives' huts).
* The original ''Film/TheTexasChainSawMassacre1974'' was supposedly based on a true story, but no such "massacre" ever took place. Leatherface is allegedly loosely based on the killer[[note]]According to the FBI a person needs to kill three people with a "cooldown" period in between the murders to qualify as a serial killer; Gein killed only two that they could prove in court.[[/note]] Ed Gein. The director mentioned in the DVD commentary that if you check the dates during which the fictional events supposedly occur, they correspond with the dates that they were filming the movie. So, FromACertainPointOfView the events really did happen. In a way [[note]](Actually, the events depicted in the movie happened a short time ''after'' filming took place)[[/note]].
* ''Film/{{Fargo}}'' is supposedly based on a true story. It isn't. Creator/TheCoenBrothers (eventually) tried to weasel their way out of this by saying that everything in the movie was meant to be interpreted as fiction, ''including the blurb at the beginning that claimed it was based on a true story''. Another lie they fed the media was that there was a news report in 1987 about a businessman who planned on having his wife fake-kidnapped for ransom money, but the police caught him before he could make his plan come to fruition, and the Coens asked themselves "what if he ''had'' succeeded?" On the special features on the 'Fargo' DVD, the Coens claim they were afraid nobody would have believed the crazy plot they came up with any other way.

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** The 1927 documentary ''Film/{{Chang}}'' takes a similar approach, with the Lao of northern Thailand acting out a story crafted by the filmmakers. Incidents like the tiger attack and the herd of elephants trampling the village were staged for the cameras (the -- the elephants were tamed and had to be coaxed into trampling the natives' huts).
huts.
* The original ''Film/TheTexasChainSawMassacre1974'' 1974 ''[[Film/TheTexasChainSawMassacre1974 Texas Chainsaw Massacre]]'' was supposedly based on a true story, but no such "massacre" ever took place. Leatherface is allegedly loosely based on the killer[[note]]According killer Ed Gein.[[note]]He can't technically be called a "serial killer" because according to the FBI FBI, that requires a person needs to kill at least three people with (with a "cooldown" period in between the murders); Gein only had two murders to qualify as a serial killer; Gein killed only two that they could prove in court.[[/note]] Ed Gein. The director mentioned in the DVD commentary that if you check the dates during on which the fictional events supposedly occur, they correspond somewhat with the dates that they were filming the movie. So, FromACertainPointOfView the events really did happen. In a way [[note]](Actually, the events depicted in the movie happened a short time ''after'' filming took place)[[/note]].
movie.
* ''Film/{{Fargo}}'' is supposedly based on a true story. It isn't. Creator/TheCoenBrothers (eventually) tried to weasel their way out of this by saying that everything in the movie was meant to be interpreted as fiction, ''including the blurb at the beginning that claimed it was based on a true story''. Another lie they fed the media was that there was a news report in 1987 about a businessman who planned on having his wife fake-kidnapped for ransom money, but the police caught him before he could make his plan come to fruition, and the Coens asked themselves "what if he ''had'' succeeded?" On the special features on the 'Fargo' ''Fargo'' DVD, the Coens claim they were afraid nobody would have believed the crazy plot they came up with any other way.



* The horror movie ''Film/TheStrangers'', about a masked trio of psychopaths who stalk, terrorize, and eventually murder(?) a couple in a vacation home, is supposedly based on a true story, but it was primarily inspired by an incident from the director's childhood in which a pair of "strangers" came to the door, and were later found to be breaking into houses if no one was home when they knocked. It also took cues from an actual set of murders, but they were absolutely nothing like the plot of the movie - while staying in a cabin in a resort town, a woman in her thirties, two of her children, and a friend of one of the children were mysteriously bludgeoned and stabbed to death. Those murders were never solved.
* ''Film/{{Hidalgo}}'' is based on the actual stories of Frank Hopkins -- but Hopkins is known to history as a [[TheMunchausen con man]] and quite possibly a pathological liar. Hopkins was ''not'' part Native American, did not ever work in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, never visited the Middle East (and certainly was never in a gigantic race in the Middle East, which never existed to begin with) etc. etc. etc. On some level, however you've got to admire the guy for inventing a story that Hollywood decided to make into a movie (given all the writers who have stories they are trying unsuccessfully to sell to Hollywood).

to:

* The horror movie ''Film/TheStrangers'', about a masked trio of psychopaths who stalk, terrorize, and eventually murder(?) a couple in a vacation home, is supposedly based on a true story, but it was primarily inspired by an incident from the director's childhood in which a pair of "strangers" came to the door, door and were later found to be breaking into houses if no one was home when they knocked. It also took cues from an actual set of murders, but they were absolutely nothing like the plot of the movie - -- while staying in a cabin in a resort town, a woman in her thirties, two of her children, and a friend of one of the children were mysteriously bludgeoned and stabbed to death. Those murders were never solved.
* ''Film/{{Hidalgo}}'' is based on the actual stories of Frank Hopkins -- but Hopkins is known to history as a [[TheMunchausen con man]] and quite possibly a pathological liar. Hopkins was ''not'' part Native American, did not ever work in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, never visited the Middle East (and certainly was never in a gigantic race in the Middle East, which never existed to begin with) etc. etc. East), etc. On some level, however however, you've got to admire the guy for inventing a story that Hollywood decided to make into thought was worthy of a movie (given all the writers who movie, given that so many have stories they are trying unsuccessfully to sell to Hollywood).tried and failed.



* ''Film/TheHauntingInConnecticut'' purports to be based on a true story. However, Ray Garton, the author of the book that the film (and a DiscoveryChannel documentary) was based on, has admitted that the "true story" was a fabrication. He has said that none of the family members could get their story straight, and that they were dealing with alcoholism and drug addiction at the time, which may have affected their judgment. When he pointed this out to Ed and Lorraine Warren, the case investigators (who, not coincidentally, also investigated the Amityville case), they reportedly told him, "Make it up and make it scary."
** Ed and Lorraine Warren themselves are (were in Ed's case) self professed demonologists. [[RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgment Opinions differ]] in terms of their reliability when it comes to cases, [[ParanormalState shows]], and other investigators such as [[Series/GhostHunters Jason Hawes]] that they have been involved with.

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* ''Film/TheHauntingInConnecticut'' purports to be based on a true story. However, Ray Garton, the author of the book that the film (and a DiscoveryChannel documentary) was based on, has admitted that the "true story" was a fabrication. He has said that none of the family members could get their story straight, and that they were dealing with alcoholism and drug addiction at the time, which may have affected their judgment. When he pointed this out to Ed and Lorraine Warren, the case investigators and self-professed "demonologists" (who, not coincidentally, also investigated the Amityville case), they reportedly told him, "Make him to "make it up and make it scary."
** Ed and Lorraine Warren themselves are (were in Ed's case) self professed demonologists. [[RuleOfCautiousEditingJudgment Opinions differ]] in terms of their reliability when it comes to cases, [[ParanormalState shows]], and other investigators such as [[Series/GhostHunters Jason Hawes]] that they have been involved with.
"



* In a very similar vein to ''King Arthur'', the makers of movies such as ''Film/{{Troy}}'' and ''Film/ThreeHundred'' make a big deal about the historical content, which, in reality, is minimal at best. The glaring violence toward epic mythology and written history would be sufferable if people like Zack Snyder didn't insist on their accuracy, and yet in the case of ''300'' there's the UnreliableNarrator thing. So which are we supposed to believe? In both cases, however, with even the most rudimentary knowledge of classical history and literature one can recognize that the movies are mostly InNameOnly adaptations (at best) of whatever the original work is.
** The ''300'' example is pretty tricky to pin down, especially since Snyder himself has been both inconsistent and somewhat cavalier in claims of accuracy. Between him, Miller, and various other involved personnel, the idea ''seems'' to be that the events as depicted are knowingly exaggerated, subjective and the result of an UnreliableNarrator, but the broad history and the thematic content are intended to be accurate- which is generous, but still- and that the film is intended to give an ''impression'' of the events, rather than an accurate depiction. It's about the myth of Thermopylae, in short, rather than the battle ''per se''.
** It's also worth noting that, for all its inaccuracy and exaggeration, some scholars have commented that it is at least roughly consistent with the contemporary traditions of heroic fiction; for example, while the Greeks historically fought in an unbroken phalanx, they often depicted themselves fighting in a more heroic melee, as in the film. Even if it's nonsense, it's the sort of nonsense which the Spartans themselves would probably have appreciated, so that's something.
* Back in TheSeventies, the very first film claiming to be a SnuffFilm ([[SarcasmMode imaginatively]] entitled ''[[http://www.agonybooth.com/snuff/ Snuff]]'') purported to depict the actual on-camera murder of an actress. Despite all the controversy that was stirred up -- which actually was [[NoSuchThingAsBadPublicity the entire point]] -- the murder was later revealed to be a hoax, and not a very convincing one at that. ([[http://www.agonybooth.com/recaps/Snuff_1976.aspx?Page=9 See for yourself]]; the "snuff footage" looked ''unbelievably'' fake.) In fact, the distributors of the movie had actually just bought some random South American BMovie, ''Slaughter'' (1971), and grafted on their own, completely different short bit of footage (the "snuff"), replacing the [[NoEnding actual movie's ending]].
* ''Film/TheBlairWitchProject'' did this with its marketing campaign, claiming that the three actors were all killed by the titular Blair Witch, and that the footage detailed their final days. It helped that the actors use their real names in the movie, as if they're filming a real documentary on the subject. However, no such Blair Witch has ever existed, and all three actors were perfectly fine. The actors were told to deliberately not attend screenings or events related to the movie to make it seem as if they were really dead. It worked for a while, until the actors began appearing on late-night talk shows after the film became a massive success (''Blair Witch'' holds the world record for highest cost-to-profit margin in movie history, making its budget back almost ''ten-thousand times over'').
* In a similar vein for the older ''Film/CannibalHolocaust'', the advertising of it as "real footage" caused so much outrage that its director was arrested and dragged to court on charges of murder. Once there, he had not only to admit it was all a great big lie, but bring the actors before the judge to prove that they were all alive and well. This was ''further'' complicated because, as part of their contractual agreements, the actors were legally obligated to keep away from the public eye for a full year, in order to help hype the movie. A second deal nullifying the first had to be struck with the studio before the actors were allowed to testify.
* ''Film/TheLastSamurai'' is based on an odd amalgamation of the historical Satsuma rebellion and the part played in the earlier Boshin war by French officer Jules Brunet. The "guns vs swords" plot is particularly ironic, considering that even the real "last samurai" of the Satsuma rebellion openly embraced modern weaponry for the tactical advantages it offered[[note]]They never actually opposed guns, they were reserved for times in serious crisis. Indeed, for a time prior to the unification of Japan, samurai (and the peasant soldiers serving under their command) used guns more prolifically than any other group on Earth.[[/note]]. The decline of the samurai class in real life came about in a much slower and less dramatic fashion and there were certainly no embittered American Civil War heroes involved.
** It also borrows heavily from other fictional works, such as ''Film/DancesWithWolves'' and James Clavell's ''[[Literature/AsianSaga Shogun]]''.
** The final battle between the disenfranchised Samurai and the Meiji government was a CurbstompBattle but it happened in modern day Hokkaido.
* ''Film/{{Amadeus}}'' was based on an apocryphal tale claiming Salieri, a contemporary of Creator/WolfgangAmadeusMozart, went mad late in his life and confessed to killing Mozart. It is a matter of historical record that Mozart died during a long period of illness. Confoundedly, the film accepts both of these stories as true, and sets out to tell a story about how one man can murder another with a disease. After that premise, all the other errors on Mozart's life seem insignificant, but are still quite numerous: His mother-in-law is depicted as a harsh shrew when in fact they got along famously; Salieri being depicted as his arch-rival when in fact the two were at least respectful competitors, if not actual friends; the Requiem Mass being commissioned by Salieri (Mozart never did find out who the anonymous patron was, but we know now that it was Count Franz von Walsegg); and Salieri helping to compose the Requiem (it is unknown how much of the piece Mozart wrote, but it was finished by Franz Xaver Süssmayr).\\
\\
[[TheyPlottedAPerfectlyGoodWaste The historical inaccuracies]] [[TropesAreNotBad are, however, intentional]] - quite simply, Shaffer and Forman did not want to write a faithful biography of Mozart, but they used it just as a premise. You can see the research as the movie depicts a number of aspects of Mozart as accurate.
* Peter Jackson's ''Film/ForgottenSilver'' is a truly stunning example of the trope. Jackson claimed to have discovered his neighbor was the widow of Colin [=MacKenzie=], an early 20th century filmmaker who invented many revolutionary processes but was also extraordinarily unlucky and ended up completely obscured by history. His goal with the film was explicitly to make people think it was real, and to this end he got such notable figures as Harvey Weinstein and Leonard Maltin to participate, as well as coming up with a story, including explanations of how [=MacKenzie=] could have done so much and remain unknown, that's just plausible enough that people would want to believe it. [[note]]There is a moment that gives it away to sufficiently aware viewers: the point where the Macguffin was finally found "under the sign of Taurus" (the ''Bull'').[[/note]]

to:

* In a very similar vein to ''King Arthur'', the makers of movies such as ''Film/{{Troy}}'' and ''Film/ThreeHundred'' make a big deal about the historical content, which, in reality, is minimal at best. The glaring violence toward epic mythology another example of a "historical" film claiming to be accurate but which doesn't even depict events which are certain to have happened and written history would be sufferable if people like Zack Snyder didn't insist is instead based on their accuracy, and yet in the case mythology. But this one is trickier to pin down because of ''300'' there's the its UnreliableNarrator thing. So which are we supposed to believe? In both cases, however, with even the most rudimentary knowledge of classical history and literature one can recognize that the movies are mostly InNameOnly adaptations (at best) of whatever the original work is.
** The ''300'' example is pretty tricky to pin down, especially since Snyder himself has been both inconsistent and somewhat cavalier in claims of accuracy. Between him, Miller, and various other involved personnel, the idea ''seems'' to be that the events as depicted are knowingly exaggerated, subjective
and the result of an UnreliableNarrator, but the broad history and the thematic content are intended to be accurate- which is generous, but still- and sense that the film is intended to give an ''impression'' of the events, rather than an accurate depiction. It's about the myth of Thermopylae, in short, rather than the battle ''per se''.
** It's also worth noting that, for all its inaccuracy and exaggeration, some scholars have commented that it is at least roughly consistent with the contemporary traditions of heroic fiction; for example, while the Greeks historically fought in an unbroken phalanx, they often depicted themselves fighting in a more heroic melee, as in the film. Even if it's nonsense,
it's the sort kind of nonsense which exaggeration the historical Spartans themselves would probably have appreciated, so that's something.
told and appreciated. Those involved with the project (including Creator/ZackSnyder and Creator/FrankMiller) are inconsistent as to whether this is supposed to be an accurate depiction of historical events, a dramatization of those events, or [[BreadEggsBreadedEggs an accurate historical depiction of a dramatization of those events.]]
* Back in TheSeventies, the very first film claiming to be a SnuffFilm ([[SarcasmMode imaginatively]] entitled ''[[http://www.agonybooth.com/snuff/ Snuff]]'') purported to depict the actual on-camera murder of an actress. Despite all the controversy that was stirred up -- which actually was [[NoSuchThingAsBadPublicity the entire point]] -- the murder was later revealed to be a hoax, and not a very convincing one at that. ([[http://www.agonybooth.com/recaps/Snuff_1976.aspx?Page=9 See for yourself]]; the "snuff footage" looked ''unbelievably'' fake.) In fact, the distributors of the movie had actually just bought some random South American BMovie, ''Slaughter'' (1971), and grafted on their own, own completely different short bit of footage (the "snuff"), replacing the [[NoEnding actual movie's ending]].
* ''Film/TheBlairWitchProject'' did this with its marketing campaign, claiming that the three actors were all killed by the titular eponymous Blair Witch, and that the footage detailed their final days. It helped that the actors use their real names in the movie, as if they're filming a real documentary on the subject. However, no such Blair Witch has ever existed, and all three actors were perfectly fine. The actors were told to deliberately not attend screenings or events related to the movie to make it seem as if they were really dead. It worked for a while, until the actors began appearing on late-night talk shows after the film became a massive success (''Blair Witch'' -- it made its minimal budget back almost ''ten thousand times'' over, and it still holds the world record for the highest cost-to-profit margin in movie history, making its budget back almost ''ten-thousand times over'').
history. After that, the actors couldn't resist the temptation to start appearing on late-night talk shows.
* In The older film ''Film/CannibalHolocaust'' tried a similar vein for the older ''Film/CannibalHolocaust'', the strategy to ''The Blair Witch Project'', advertising of it as "real footage" caused footage". This time, though, people were so much outrage outraged that its the director was arrested and dragged to court on charges of charged with murder. Once there, he He had not only to admit in court that it was all a great big lie, but bring lie. In order to prove this, he had to get the actors before the judge to show up in court to prove that they were all alive and well. This well; this was ''further'' complicated because, as part of their contractual agreements, a difficult task because the actors were legally obligated actors' contracts with the studio ''required'' them to keep away from the public eye for a full year, in order year to help hype fuel the movie. A second deal nullifying the first had to be struck with the studio before the actors illusion that they were allowed to testify.
dead. Much legal wrangling ensued.
* ''Film/TheLastSamurai'' is based on an odd amalgamation of the historical Satsuma rebellion and the part played in the earlier Boshin war by French officer Jules Brunet. It also borrows heavily from other fictional works, such as ''Film/DancesWithWolves'' and James Clavell's ''[[Literature/AsianSaga Shogun]]''. The "guns vs vs. swords" plot is particularly ironic, considering that even the real "last samurai" of the Satsuma rebellion openly embraced modern weaponry for the tactical advantages it offered[[note]]They never actually opposed guns, they were reserved for times in serious crisis. Indeed, for offered.[[note]]For a period of time prior to the unification of Japan, samurai (and the peasant soldiers serving under their command) command)[[/note]] used guns more prolifically than any other group on Earth.[[/note]]. Earth. Any reluctance to use guns was simply to reserve them for serious crises.[[/note]] The decline of the samurai class in real life came about in a much slower and less dramatic fashion and there were certainly no embittered American Civil War heroes involved.
** It also borrows heavily from other fictional works, such as ''Film/DancesWithWolves'' and James Clavell's ''[[Literature/AsianSaga Shogun]]''.
** The final battle between the disenfranchised Samurai and the Meiji government was a CurbstompBattle but it happened in modern day Hokkaido.
* ''Film/{{Amadeus}}'' was based on an apocryphal tale claiming Salieri, a contemporary of Creator/WolfgangAmadeusMozart, went mad late in his life and confessed to killing Mozart. It is a matter of historical record that Mozart died during a long period of illness. Confoundedly, the The film accepts both ''both'' of these stories as true, and sets out to tell a story about how one man can murder another with a disease. After that premise, all the other errors on Mozart's life seem insignificant, but are still quite numerous: His mother-in-law is depicted as a harsh shrew when in fact they got along famously; true. Salieri being depicted is painted as a jealous competitor to Mozart who hated the man but adored his arch-rival when in fact genius, and he "kills" him by encouraging a naive Mozart suffering from illness to make more music. The film is forced to stretch the two were at least respectful competitors, if not actual friends; truth to reach this result; historically, there is no evidence that Salieri worked on the Requiem Mass being with Mozart (it is unknown how much of the piece Mozart wrote, but it was finished by Franz Xaver Süssmayr), and the film implies that Salieri was the anonymous patron who commissioned by Salieri (Mozart the Requiem Mass.[[note]]Mozart never did find out who the anonymous patron was, but we know now that it was Count Franz von Walsegg); and Walsegg. Interestingly, the real-life scenario is also plausible in the film; the film doesn't show that Salieri helping ''planned'' for that to compose happen, but he also wasn't above exploiting the situation to ensure that the Requiem (it is unknown how much of the piece Mozart wrote, but it was finished by Franz Xaver Süssmayr).\\
\\
Mass got written.[[/note]] The film's writers [[TheyPlottedAPerfectlyGoodWaste The historical inaccuracies]] [[TropesAreNotBad are, did this intentionally]], however, intentional]] - quite simply, Shaffer and Forman did not want claiming that they didn't need to write a faithful biography of Mozart, but on Mozart; they used it just as a premise. You can see wanted to work with the research as interesting (but false) premise that Salieri was jealous of Mozart. They [[ShownTheirWork did their research]] on all the movie depicts a number things that didn't need to be stretched to make this happen.[[labelnote:Examples include]] young Mozart's silly ChildhoodMarriageProposal to [[UsefulNotes/MarieAntoinette the Emperor's sister]] and the Emperor's complaint that one of aspects of Mozart as accurate.
Mozart's compositions contained "too many notes."[[/labelnote]]
* Peter Jackson's ''Film/ForgottenSilver'' is a truly stunning example of the trope. Jackson claimed to have discovered his neighbor was the widow of Colin [=MacKenzie=], an early 20th century filmmaker who invented many revolutionary processes but was also extraordinarily unlucky and ended up completely obscured by history. His goal with the film was explicitly to make people think it was real, and to this end he got such notable figures as Harvey Weinstein and Leonard Maltin to participate, as well as coming participate. He came up with a story, story that's just plausible enough to believe, including explanations of how [=MacKenzie=] could have done so much and remain unknown, that's just plausible enough that people would want to believe it. [[note]]There so obscure. There is a moment only one clue that gives it away to sufficiently aware viewers: away; the point where the Macguffin {{MacGuffin}} was finally found "under the sign of Taurus" (the ''Bull'').[[/note]]-- ''i.e.'' the "bull".



* The original ''Film/TheLastHouseOnTheLeft''.
* The sci-fi/horror movie ''Film/TheFourthKind'' has, as its tag line, the claim that the movie is "based on actual case studies," and even claims to include actual footage of alien abductions. Guess [[http://io9.com/5397359/the-fourth-kind-is-a-hoax what?]]
* ''Film/TheMenWhoStareAtGoats'' begins with an assurance, perhaps just as a weak joke, that "more of the film is true than we would believe." Which part? Sure, there ''was'' a remote viewing project in the U.S. military around the late '70s/early '80s, but it didn't work.
** The movie is a fictionalization of a fairly well documented journalistic book.
** That assurance was followed immediately by a scene of a very strait-laced military man calmly and deliberately stepping away from his desk and running head-on into a wall for no apparent reason. We find out why later on, but right at the moment it's just a jarring juxtaposition with the reassurance, since it's exactly the kind of thing that's so hard to imagine.
* ''Film/TheBoatThatRocked'': Although Radio Rock existed they were not a pirate radio station at all, since they had a license. However the British government didn't like the fact that they were broadcasting from outside British waters. The ending is completely made up as well; in real life the government simply banned anyone from supplying them and then arrested the crew as soon as they came ashore.
** It is at least partially based on the Pirate Radio stations that sprung up in the middle part of the 20th Century, more specifically the infamous [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_Caroline Radio Caroline]]. Which was notorious not just for broadcasting from a boat, but it's stubborn refusal to ever die despite the government crackdown. As well as for pretty serious mishaps such as their boats sinking (which is likely where the climax of the movie took inspiration from), or authorities from Britain and the Netherlands boarding the boats and arresting the staff. Nowadays it's a legal, land-based show and still fairly popular. Although occasionally they will broadcast from one of the old boats for special events.
** For all its rather loose approach to actual events, ex-pirate [=DJ=]s who were there at the time say the film ''does'' capture the flavour of shipboard life quite well.
* ''Film/BattleshipPotemkin'' is a purportedly historical film that depicts a massacre that, in truth, never happened: the records are scarce and conflicting, and eyewitnesses were unreliable and confused. It is, however, known, that spirits in the city were running high at that moment, and there ''were'' several demonstrations that, by some accounts, including a British consul and ''The Times'' reporter, were put down using armed troops, but no massacre. Of course, Eisenstein wasn't making a documentary, he was making a ''propaganda flick'', so he took really great liberties with the facts -- including the massacre. It's just that doing so, he had several ideas how to edit the footage for most emotional impact, and they worked ''so good'' that he basically became a father of all modern film editing, and the Odessa Steps Massacre [[RealityIsUnrealistic became firmly entrenched as a fact]].
** It is said that after seeing the movie, the person who was shooting at that area came to the police (he lived in USA then) and confessed about a murder.

to:

* %%* The original ''Film/TheLastHouseOnTheLeft''.
''Film/TheLastHouseOnTheLeft''.%%
* The sci-fi/horror movie ''Film/TheFourthKind'' has, as its tag line, the claim that the movie is "based on actual case studies," and even claims to include actual footage of alien abductions. Guess what? [[http://io9.com/5397359/the-fourth-kind-is-a-hoax what?]]
It's a hoax.]]
* ''Film/TheMenWhoStareAtGoats'' begins with an assurance, perhaps just as a weak joke, that "more of the film is true than we would believe." Which part? Sure, there ''was'' a remote viewing project in the U.S. military around the late '70s/early '80s, but it didn't work.
**
work. The movie is actually a fictionalization of a fairly well documented well-documented journalistic book.
** That
book. It also doesn't help that the assurance was followed immediately by a scene of a very strait-laced military man calmly and deliberately stepping away from his desk and running head-on into a wall for no apparent reason. We find out why later on, but right at the moment it's just a jarring juxtaposition with the reassurance, since it's exactly the kind of thing that's so hard to imagine.
* ''Film/TheBoatThatRocked'': Although ''Film/TheBoatThatRocked'' is actually an amalgamation of different stories. While there was a Radio Rock,[[note]]The historical Radio Rock existed they were did broadcast from a boat outside British waters, much to the ire of the government, but it had a license and was thus not technically a pirate "pirate" radio station at all, since they had a license. However all.[[/note]] the British government didn't like the fact that they were broadcasting from outside British waters. The ending film is completely made up as well; in real life the government simply banned anyone from supplying them and then arrested the crew as soon as they came ashore.
** It is at least partially
based more on the Pirate Radio other pirate radio stations that sprung sprang up in the middle part of the 20th Century, more specifically mid-20th century, in particular the infamous [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radio_Caroline Radio Caroline]]. Which Radio Caroline was notorious infamous not just only for broadcasting offshore from a boat, boat without a license, but it's stubborn refusal to ever die despite the government crackdown. As well as also for pretty serious mishaps such as its ability to weather some astonishing mishaps, from being raided by British or Dutch authorities to their boats sinking (which is likely where the climax of the movie took (likely an inspiration from), or authorities from Britain and for the Netherlands boarding the boats and arresting the staff. Nowadays it's film's climax).[[note]]It still exists, as a legal, land-based show land-based, and still fairly popular. Although popular station; they'll even occasionally they will broadcast from one of the old boats for special events.
** For all its rather loose approach to actual events, ex-pirate [=DJ=]s who were there at
events.[[/note]] The film's ending is a bit more dramatic than the time say real one; in real life, the government simply banned anyone from supplying them, waited for the crew to give up and come ashore, and then arrested them. All this being said, former pirate [=DJs=] have said that the film ''does'' capture the flavour of shipboard life quite well.
* ''Film/BattleshipPotemkin'' is a purportedly historical film that depicts a massacre that, in truth, never happened: the happened; records are scarce and conflicting, and eyewitnesses were unreliable and confused. It is, however, known, that spirits in the city were running high at that moment, and there ''were'' several demonstrations that, by some accounts, including a British consul and ''The Times'' a ''Times'' reporter, were put down using armed troops, but no massacre. Of course, Eisenstein wasn't making a documentary, he was making a ''propaganda flick'', so he took really great liberties with the facts -- including the massacre. It's just that in doing so, he had several ideas how to edit the footage for most emotional impact, and they worked ''so good'' so well that he basically became a the father of all modern film editing, and the Odessa Steps Massacre [[RealityIsUnrealistic became firmly entrenched as a fact]].
**
fact]]. It is was even said that after seeing the movie, the person someone who was shooting at that area came to the there turned himself into police (he lived in USA then) the US and confessed about to a murder.



-->"This is the west. When the legend becomes fact, you print the legend."
** Also used at the end of Ford's ''Film/FortApache''. Colonel Yorke uses ExactWords to continue the myth that the late Col. Thursday was great leader in order to maintain the reputation it grants his regiment.

to:

-->"This is the west.West. When the legend becomes fact, you print the legend."
** Also used at the end of Ford's ''Film/FortApache''. Colonel Yorke uses ExactWords to continue the myth that the late Col. Thursday was a great leader in order to maintain the reputation it grants his regiment.



* An interesting example is ''Film/EnemyAtTheGates''. Jude Law's sniper character was a real person, and, surprisingly, so was the LoveInterest played by Rachel Weisz--but the same can't be said of the German sniper and the main plot. [[RedsWithRockets Soviet officials]] insisted the story was true, but recent reappraisals of the available evidence have led historians to strongly suspect that the whole thing was just a load of made-up wartime propaganda. The villain of the piece is a Bavarian [[NaziNobleman aristocrat]] sniper named Erwin Konig; in reality, no conclusive evidence has been found that Konig ever even ''existed'', let alone that he fought a sniper duel in Stalingrad.

to:

* An interesting example is ''Film/EnemyAtTheGates''. Jude Law's sniper character was a real person, and, surprisingly, so was the LoveInterest played by Rachel Weisz--but Weisz -- but the same can't be said of the German sniper and the main plot. [[RedsWithRockets Soviet officials]] insisted the story was true, but recent reappraisals of the available evidence have led historians to strongly suspect that the whole thing was just a load of made-up wartime propaganda. The villain of the piece is a Bavarian [[NaziNobleman aristocrat]] sniper named Erwin Konig; in reality, no conclusive evidence has been found that Konig ever even ''existed'', let alone that he fought a sniper duel in Stalingrad.



* The majority of the film ''Film/{{JFK}}'' is entirely made up, with the only real events being the assassination and the Clay Shaw trial (which was an affront to justice). Perhaps the worst was that of the crucial 'smoke from the Grassy Knoll', none of the rifles used would emit any visible smoke. Oliver Stone had to have a special-effects man ''blow smoke out of a bellows'' in order to get that effect (and yes, many, ''many'' people have made jokes about him literally "blowing smoke"). Most of the film's facts are taken from the writings of Jim Garrison, who is also the central character in the film. Almost every expert on the Kennedy assassination - even those who believe in a conspiracy - believe Garrison to be unreliable at best and insane at worst.
* The 2012 film ''Film/TheDevilInside'' - a horror film centered around demonic possession - is said to be based on actual events; the film even ends on a cliffhanger saying the murders that took place in the film are still under investigation and directing viewers to a website for more information. The home video release includes a quote: "the movie The Vatican doesn't want you to see." (And apparently quite a few movie critics, who considered it a candidate for worst film of the year.)

to:

* The majority of the film ''Film/{{JFK}}'' is entirely made up, with the only real events being the assassination and the Clay Shaw trial (which was an affront to justice). Perhaps the worst was that of the crucial 'smoke "smoke from the Grassy Knoll', Knoll"; none of the rifles used would emit any visible smoke. Oliver Stone had to have a special-effects man ''blow smoke out of a bellows'' in order to get that effect (and yes, many, ''many'' people have made jokes about him literally "blowing smoke"). Most of the film's facts are taken from the writings of Jim Garrison, who is also the central character in the film. Almost every expert on the Kennedy assassination - -- even those who believe in a conspiracy - -- believe Garrison to be unreliable at best and insane at worst.
* The 2012 film ''Film/TheDevilInside'' - ''Film/TheDevilInside'', a horror film centered around demonic possession - possession, is said to be based on actual events; the events. The film even ends on a cliffhanger saying the murders that took place in the film are still under investigation and directing viewers to a website for more information. The home video release includes a quote: bills itself as "the movie The Vatican doesn't want you to see." (And apparently (Neither do quite a few movie critics, who considered it a candidate for worst film of the year.)



* The 1977 film ''{{Film/Julia}}'', supposedly "based on a true story," was based on Creator/LillianHellman's memoir ''Pentimento'', which was, to put it kindly, VeryLooselyBasedOnATrueStory in which Hellman didn't actually play a part. In 1979, Mary McCarthy, long Hellman's adversary, said of Hellman that "every word she writes is a lie, including 'and' and 'the'."

to:

* The 1977 film ''{{Film/Julia}}'', supposedly "based on a true story," was based on Creator/LillianHellman's memoir ''Pentimento'', which was, to put it kindly, VeryLooselyBasedOnATrueStory in which Hellman didn't actually play a part. In 1979, Mary McCarthy, [=McCarthy=], long Hellman's adversary, said of Hellman that "every word she writes is a lie, including 'and' and 'the'."



* ''Literature/{{Roots}}'', Alex Haley's history of his family, which was a bestseller and adapted into a hugely popular TV miniseries. While Haley's book was classified as a novel and much of the plot was Haley's invention, he claimed that he had in fact traced his ancestry to an African named Kunta Kinte who was kidnapped by slavers and sold into slavery in the American South. As TheOtherWiki [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roots:_The_Saga_of_an_American_Family#Historical_accuracy notes]], most of the follow-up research contradicts Haley's story. There is little basis in fact for Haley's account of his history prior to his great-great grandfather "Chicken George" Lea.
* In the 1970s, the book ''The Holy Blood And The Holy Grail'' (retitled ''Holy Blood, Holy Grail'' in the United States) claimed to reveal the truth about a relationship between Jesus and Mary Magdalene that was hidden in various Renaissance paintings. It was later revealed to be completely fictional, but not before hundreds of thousands of people had been conned.
** That book heavily inspired ''TheDaVinciCode'', which caused an identical resurgence in public interest. Amusingly, the authors of the first book sued Brown for plagiarism, but it was pointed out that [[MortonsFork either they claim that the book is true, thus destroying their own case, as you cannot copyright history and facts; or that it was false, thus destroying whatever credibility they had and losing anyway as you can't copyright ideas. Needless to say, they lost.]] ''Holy Blood, Holy Grail'' got a name drop in TheDaVinciCode, as one of Teabing's[[note]]An anagram of "Baigent", one of the authors of ''HBHG''[[/note]] resources on the Grail yet many people seem to squall about the book being "ripped off" without ever noticing its acknowledgment within the book that apparently ripped it off so entirely. The ideas posited in ''Holy Blood, Holy Grail'' were essentially used as a MacGuffin in the story, as various Holy Grails so often are. The mistake [[DanBrowned Dan Brown]] made was the same mistake the authors of ''Holy Blood'' made, which was claiming it was all based on fact instead of what could amount to EpilepticTrees.

to:

* ''Literature/{{Roots}}'', Alex Haley's history of his family, which was a bestseller and adapted into a hugely popular TV miniseries. While Haley's book was classified as a novel and much of the plot was Haley's invention, he claimed that he had in fact traced his ancestry to an African named Kunta Kinte who was kidnapped by slavers and sold into slavery in the American South. As TheOtherWiki [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roots:_The_Saga_of_an_American_Family#Historical_accuracy notes]], most of the follow-up research contradicts Haley's story. There is little basis in fact for Haley's account of his history prior to his great-great grandfather great-great-grandfather "Chicken George" Lea.
* In the 1970s, the book ''The Holy Blood And The Holy Grail'' (retitled ''Holy Blood, Holy Grail'' in the United States) claimed to reveal the truth about of a relationship between Jesus and Mary Magdalene that was hidden in various Renaissance paintings. It was later revealed to be completely fictional, but not before hundreds of thousands of people had been conned.
** That book heavily inspired ''TheDaVinciCode'', which caused an identical resurgence in public interest. Amusingly, the authors of the first book sued Brown for plagiarism, but it was pointed out that [[MortonsFork either they claim that the book is true, thus destroying their own case, as you cannot copyright history infringement and facts; or that it was false, thus destroying whatever credibility they had and losing anyway as ran into a severe case of MortonsFork; since you can't copyright ideas. history or facts, if they wanted to claim infringement, they had to admit they were making it up. And even that wouldn't work because you can't copyright very general ideas either. Needless to say, [[HeadsIWinTailsYouLose they lost.]] Even more interestingly, TheDaVinciCode even name-drops ''Holy Blood, Holy Grail'' got a name drop in TheDaVinciCode, as one of Teabing's[[note]]An Teabing's resource on the Grail,[[note]]"Teabing", by the way, is an anagram of "Baigent", one of the authors of ''HBHG''[[/note]] resources on ''Holy Blood, Holy Grail''[[/note]] which would counter accusations of directly ripping off the Grail yet many people seem to squall about the book being "ripped off" without ever noticing its acknowledgment within the book that apparently ripped it off so entirely. book. The ideas posited in ''Holy Blood, Holy Grail'' were essentially used as a MacGuffin in the story, as various Holy Grails so often are. The mistake But in the end, Dan Brown [[DanBrowned Dan Brown]] made was the same mistake mistake]] as the authors of ''Holy Blood'' made, which was claiming and claimed it was all based on fact instead of what could amount to EpilepticTrees.real.



* Lucian's ''Literature/TrueHistory'' is a very old example of this. The clue to it not being what it says it is, is the fact that it is the earliest known story about a trip to the moon. It ends with a promise that the protagonist's further adventures will be described in a sequel, which is also a lie.
** It's also a wonderful piece of satire. Lucian was apparently annoyed by contemporary historians who reported just about everything they heard or read as facts, in response he wrote a "true" story that was as ludicrous as he could imagine.
* There are some that actually believed that ''Kensuke's Kingdom'' really was based on Michael Morpurgo's childhood. Made all the worst by the epilogue, where he writes about "himself" going to meet Kensuke's grandson after writing the book. Really, Michael?
* James Frey's ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Million_Little_Pieces A Million Little Pieces]]''. This caused no small headache for [[Series/TheOprahWinfreyShow Oprah Winfrey]] after she plugged the book for Oprah's Book Club. First she denied the idea that parts of the book were false, then she tried to claim that essential truth was more important than factual truth, which honked off the general public until she finally rescinded her recommendation and [[TheReasonyouSuckSpeech verbally castigated the author on her show.]] In the end it turned out to be more VeryLooselyBasedOnATrueStory than anything, as Frey made massive embellishments in order to get the book published, but the story does have truth to it if widely stretched. Despite this Frey has gone on to some success, including as one half of the pseudonym Pittacus Lore in the ''IAmNumberFour'' series, which has led at least one critic to comment that at least it's known for a fact he can write fiction.
* Creator/KarlMay is best known for his stories about [[AuthorStandIn 'his']] travels through the American West and the Middle East long before he actually visited the US and the Orient in person. Today that's no longer a major issue, but some of his contemporaries didn't take it well.

to:

* Lucian's ''Literature/TrueHistory'' is a very old example of this. Lucian was annoyed at how many contemporary historians would report just about anything as fact, so he wrote a "true" story that was as ludicrous as he could imagine. The clue to it not being what it says it is, is is the fact that it is the earliest known story about a trip to the moon. It ends with a promise that the protagonist's further adventures will be described [[SequelHook in a sequel, sequel]], [[StillbornFranchise which is also a lie.
** It's also a wonderful piece of satire. Lucian was apparently annoyed by contemporary historians who reported just about everything they heard or read as facts, in response he wrote a "true" story that was as ludicrous as he could imagine.
lie.]]
* There are some that actually Some people believed that ''Kensuke's Kingdom'' really was based on Michael Morpurgo's childhood. Made all the worst by the epilogue, where he writes about "himself" going to meet Kensuke's grandson after writing the book. Really, Michael?
* James Frey's ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Million_Little_Pieces A Million Little Pieces]]''. This Pieces]]'' caused no small headache for [[Series/TheOprahWinfreyShow Oprah Winfrey]] after she plugged the book for Oprah's Book Club. First she denied the idea that parts of the book were false, then she tried to claim that essential truth was more important than factual truth, which truth (which honked off the general public until public) before she finally rescinded her recommendation and [[TheReasonyouSuckSpeech verbally castigated the author on her show.]] In the end it turned out to be more VeryLooselyBasedOnATrueStory than anything, as Frey made massive embellishments in order to get the book published, but the story does have truth to it if widely stretched. Despite this this, Frey has gone on to some success, including as one half of the pseudonym Pittacus Lore in the ''IAmNumberFour'' series, which has led at least one critic to comment that at least it's known for a fact he can write fiction.
* Creator/KarlMay is best known for his stories about [[AuthorStandIn 'his']] "his"]] travels through the American West and the Middle East long before he actually visited the US and the Orient in person. Today that's no longer a major issue, but some of his contemporaries didn't take it well.



** The book ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Monk The Awful Disclosures of Maria Monk]]'' does the same thing for the Catholic church, suffering from extreme artistic license that clearly indicated it was fiction. According to some, Maria Monk was actually a brain-damaged woman [[KickTheDog tricked by her publishers or ghost writers, who profited from her "experience" and left her destitute.]]
* ''[[Literature/DangerousLiaisons Les Liaisons Dangereuses]]'' has two prefaces, both written by the author. The author's preface is called the 'Editor's', and claims all the letters in the book are true, he's just edited out boring bits. The publisher's preface warns it's all false, but in a deliberately ridiculous way -- the "publisher" claims the story [[SarcasmMode obviously can't be true]] because nobody in ''this'' country, in ''this'' oh-so-enlightened era, would ''ever'' behave as these characters do. (So the real message is that yes, the story itself is fiction, but it's a satire on how people really do act.)

to:

** * The book ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_Monk The Awful Disclosures of Maria Monk]]'' does the same thing for the Catholic church, suffering from extreme artistic license that clearly indicated it was fiction. According to some, Some claim that Maria Monk was actually a brain-damaged woman [[KickTheDog tricked by her publishers or ghost writers, ghostwriters, who profited from her "experience" and left her destitute.]]
* ''[[Literature/DangerousLiaisons Les Liaisons Dangereuses]]'' has two prefaces, both written by the author. The author's preface is called the 'Editor's', "Editor's" and claims all the letters in the book are true, true; he's just edited out boring bits. The publisher's preface warns that it's all false, but in a deliberately ridiculous way -- the "publisher" claims the story [[SarcasmMode obviously can't be true]] because nobody in ''this'' country, in ''this'' oh-so-enlightened era, would ''ever'' behave as these characters do. (So the real message is that yes, the story itself is fiction, but it's a satire on how people really do act.)



* Similar to the James Frey controversy, [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2006/11/22/faux-bro-the-not-so-true-story-of-j-t-leroy-2/ Jeremiah Terminator Leroy]] aka JT Leroy was actually the pen name of a middle-aged woman, [[http://susiebright.blogs.com/susie_brights_journal_/2006/01/my_name_is_susi.html Laura Albert]], whose fictional persona was of a young transgender prostitute. Albert even [[http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/09/books/09book.html?pagewanted=1 hired her sister-in-law, Savannah Coop]], to make public appearances dressed up in drag in order to portray a post sex change Leroy. (Try not to think about that one too hard.) [[http://susiebright.blogs.com/susie_brights_journal_/2006/01/slashfraud_the_.html Her first novels]] about underage gender dysphoric sex workers from the Deep South were presented as being at least vaguely autobiographical. Of course, it should be noted that even though it's Based On A Great Big Lie, this doesn't stop ''Film/TheHeartIsDeceitfulAboveAllThings'' from technically being really, really good.

to:

* Similar to the James Frey controversy, [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2006/11/22/faux-bro-the-not-so-true-story-of-j-t-leroy-2/ Jeremiah Terminator Leroy]] Leroy]], aka JT Leroy Leroy, was actually the pen name of a middle-aged woman, [[http://susiebright.blogs.com/susie_brights_journal_/2006/01/my_name_is_susi.html Laura Albert]], whose fictional persona was of a young transgender prostitute. Albert even [[http://www.nytimes.com/2006/01/09/books/09book.html?pagewanted=1 hired her sister-in-law, Savannah Coop]], to make public appearances dressed up in drag in order to portray a post sex post-sex change Leroy. (Try not to think about that one too hard.) [[http://susiebright.blogs.com/susie_brights_journal_/2006/01/slashfraud_the_.html Her first novels]] about underage gender dysphoric sex workers from the Deep South were presented as being at least vaguely autobiographical. Of course, it should be noted that even though it's Based On A Great Big Lie, this doesn't stop ''Film/TheHeartIsDeceitfulAboveAllThings'' from technically being really, really good.



** Armistead Maupin, one of the many authors taken in by the hoax, wrote ''The Night Listener'' about the experience. However, it's a RomanAClef, and the first-person narrator, a Maupin [[AuthorAvatar stand-in]], says several times that he's been known to embellish the truth. Very good book about this trope, and it also inspired a movie where the late Creator/RobinWilliams played the main character. (''A Rock and a Hard Place," on the other hand, isn't very well-written, particularly once the reader realizes that its author is NOT an 11 year old.)
** The case was so polemic that [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faith_(Law_%26_Order:_Criminal_Intent_episode) it inspired]] [[http://lawandorder.wikia.com/wiki/Faith an early episode]] of ''Series/LawAndOrderCriminalIntent''. In it, [[spoiler: a literary agent is ''murdered'' via a bomb placed in his car, for discovering that Erica Windermere, the ill and secluded female teenage author he sponsored, didn't exist but was the invention of two con artists that made themselves pass as her "foster parents". "Erica", just like Tony Godby Johnson, had written a best seller based on her horribly abusive bio parents. [[note]]In a twist, however, the fraudsters were {{red herring}}s; the ''real'' killer was the book's producer, who killed the agent because she was so deluded into believing "Erica's" existence that she couldn't resist it when the agent's decision to confront the fraudsters "broke" said illusion.)[[/note]].]]
* The book ''The Third Eye'' by 'Lobsang Rampa' is... Well, difficult to classify. It allegedly tells the experiences of a Tibetan lama, but subsequent inquiries eventually revealed that it was written by a plumber from Devon called Cyril Hoskin who had never been to Tibet in his life. When challenged about this, Hoskin subsequently insisted that "Rampa" was a walk-in spirit that had taken over his body. (As shown by the "Talk" page on [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyril_Hoskin his Wikipedia article]], some people still believe this.) What prevents this from being a straight example is that to all appearances, Hoskin appears to have genuinely and sincerely believed it himself; whether he was LostInCharacter or out and out schizophrenic is a mystery for the ages.
* The ''Literature/{{Flashman}}'' books are all supposedly based on rediscovered memoirs written by the title character. This device (coupled with the impressive amount of research Creator/GeorgeMacDonaldFraser put into every volume) led more than one critic to believe they were the real deal.
** American reviewers in particular were fooled by the first book. This was not because [[EagleLand Americans are dim]], but because a) Fraser was a brand-new author at the time and b) the Victorian novel ''Literature/{{Flashman}}'' was based on (''Tom Brown's School Days'') was virtually unknown in the US.
* The book ''Michelle Remembers'', perhaps the most (in)famous alleged written account of Satanic Ritual Abuse, though helping to stir up the SRA witch hunt of the 80s/90s, has now been widely discredited. Mostly by many healthy doses of FridgeLogic - for example, a supposedly nonreligious 5-year-old having the presence of mind to rebuke Satanists with a cross, an 81-day ritual that summons the Devil himself during which none of the Satanists apparently need to eat, use the bathroom, or show up at work, and a fatal car wreck that strangely didn't turn up in a newspaper that reported on wrecks of even less serious nature at the time. One of the worst parts is that the titular Michelle (who later divorced her husband to marry the psychologist she was relating all of this to) blames her involvement in the abuse on her mother, who died of cancer when Michelle was 14. [[http://www.witchvox.com/va/dt_va.html?a=cabc&c=whs&id=4349 This]] article gives a detailed analysis of the book.
** ''Michelle Remembers'' was hardly the only book that factored into the "Satanic Panic" of TheEighties. Two other books that led the scare were [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurel_Rose_Willson Laurel Rose Willson's]] ''[[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/07/02/the-prodigal-witch-ix-lauren-stratford/ Satan's]] [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/07/20/the-prodigal-witch-ix-lauren-stratford-part-ii/ Underground]]'' (under the name Lauren Stratford) and [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/03/17/the-prodigal-witch-part-ii-mike-warnke/ Mike Warnke's]] ''The Satan Seller''. The former spoke of being brought up as a "[[BabyFactory baby breeder]]" by a Satanic cult, giving birth to babies to be used in sacrifices or {{snuff film}}s, while the latter was about serving as a "Satanic high priest" before coming to Christianity. Both books [[http://www.holysmoke.org/sdhok/side.htm were]] [[http://www.holysmoke.org/sdhok/warnke.htm exposed]] as frauds by the evangelical magazine ''Cornerstone'', which pointed out that the dates and events given by the authors didn't line up with school and hospital records, among other inconsistencies. Willson later reappeared [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/07/20/the-prodigal-witch-ix-lauren-stratford-part-iii/ as "Laura Grabowski"]], claiming to be a survivor of Auschwitz-Birkenau and a victim of [[MadDoctor Dr. Josef Mengele]]; this, too, was exposed as a fraud when a Jewish group investigated her claims.
** In 1986, the infamous Jack Chick published a bizarre book named [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/06/26/the-prodigal-witch-viii-elaine/ "He came to set the captives free"]], which supposedly depicted how Dr. Rebecca Brown released a woman named Elaine from a huge Satanic cult that had forced her to marry Satan himself, among other things. It turned out "Dr. Brown" was an ex-physician named Ruth Bailey who lost her license for abusing her patients (i.e., she tried to overdose them on painkillers), and that "Elaine" (whose real name was Edna) was a roommate and former patient whom she also treated like crap.

to:

** Armistead Maupin, one of the many authors taken in by the hoax, wrote ''The Night Listener'' about the experience. However, it's a RomanAClef, and the first-person narrator, a Maupin [[AuthorAvatar stand-in]], says several times that he's been known to embellish the truth. Very It's a very good book about this trope, and it also inspired a movie where the late Creator/RobinWilliams played the main character. (''A Rock and a Hard Place," on the other hand, isn't very well-written, particularly once the reader realizes that its author is NOT not an 11 year old.)
** The case was so polemic that [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faith_(Law_%26_Order:_Criminal_Intent_episode) it inspired]] [[http://lawandorder.wikia.com/wiki/Faith an early episode]] of ''Series/LawAndOrderCriminalIntent''. In it, [[spoiler: a literary agent is ''murdered'' via a bomb placed in his car, for discovering that Erica Windermere, the ill and secluded female teenage author he sponsored, didn't exist but was the invention of two con artists that made themselves pass as her "foster parents". "Erica", just like Tony Godby Johnson, had written a best seller based on her horribly abusive bio parents. [[note]]In In a twist, however, the fraudsters were {{red herring}}s; the ''real'' killer was the book's producer, who killed the agent because she was so deluded into believing "Erica's" existence that she couldn't resist it when the agent's decision to confront the fraudsters "broke" said illusion.)[[/note]].).]]
* The book ''The Third Eye'' by 'Lobsang Rampa' is... Well, "Lobsang Rampa" is...difficult to classify. It allegedly tells the experiences of a Tibetan lama, but subsequent inquiries eventually revealed that it was written by a plumber from Devon called Cyril Hoskin who had never been to Tibet in his life. When challenged about this, Hoskin subsequently insisted that "Rampa" was a walk-in spirit that had taken over his body. (As shown by the "Talk" page on [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyril_Hoskin his Wikipedia article]], some people still believe this.) What prevents this from being a straight example is that to all appearances, Hoskin appears to have genuinely and sincerely believed it himself; whether he was LostInCharacter or out and out out-and-out schizophrenic is a mystery for the ages.
* The ''Literature/{{Flashman}}'' books are all supposedly based on rediscovered memoirs written by the title character. This device (coupled with the impressive amount of research Creator/GeorgeMacDonaldFraser put into every volume) led more than one critic to believe they were the real deal.
** American reviewers
deal. The first book in particular were fooled by the first book. This was not because [[EagleLand Americans are dim]], but because a) American reviewers, who were totally unfamiliar with Fraser was a brand-new author at the time and b) the Victorian novel ''Literature/{{Flashman}}'' ''Flashman'' was based on (''Tom Brown's School Days'') Days'').
* The "Satanic Panic" of the 1980s
was virtually unknown in largely created on the US.
basis of several written accounts of Satanic ritual abuse, pretty much all of which later turned out to be fabricated.
* The book ''Michelle Remembers'', Remembers'' is perhaps the most (in)famous alleged written account of Satanic Ritual Abuse, though helping to stir up the SRA witch hunt of the 80s/90s, ritual abuse. It has now been widely discredited. Mostly discredited, mostly by many healthy doses of FridgeLogic - -- for example, a supposedly nonreligious 5-year-old having the presence of mind to rebuke Satanists with a cross, an 81-day ritual that summons the Devil himself during which none of the Satanists apparently need to eat, use the bathroom, or show up at work, and a fatal car wreck that strangely didn't turn up in a newspaper that reported on wrecks of even less serious nature at the time. One of the worst parts is that the titular Michelle (who later divorced her husband to marry the psychologist she was relating all of this to) blames her involvement in the abuse on her mother, who died of cancer when Michelle was 14. [[http://www.witchvox.com/va/dt_va.html?a=cabc&c=whs&id=4349 This]] article gives a detailed analysis of the book.
** ''Michelle Remembers'' was hardly the only book that factored into the "Satanic Panic" of TheEighties. Two other books that led the scare were [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laurel_Rose_Willson Laurel Rose Willson's]] ''[[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/07/02/the-prodigal-witch-ix-lauren-stratford/ Satan's]] [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/07/20/the-prodigal-witch-ix-lauren-stratford-part-ii/ Underground]]'' (under Underground]]'', published under the name Lauren Stratford) and [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/03/17/the-prodigal-witch-part-ii-mike-warnke/ Mike Warnke's]] ''The Satan Seller''. The former Stratford, spoke of the author being brought up as a "[[BabyFactory baby breeder]]" by a Satanic cult, giving birth to babies to be used in sacrifices or {{snuff film}}s, while the latter was about serving as a "Satanic high priest" before coming to Christianity. Both books film}}s. The evangelical magazine ''Cornerstone'' [[http://www.holysmoke.org/sdhok/side.htm were]] [[http://www.holysmoke.org/sdhok/warnke.htm exposed]] exposed it as frauds by the evangelical magazine ''Cornerstone'', which a hoax]] when it pointed out that the dates and events given by the authors she gave didn't line up with school and hospital records, among other inconsistencies.and school records. Willson later reappeared [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/07/20/the-prodigal-witch-ix-lauren-stratford-part-iii/ as "Laura Grabowski"]], claiming to be a survivor of Auschwitz-Birkenau and a victim of [[MadDoctor Dr. Josef Mengele]]; this, too, was exposed as a fraud when a Jewish group investigated her claims.
** [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/03/17/the-prodigal-witch-part-ii-mike-warnke/ Mike Warnke's]] ''The Satan Seller'' was an account of serving as a "Satanic high priest" before coming to Christianity. ''Cornerstone'' debunked this one [[http://www.holysmoke.org/sdhok/warnke.htm in much the same way]].
** In 1986, the infamous Jack Chick Creator/JackChick published a bizarre book named [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2011/06/26/the-prodigal-witch-viii-elaine/ "He came to set the captives free"]], which supposedly depicted how Dr. Rebecca Brown released a woman named Elaine from a huge Satanic cult that had forced her to marry Satan himself, among other things. It turned out "Dr. Brown" was an ex-physician named Ruth Bailey who lost her license for abusing her patients (i.(''i.e., '', she tried to overdose them on painkillers), and that "Elaine" (whose real name was Edna) was a roommate and former patient whom she also treated like crap.



* A children's book called ''The Pushcart War'' claimed it was based on a true story. While certain events are implausible (like attacking trucks with pea-shooters), it's theoretically ''possible''...until you realize that the copyright date is before the time that the events in the book supposedly take place.
** The book was presented as a history written long after the events described therein. Interestingly, its publishers update the "historical" time frame with each new edition. It was originally published in 1964 describing events in 1975. Later releases said 1986 and 1998. The most recent version says 2029.
* Lorenzo Carcaterra's ''Sleepers'' (which was also made into [[Film/{{Sleepers}} a film]]) purported to be a nonfiction account of how he and three of his friends were sent to reform school for a year, where they were viciously abused by the guards. A decade later, two of the friends killed one of the guards but were acquitted of murder because they were prosecuted by the third friend, who intentionally lost the case with the help of a false alibi provided by a priest. However, none of the details provided by Carcaterra corresponded to any real-life murder case that has been identified, and Carcaterra's records from the Catholic school he attended in his youth have no indication of him ever having been sent to reform school, or even being absent for as many as four consecutive weeks.
** No real murder case on ''Manhattan'' has been found to correspond with the one featured in the book but Carcaterra states in the opening that it didn't take place on Manhattan in real life. The book also claims the school records for Shakes and his friends were altered before the trial to make it seem like they hadn't been gone for any long period of time. This doesn't mean the story is true though.

to:

* A children's book called ''The Pushcart War'' claimed it was based on a true story. While certain events are implausible (like attacking trucks with pea-shooters), it's theoretically ''possible''...until you realize that the copyright date is before the time that the events in the book supposedly take place.
** The
place. This is deliberate, as the book was presented as a history written long after the events described therein. Interestingly, its publishers update the "historical" time frame with each new edition. It was originally published in 1964 describing events in 1975. Later releases said 1986 and 1998. The most recent version says 2029.
* Lorenzo Carcaterra's ''Sleepers'' (which was also made into [[Film/{{Sleepers}} a film]]) purported to be a nonfiction account of how he and three of his friends were sent to reform school for a year, where they were viciously abused by the guards. A decade later, two of the friends killed one of the guards but were acquitted of murder because they were prosecuted by the third friend, who intentionally lost the case with the help of a false alibi provided by a priest. However, none of the details provided by Carcaterra corresponded to any real-life murder case in Manhattan that has been identified, and Carcaterra's records from the Catholic school he attended in his youth have no indication of him ever having been sent to reform school, or even being absent for as many as four consecutive weeks.
** No real murder case on ''Manhattan'' has been found to correspond with the one featured in the book but
weeks. Carcaterra states in the opening counters this by claiming that it didn't take place on Manhattan in real life. The book also claims the school records for Shakes and his friends were had been altered before and that the trial to murder didn't really take place in Manhattan, but this wouldn't make it seem like they hadn't been gone for any long period of time. This doesn't mean the story is true though.true.



** Also infamous was ''Jay's Journal'', about a teenage boy lured into Satanism who ultimately kills himself. It was such a lie that Sparks got ''sued by the real Jay's family'' (actually, a boy named [[http://web.archive.org/web/20040723080129/http://www.slweekly.com/editorial/2004/feat_2004-06-03.cfm Alden Barrett]]). Barrett really did commit suicide in 1971, and his mother, believing that ''Go Ask Alice'' was real, asked Sparks to publish an edition of his diary. But only a fragment of the book comes from Alden's diary. His grave has been desecrated repeatedly, his family has split apart and his brother left the Mormons and wrote a book, ''A Place In The Sun'', about how horrible and false ''Jay's Journal'' was. The family also sponsored a rock opera, ''[[http://www.ericdsnider.com/theater/a-place-in-the-sun/ A Place In The Sun]]'', based on their testimony.

to:

** Also infamous was ''Jay's Journal'', about a teenage boy lured into Satanism who ultimately kills himself. It was such a lie that Sparks got ''sued by the real Jay's family'' (actually, family''. Jay was actually a boy named [[http://web.archive.org/web/20040723080129/http://www.slweekly.com/editorial/2004/feat_2004-06-03.cfm Alden Barrett]]). Barrett Barrett]], who really did commit suicide in 1971, and his 1971. His mother, believing that ''Go Ask Alice'' was real, asked Sparks to publish an edition of his diary. But only a fragment of the book comes from Alden's diary. His grave has been desecrated repeatedly, his family has split apart apart, and his brother left the Mormons and wrote a book, ''A Place In The Sun'', about how horrible and false ''Jay's Journal'' was. The family also sponsored a rock opera, ''[[http://www.ericdsnider.com/theater/a-place-in-the-sun/ A Place In The Sun]]'', based on their testimony.



* American-Jordanian author Norma Khouri wrote ''Forbidden Love'', a memoir detailing her life in Jordan and her friendship with a Muslim woman named Dalia, who was murdered by her family in an honour killing for meeting a Christian man in secret. When an Australian literary critic did some digging and discovered that Khouri had not been in Jordan at all during the book's timeframe (and even got [[ArtisticLicenseGeography certain locations in Jordan wrong]] and [[ArtisticLicenseLaw misrepresented their legal system]], alongside the country's society as a whole), the publisher hastily recalled the book. Khouri admitted to taking some liberties with original story, but maintains that the book is still BasedOnATrueStory, despite all signs pointing to the contrary.
** ButWaitTheresMore! Jordanian feminist and pro-women's rights activist Amal al-Sabbagh confronted Khouri about the inaccouracies in "Forbidden Love" ''before'' it was published, but Khouri not only insisted that everything was true despite (again) proof to the contrary, but [[http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/07/23/1090464851887.html threw a fit at Al-Sabbagh]] and tried to accuse her of just wanting to "protect the image of Jordan". For worse, the Australian journalist that uncovered the hoax ALSO found out that [[http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/07/26/1090693899061.html Khouri and her American husband ran away from America]] after their involvement in several frauds...
* Done for satirical effect by ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Report_from_Iron_Mountain The Report from Iron Mountain]]'', a [[TheSixties '60s]] counterculture book written by Leonard Lewin as a StealthParody of [[UsefulNotes/TheVietnamWar Vietnam-era]] military think tanks. Posing as a leaked document written by a "secret government panel", it claimed that war was a necessary part of the economy and served to divert collective aggression, and that society would collapse without it -- basically, the plot of ''MetalGearSolid4''. Therefore, in the event of peace, they recommended that new bodies be created to emulate the economic activities of war, including {{blood sport}}s, the creation of new enemies to scare the people (including {{alien inva|sion}}ders and environmental destruction), and [[RefugeInAudacity the reinstatement of slavery]].\\

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* American-Jordanian author Norma Khouri wrote ''Forbidden Love'', a memoir detailing her life in Jordan and her friendship with a Muslim woman named Dalia, who was murdered by her family in an honour killing for meeting a Christian man in secret. When an Australian literary critic did some digging and discovered that Even before publication, Khouri had not been in Jordan at all during the book's timeframe (and even got [[ArtisticLicenseGeography certain locations in Jordan wrong]] and [[ArtisticLicenseLaw misrepresented their legal system]], alongside the country's society as a whole), the publisher hastily recalled the book. Khouri admitted to taking some liberties with original story, but maintains that the book is still BasedOnATrueStory, despite all signs pointing to the contrary.
** ButWaitTheresMore!
was confronted by Jordanian feminist and pro-women's rights activist Amal al-Sabbagh confronted al-Sabbagh, who noted that Khouri about the inaccouracies in "Forbidden Love" ''before'' it was published, but had completely misrepresented [[ArtisticLicenseLaw Jordan's legal system]] and also gotten [[ArtisticLicenseGeography certain locations wrong.]] Khouri not only insisted that everything was true despite (again) proof to the contrary, but dismissed this criticism (or more accurately, [[http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/07/23/1090464851887.html threw a fit at Al-Sabbagh]] and tried to accuse her of hissy-fit]]), claiming that al-Sabbagh was just wanting trying to "protect the image of Jordan". For worse, the protect Jordan's image. Then an Australian journalist literary critic did some digging after publication; in addition to the ArtisticLicense, she discovered that uncovered Khouri hadn't even been in Jordan at all during the hoax ALSO found out book's timeframe and that [[http://www.smh.com.au/articles/2004/07/26/1090693899061.html Khouri and her American husband ran away from America]] after their involvement in several frauds...
frauds. At this, the publisher hastily recalled the book. Khouri admitted to taking some liberties with the original story but still insists that the story is true, despite all evidence to the contrary.
* Done for satirical effect by ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Report_from_Iron_Mountain The Report from Iron Mountain]]'', a [[TheSixties '60s]] counterculture book written by Leonard Lewin as a StealthParody of [[UsefulNotes/TheVietnamWar Vietnam-era]] military think tanks. Posing as a leaked document written by a "secret government panel", it claimed that war was a necessary part of the economy and served to divert collective aggression, and that society would collapse without it -- basically, (basically, the plot of ''MetalGearSolid4''.''MetalGearSolid4''). Therefore, in the event of peace, they recommended that new bodies be created to emulate the economic activities of war, including {{blood sport}}s, the creation of new enemies to scare the people (including {{alien inva|sion}}ders and environmental destruction), and [[RefugeInAudacity the reinstatement of slavery]].\\



* ''Literature/TheProtocolsOfTheEldersOfZion'', a notorious anti-Semitic tract claiming to be the records of a meeting by a Jewish cabal plotting to TakeOverTheWorld. In reality, it was written by the Okhrana, the SecretPolice of TsaristRussia, as a tool for starting pogroms with and otherwise convincing people that anything other than reactionary Christian monarchy was directly authored by {{Satan}}, and was later carried into western Europe and the US by White Russians in the wake of UsefulNotes/RedOctober. It was exposed as a forgery by ''[[BritishNewspapers The Times]]'' of London in 1921, which revealed that large sections of the book were cribbed wholesale from a 19th century anti-Napoleonic tract. Even so, it was made part of the school curriculum in UsefulNotes/NaziGermany, and anti-Semites to this day cite it as "evidence" of a Jewish conspiracy.

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* ''Literature/TheProtocolsOfTheEldersOfZion'', ''Literature/TheProtocolsOfTheEldersOfZion'' is a notorious anti-Semitic tract claiming to be the records of a meeting by a Jewish cabal plotting to TakeOverTheWorld. In reality, it was written by the Okhrana, the SecretPolice of TsaristRussia, as a tool for starting pogroms with and otherwise convincing people that anything other than reactionary Christian monarchy was directly authored by {{Satan}}, and {{Satan}}. It was later carried into western Europe and the US by White Russians in the wake of UsefulNotes/RedOctober. It was exposed as a forgery by ''[[BritishNewspapers The Times]]'' of London in 1921, which who revealed that large sections of the book were cribbed wholesale from a 19th century anti-Napoleonic tract. Even so, it was made part of the school curriculum in UsefulNotes/NaziGermany, and anti-Semites to this day cite it as "evidence" of a Jewish conspiracy.



* ''Literature/TheThingsTheyCarried'', is, at first, a war story about a platoon in Vietnam. But halfway through, the author admits that he made certain details more gory to make things more interesting, and moves beyond Vietnam - the entire book was more about what happened in the past and keeping memories alive than Vietnam itself.

to:

* ''Literature/TheThingsTheyCarried'', is, at first, a war story about a platoon in Vietnam. But halfway through, the author admits that he made certain details more gory to make things more interesting, and moves beyond Vietnam - -- the entire book was more about what happened in the past and keeping memories alive than Vietnam itself.



* The book ''Literature/AChildCalledIt'' may be this [[http://www.nytimes.com/2002/07/28/magazine/dysfunction-for-dollars.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm according to the New York times]].
* The novel "Chocolate covered pickles" (''Des cornichons au chocolat'') was published in 1983 as the {{Diary}} written some times ago by a teenage girl called Stéphanie. As she didn't gave her first name, the name of the author on cover was simply [[OnlyOneName "Stéphanie"]]. 25 years and a [[LiveActionTV television]] adaptation later, 70 years old, male author Phillipe Labro admitted he was the only writer of the book and that there was no Stéphanie to begin with. His experiment to verify if his work could pose as the one of a young female indeed succeeded.
* The works of Carlos Castaneda, specifically his first three books about his time with ostensible Yaqui shaman Don Juan, were quite popular in anthropology circles in the 1970s. After detailed examination of the timelines and locations described by Castaneda, critics pointed out that that they could not have have possibly happened as described; and while the books do show some knowledge of native Southwestern tribes, at least once description of a peyote ceremony was determined to be lifted from an anthropology textbook available at the school where Castaneda studied. While he has never fully admitted to the books being fictional, he has acknowledged "taking liberties" with the times and locations. To date, no independent verification of Don Juan's identity, or some of the ceremonies Castaneda described, has been found.

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* The book ''Literature/AChildCalledIt'' may be this a hoax [[http://www.nytimes.com/2002/07/28/magazine/dysfunction-for-dollars.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm according to the New York times]].
* The novel "Chocolate covered pickles" (''Des cornichons au chocolat'') was published in 1983 as the {{Diary}} written some times ago by {{diary}} of a teenage girl called Stéphanie. As she Stéphanie, who didn't gave give her first name, last name; the name of the author on cover was simply [[OnlyOneName "Stéphanie"]]. 25 years and a [[LiveActionTV television]] adaptation later, 70 years old, 70-year-old male author Phillipe Labro admitted he was the only writer of the book and that there was no Stéphanie to begin with. His He claimed the book was an experiment to verify see if his work he could pose as the one of a young female indeed succeeded.
female, and [[GoneHorriblyRight he succeeded.]]
* The works of Carlos Castaneda, specifically his first three books about his time with ostensible Yaqui shaman Don Juan, were quite popular in anthropology circles in the 1970s. After detailed examination of the timelines and locations described by Castaneda, critics pointed out that that they could not have have possibly happened as described; and while described. While the books do show some knowledge of native Southwestern tribes, at least once description of a peyote ceremony was determined to be lifted from an anthropology textbook available at the school where Castaneda studied. While he has never fully admitted to the books being fictional, he has acknowledged "taking liberties" with the times and locations. To date, no independent verification of Don Juan's identity, or some of the ceremonies Castaneda described, has been found.



* If you are inclined to consider "The Custom House" of Literature/TheScarletLetter an essay and not fiction, then the narrative becomes this. Academics and Fans though are undecided on this BaseBreaker.



* Fake Holocaust-related memoirs, oh boy. This particular deal is even more serious because Holocaust deniers and antisemites have clung to books like these to claim that '''every''' Holocaust memoir is a fake - including those proved to be real like Literature/TheDiaryOfAnneFrank, Olga Lengel's ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Chimneys Five Chimneys]]'', [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miklós_Nyiszli Dr. Miklos Nyiszli's]] ''Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account'', or Martin Grayís ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/For_Those_I_Loved For Those I Loved]]''. Some of these are:
** "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angel_at_the_Fence Angel at the Fence]]." by [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2008/12/29/528/ Herman Rosenblat]]. Mr. Rosenblat really ''is'' a Holocaust survivor and ''truly'' was imprisoned in the Schlieben camp as a child and teenager, but as the historians Kenneth Waltzer and Deborah Lipstadt found out, the parts about his future wife Roma secretly meeting him and sneaking him food through the Schlieben fence were pure fiction, and he didn't start "telling" them until several years after their marriage. ([[RuleOfThree Oprah was fooled by this one, too.]])
** Jerzy Kosinski's ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Painted_Bird The Painted Bird]]'' was a fiction book that was ''supposedly'' based on the author's RealLife war experiences in German-occupied Poland. Which turned out to be false; i.e., the couple who took care of him as a boy alongside other Jewish children that they protected, were depicted as abusers and rapists. (They were ''pissed'' when they found out, logically.)
*** The author even was accused of being a Holocaust profiteer by Polish people (and the book [[BannedInChina was banned for more than 20 years in Poland]]), since some parts ''heavily'' resembled Holocaust pornography among other stuff.
** ''[[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2008/03/02/460/ Misha: A Memoire of the Holocaust]]'' was written by Misha Defonseca. She said when she was 4, her Jewish parents were sent in a concentration camp during WorldWarII, and after she got tired of being abused by her caretakers she crossed whole Europe to try finding them, and [[RaisedByWolves she was alone with wolves during the travel.]] A movie was done in 2007, based on the novel, and "Misha" confessed after that her name was Monique de Wael, she wasn't born a Jew, her parents were arrested because they were members of the Belgian Resistance, and she was simply sent to her grandfather. Monique said that she the story because of her passion for wolves and as a way to "cope" with her harsh life during these years. (And [[RunningGag Oprah also recommended it]])
*** One can argue that the surprising part is that the lie was exposed only after the movie was released. There was a small conference by a Polish Holocaust survivor, years before the movie was done. He exposed the book as a lie, just because Jews in Poland didn't have to wear yellow stars on chest, but blue ones on the arm.

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* Fake There is a disturbingly large number of fake Holocaust-related memoirs, oh boy. memoirs. This particular deal is even more serious because Holocaust deniers and antisemites anti-semites have clung to books like these to claim that '''every''' ''every'' Holocaust memoir is a fake - -- including those proved proven to be real like Literature/TheDiaryOfAnneFrank, Olga Lengel's ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Five_Chimneys Five Chimneys]]'', [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Miklós_Nyiszli Dr. Miklos Nyiszli's]] ''Auschwitz: A Doctor's Eyewitness Account'', or Martin Grayís ''[[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/For_Those_I_Loved For Those I Loved]]''. Some of these the fake ones are:
** "[[http://en.''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angel_at_the_Fence Angel at the Fence]]." Fence]]'' by [[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2008/12/29/528/ Herman Rosenblat]]. Mr. Rosenblat really ''is'' a Holocaust survivor and ''truly'' really was imprisoned in the Schlieben camp as a child and teenager, but as the historians Kenneth Waltzer and Deborah Lipstadt found out, the parts about his future wife Roma secretly meeting him and sneaking him food through the Schlieben fence were pure fiction, and he didn't start "telling" them until several years after their marriage. ([[RuleOfThree Oprah was fooled by this one, too.]])
** Jerzy Kosinski's ''[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Painted_Bird The Painted Bird]]'' was a fiction book that was ''supposedly'' supposedly based on the author's RealLife war experiences in German-occupied Poland. Which Poland, which turned out to be false; i.e., false. Poles often accuse the author of being a Holocaust profiteer, as some parts ''heavily'' resembled Holocaust pornography; for this reason, the book was [[BannedInChina banned in Poland]] for more than 20 years. Most egregiously, the couple who took care of him as a boy alongside other Jewish children that they protected, were protected was depicted as abusers and rapists. (They rapists; they were naturally rather ''pissed'' when they found out, logically.)
*** The author even was accused of being a Holocaust profiteer by Polish people (and the book [[BannedInChina was banned for more than 20 years in Poland]]), since some parts ''heavily'' resembled Holocaust pornography among other stuff.
out.
** ''[[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2008/03/02/460/ Misha: A Memoire of the Holocaust]]'' was written by Misha Defonseca. She said when she was 4, her Jewish parents were sent in to a concentration camp during WorldWarII, and after she got tired of being abused by her caretakers caretakers, she crossed whole all of Europe to try finding them, and [[RaisedByWolves she was alone with wolves during the travel.]] A movie was done made in 2007, 2007 based on the novel, and novel. Then, "Misha" confessed after that her name was Monique de Wael, she wasn't born a Jew, her parents were arrested because they were members of the Belgian Resistance, and she was simply sent to her grandfather. grandfather.[[note]]It's surprising that it even had to go this far. Before the movie, a small conference of Polish Holocaust survivors exposed the book as a lie, just because Jews in Poland didn't have to wear yellow stars on chest, but blue ones on the arm.[[/note]] Monique said that she wrote the story because of her passion for wolves and as a way to "cope" with her harsh life during these years. (And [[RunningGag Oprah also recommended it]])
*** One can argue that the surprising part is that the lie was exposed only after the movie was released. There was a small conference by a Polish Holocaust survivor, years before the movie was done. He exposed the book as a lie, just because Jews in Poland didn't have to wear yellow stars on chest, but blue ones on the arm.
it.]])



** The 1995 Holocaust memoir ''Fragments'' was supposedly written by Jewish musician and luthier [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binjamin_Wilkomirski Binjamin Wilkomirski]], depicting the author's "childhood time" in Auschwitz-Birkenau through a rather unusual narrative, allegedly akin to a young boy's view. In 1997, however, Swiss journalist Daniel Ganzifried (son of a Holocaust survivor) argued that Wilkomirski was actually Bruno Grosjean-Dossekker, a Swiss gentile born from a singe mother and who had been adopted by a rich local family as a little boy. Wilkomirski claimed that he was a Jewish child adopted by a gentile family who re-named him as Bruno, giving him the name of their dead son; however, further investigation by historian Stefan Maechler confirmed Ganzifried's claims, and one of the strongest pieces of evidence against the author was how he "recognized" a fellow Auschwitz survivor... the aforementioned "Laura Grabowski".
** In 2004 the University of Western Australia Press published ''Stolen Soul'', the Holocaust memoir of a 69-year-old mining camp cook named Bernard Holstein. Holstein told heart-rending stories of being experimented upon by Nazi scientists in Auschwitz, living with wolves, joining LaResistance, and travelling to Australia as an orphan. Holstein lacked a German accent, but his arm bore a number tattoo. His publisher, Judy Shorrock, had no doubts about his story until she received a phone call from Bernardís brother... Bernard was really Bernard Brougham, son of a Catholic family from New South Wales; he had never been to Europe, and went as far as getting a fake number tattoo to make his tale more believable.
* ''[[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2008/03/04/464/ Love and Consequences]]'' by [[http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/04/books/04fake.html?ref=books&_r=0 "Margaret B. Jones"]] supposedly described how a half Native girl rose from the gang-infested suburbs of L.A and ultimately went to university in Oregon. It was actually written by Margaret "Peggy" Seltzer, an upper middle-class white woman. She claimed that, while she ''did'' lie about her identity, she based the book on real testimonies that she collected in her work in the suburbs.
* Margaret Landon's ''Anna and the King of Siam'' was based of the works of Anna Leonowens who was a real person and ''did'' teach English to the royal children of Siam. Her ''The English Governess at the Siamese Court'' seems to be a fairly accurate account of her experiences but the sequel ''The Romance of the Harem'' was apparently based on rumor, gossip and tales handed down from previous generations. Anna also lied about her background reinventing herself as a Welsh gentlewoman and widow of an English officer rather than the Anglo-Indian daughter of a British soldier and widow of a civilian clerk that she really was.

to:

** The 1995 Holocaust memoir ''Fragments'' was supposedly written by Jewish musician and luthier [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Binjamin_Wilkomirski Binjamin Wilkomirski]], depicting the author's "childhood time" in Auschwitz-Birkenau through a rather unusual narrative, allegedly akin to a young boy's view. In 1997, however, Swiss journalist Daniel Ganzifried (son of a Holocaust survivor) argued that Wilkomirski was actually Bruno Grosjean-Dossekker, a Swiss gentile born from a singe mother and who had been adopted by a rich local family as a little boy. Wilkomirski claimed that he was a Jewish child adopted by a gentile family who re-named him as Bruno, giving him the name of their dead son; however, further investigation by historian Stefan Maechler confirmed Ganzifried's claims, and one claims. One of the strongest pieces of evidence against the author was how he "recognized" a fellow Auschwitz survivor... survivor, the aforementioned "Laura Grabowski".
** In 2004 the University of Western Australia Press published ''Stolen Soul'', the Holocaust memoir of a 69-year-old mining camp cook named Bernard Holstein. Holstein told heart-rending stories of being experimented upon by Nazi scientists in Auschwitz, living with wolves, joining LaResistance, and travelling to Australia as an orphan. Holstein lacked a German accent, but his arm bore a number tattoo. His publisher, Judy Shorrock, had no doubts about his story until she received a phone call from Bernardís brother...brother. Bernard was really Bernard Brougham, son of a Catholic family from New South Wales; he had never been to Europe, and went as far as getting a fake number tattoo to make his tale more believable.
* ''[[http://swallowingthecamel.me/2008/03/04/464/ Love and Consequences]]'' by [[http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/04/books/04fake.html?ref=books&_r=0 "Margaret B. Jones"]] supposedly described how a half Native half-Native girl rose from the gang-infested suburbs of L.A and Los Angeles to ultimately went go to university in Oregon. It was actually written by Margaret "Peggy" Seltzer, an upper middle-class white woman. She claimed that, that while she ''did'' lie about her identity, she based the book on real testimonies that she collected in through her work in the suburbs.
* Margaret Landon's ''Anna and the King of Siam'' was based of the works of Anna Leonowens Leonowens, who was a real person and ''did'' teach English to the royal children of Siam. Her book ''The English Governess at the Siamese Court'' seems to be a fairly accurate account of her experiences experiences, but the sequel ''The Romance of the Harem'' was apparently based on rumor, gossip gossip, and tales handed down from previous generations. Anna also lied about her background reinventing herself as a Welsh gentlewoman and widow of an English officer rather than the Anglo-Indian daughter of a British soldier and widow of a civilian clerk that she really was.



* ''Series/LieToMe'' inverts this with a disclaimer at the beginning of each episode, stating that the events and characters of the series are entirely false. While nothing like any of the episodes has ever happened in real life, Lightman is based off of a real-life person, Dr. Paul Ekman.
** The disclaimer is probably to avoid legal wrangling. Lightman may declare, for example, that he knows another character is lying by the way that person touches his hand to his lips. Then, as the show goes to commercial, we are shown news photos of real-life people -- mostly politicians -- performing the same gesture.
* RealityTelevision can be prone to this. While all of Reality TV is Based On A Great Big Lie to some extent--the "characters" are presented with carefully crafted situations, and many reality show participants mostly understand what kind of "role" they are supposed to play for the cameras--some shows go farther than others in fabricating reality.

to:

* ''Series/LieToMe'' inverts this with a disclaimer at the beginning of each episode, stating that the events and characters of the series are entirely false. While nothing like any of the episodes has ever happened in real life, Lightman is based off of a real-life person, Dr. Paul Ekman.
**
Ekman. The disclaimer is probably may be to avoid legal wrangling.wrangling given the show's tendencies. Lightman may declare, for example, that he knows another character is lying by the way that person touches his hand to his lips. Then, as the show goes to commercial, we are shown news photos of real-life people -- mostly politicians -- performing the same gesture.
* RealityTelevision can be prone to this. While all of Reality TV is Based On A Great Big Lie to some extent--the extent -- the "characters" are presented with carefully crafted situations, and many reality show participants mostly understand what kind of "role" they are supposed to play for the cameras--some cameras -- some shows go farther further than others in fabricating reality.



** ''Breaking Amish'', which became a big hit for Creator/{{TLC}}, purported to show five young people, four Amish and one Mennonite, who had left their communities and were coming to the big city for the first time. In fact they had all been living in the secular world for years, one for over a decade. Two of the cast members that were shown going on their "first date" on the show had really been involved for years and had a child together before the show started recording.

to:

** ''Breaking Amish'', which became a big hit for Creator/{{TLC}}, purported to show five young people, four Amish and one Mennonite, who had left their communities and were coming to the big city for the first time. In fact they had all been living in the secular world for years, one for over a decade. Two of the cast members that who were shown going on their "first date" on the show had really been involved for years and had a child together before the show started recording.



* ''Series/{{Scorpion}}'' is based on the true story of real life Walter O'Brien, aka genius hacker Scorpion, with [[ImprobablyHighIQ an IQ of 197]], who started a company at the age of 13 and helped catch the Boston Marathon bombers and prevent a nuclear meltdown. Or more accurately, it is based on the stories made up by Walter O'Brien, because not one of those is actually true.

to:

* ''Series/{{Scorpion}}'' is based on the true story of real life Walter O'Brien, aka genius hacker Scorpion, Scorpion with [[ImprobablyHighIQ an IQ of 197]], who started a company at the age of 13 and helped catch the Boston Marathon bombers and prevent a nuclear meltdown. Or more accurately, it is based on the stories made up by Walter O'Brien, because not one of those is actually true.



* To promote Platinum Weird, Dave Stewart (from the Eurythmics) and Kara [=DioGuardi=] claimed that the songs were originally by a lost-to-history 1970s band of the same name, sung by (the fictional) Erin Grace. VH-1 even did a mockumentary on the fake band.

to:

* To promote Platinum Weird, ''Platinum Weird'', Dave Stewart (from the Eurythmics) and Kara [=DioGuardi=] claimed that the songs were originally by a lost-to-history 1970s band of the same name, sung by (the fictional) the fictional Erin Grace. VH-1 even did a mockumentary on the fake band.



* William Shakespeare bent ArtisticLicense to the snapping point when writing some of his history plays. The real Theatre/{{Macbeth}}, for instance, defeated a young King Duncan in battle to win his throne. The real Macbeth also had a successful 17-year reign as King of the Scots before being himself defeated in battle by Duncan's son Malcolm (who had been a child, not a young adult, when Duncan was killed). Malcolm also seemingly killed Macbeth by his own hand; no person corresponding to Macduff existed in reality. And Malcolm did not immediately take the throne after killing Macbeth; the Macbeth's stepson Lulach (who does not even appear in the play) had a brief and apparently rather dismal reign as King before Malcolm had him assassinated and only ''then'' became King Malcolm III. A lot of it can be justified as him having to please the monarchy at the time, who were descendants of Duncan and Malcolm.
** It's not always clear how accurate Shakespeare's knowledge of history was in the first place, given how much historical writing during his time was itself an example of this trope. In any case, audiences at the time were relatively unconcerned about whether historical dramas got the details right.
* Ruggero Leoncavallo's opera ''{{Pagliacci}}'' is probably one of these: Leoncavallo said it was based on a court case that his father, who was a judge, presided over, and further claimed that he had the document to prove it. However, no such document, or indeed any corroborating evidence, has ever been found. It is now generally believed that Leoncavallo played the "true story" card to evade the charge of plagiarism.

to:

* William Shakespeare bent ArtisticLicense to the snapping point when writing some of his history plays. The real Theatre/{{Macbeth}}, for instance, defeated a young King Duncan in battle to win his throne. The real Macbeth also had a successful 17-year reign as King of the Scots before being himself defeated in battle by Duncan's son Malcolm (who had been a child, not a young adult, when Duncan was killed). Malcolm also seemingly killed Macbeth by his own hand; no person corresponding to Macduff existed in reality. And Malcolm did not immediately take the throne after killing Macbeth; the Macbeth's stepson Lulach (who does not even appear in the play) had a brief and apparently rather dismal reign as King before Malcolm had him assassinated and only ''then'' became King Malcolm III. A lot of it can be justified as him having to please the monarchy at the time, who were descendants of Duncan and Malcolm.
** It's not always clear how accurate Shakespeare's knowledge of
Malcolm, and the rest can be justified by the rather inaccurate contemporary history was in the first place, given how much historical writing during his time was itself an example of this trope.books he had available. In any case, audiences at the time were relatively unconcerned about whether historical dramas got the details right.
* Ruggero Leoncavallo's opera ''{{Pagliacci}}'' is probably one of these: based on a lie. Leoncavallo said it was based on a court case that his father, who was a judge, presided over, and further claimed that he had the document documentation to prove it. However, no such document, or indeed any corroborating evidence, has ever been found. It is now generally believed that Leoncavallo played the "true story" card to evade the charge of plagiarism.



* This is actually parodied in the episode "Arrgh!" of ''WesternAnimation/SpongebobSquarepants''. [=SpongeBob=] and Patrick quickly come to believe their pirate quest is a scam (and that Mr. Krabs has gone CloudCuckooLander) finding out the treasure map is just a game board they used earlier in the episode. Chance kicks in as they do find the treasure according to the map (the game board) with the remarks of [=SpongeBob=] saying "It really IS based on a true treasure map!" The Flying Dutchman comes in to take his treasure back, willing to share with [=SpongeBob=] and Patrick. But much to the dismay of Mr. Krabs, he only gains a piece from the game board, and gets told that "But it's based on a REAL treasure chest!"
** It's notable that this is LaserGuidedKarma, as it was a fight over the treasure (Patrick and [=SpongeBob=] wanted their shares, Krabs wanted it all) that woke up TFD in the first place.
* Creator/TexAvery was fond of this trope. ''Drag-Along Droopy'' began with the disclaimer; "This is an absolutely authentic account of the grazing land battles of the sheep and cattle wars of the early west. We know this story to be true. It was told to us by--'''A TEXAN'''!"

to:

* This is actually parodied in the episode "Arrgh!" of ''WesternAnimation/SpongebobSquarepants''. [=SpongeBob=] and Patrick quickly come to believe their pirate quest is a scam (and that Mr. Krabs has gone CloudCuckooLander) CloudCuckooLander), finding out the treasure map is just a game board they used earlier in the episode. Chance kicks in as they do find the treasure according to the map (the game board) with the remarks of board, to which [=SpongeBob=] saying "It remarks "it really IS ''is'' based on a true treasure map!" The Flying Dutchman comes in to take his treasure back, willing to share with [=SpongeBob=] and Patrick. But much to the dismay of Mr. Krabs, he only gains a piece from the game board, and gets told that "But it's "it's based on a REAL ''real'' treasure chest!"
** It's notable that this is LaserGuidedKarma, as it was a fight over the treasure (Patrick and [=SpongeBob=] wanted their shares, Krabs wanted it all) that woke up TFD in the first place.
* Creator/TexAvery was fond of this trope. ''Drag-Along Droopy'' began with the disclaimer; "This is an absolutely authentic account of the grazing land battles of the sheep and cattle wars of the early west. We know this story to be true. It was told to us by--'''A TEXAN'''!"by -- ''A TEXAN''!"
31st Mar '16 1:28:24 PM Greenygal
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* Played with regarding ''Comicbook/FromHell'', which is based on one of the myriad theories behind the murders of UsefulNotes/JackTheRipper (specifically, a variation on the theory that the murders were committed by a high-ranking member of Victorian society on the orders of Queen Victoria to prevent the victims from revealing the existance of an illegitimate heir to the throne). Creator/AlanMoore has publicly acknowledged that he doesn't believe a single word of this particular theory, but it worked for the story he wanted to tell.

to:

* Played with regarding ''Comicbook/FromHell'', which is based on one of the myriad theories behind the murders of UsefulNotes/JackTheRipper (specifically, a variation on the theory that the murders were committed by a high-ranking member of Victorian society on the orders of Queen Victoria to prevent the victims from revealing the existance existence of an illegitimate heir to the throne). Creator/AlanMoore has publicly acknowledged that he doesn't believe a single word of this particular theory, but it worked for the story he wanted to tell.
20th Mar '16 11:14:16 PM erforce
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* Lorenzo Carcaterra's ''Sleepers'' purported to be a nonfiction account of how he and three of his friends were sent to reform school for a year, where they were viciously abused by the guards. A decade later, two of the friends killed one of the guards but were acquitted of murder because they were prosecuted by the third friend, who intentionally lost the case with the help of a false alibi provided by a priest. However, none of the details provided by Carcaterra corresponded to any real-life murder case that has been identified, and Carcaterra's records from the Catholic school he attended in his youth have no indication of him ever having been sent to reform school, or even being absent for as many as four consecutive weeks.

to:

* Lorenzo Carcaterra's ''Sleepers'' (which was also made into [[Film/{{Sleepers}} a film]]) purported to be a nonfiction account of how he and three of his friends were sent to reform school for a year, where they were viciously abused by the guards. A decade later, two of the friends killed one of the guards but were acquitted of murder because they were prosecuted by the third friend, who intentionally lost the case with the help of a false alibi provided by a priest. However, none of the details provided by Carcaterra corresponded to any real-life murder case that has been identified, and Carcaterra's records from the Catholic school he attended in his youth have no indication of him ever having been sent to reform school, or even being absent for as many as four consecutive weeks.
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http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=Main.BasedOnAGreatBigLie