History LoopholeAbuse / RealLife

27th May '16 2:31:55 PM Adeon
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* In 1996, the Federal Communications Commission required [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Children%27s_Television_Act TV stations]] to air three hours per-week of "[[EdutainmentShow core educational programming]]", serving the "educational and informational needs of children". The "E/I" law has been looped around by broadcasters for decades: the law requires that these programs must be regularly scheduled between 7:00 a.m. and 10 p.m.. At first, broadcasters decided to air these programs during the ''de facto'' FridayNightDeathSlot of when the target demographic were usually in school. Some stations tried to pass off non-educational shows as E/I, but only Green Bay's WLUK was truly successful, having historically aired reruns of ''Series/LittleHouseOnThePrairie'' as E/I credit. [[note]](although it has since been replaced by more conventional E/I programming on weekends, with ''Little House'' giving away to Kelly Ripa)[[//note]]

to:

* In 1996, the Federal Communications Commission required [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Children%27s_Television_Act TV stations]] to air three hours per-week of "[[EdutainmentShow core educational programming]]", serving the "educational and informational needs of children". The "E/I" law has been looped around by broadcasters for decades: the law requires that these programs must be regularly scheduled between 7:00 a.m. and 10 p.m.. At first, broadcasters decided to air these programs during the ''de facto'' FridayNightDeathSlot of when the target demographic were usually in school. Some stations tried to pass off non-educational shows as E/I, but only Green Bay's WLUK was truly successful, having historically aired reruns of ''Series/LittleHouseOnThePrairie'' as E/I credit. [[note]](although it has since been replaced by more conventional E/I programming on weekends, with ''Little House'' giving away to Kelly Ripa)[[//note]] Ripa)[[/note]]



*** In both cases, the raw materials involved in making these items rarely surpass a buck or two [[note]]Realistically, $15 worth of vegetables and $5 worth of mayonnaise would fill up a good-sized grocery basket, and that's with the retail markup that restaurants don't pay for their supplies.[[/note]], so the restaurant isn't losing money, just making a smaller net gain. If the company was really losing money on either deal, ''they would absolutely care'' and they would immediately put the kibosh on it. It is also a loophole exploited by employees to effectively get an employee discount. Since they have to know how to make all the drinks anyways, any good employee would thus be able to do this as another perk of the job.

to:

*** In both cases, the raw materials involved in making these items rarely surpass a buck or two [[note]]Realistically, two[[note]]Realistically, $15 worth of vegetables and $5 worth of mayonnaise would fill up a good-sized grocery basket, and that's with the retail markup that restaurants don't pay for their supplies.[[/note]], so the restaurant isn't losing money, just making a smaller net gain. If the company was really losing money on either deal, ''they would absolutely care'' and they would immediately put the kibosh on it. It is also a loophole exploited by employees to effectively get an employee discount. Since they have to know how to make all the drinks anyways, any good employee would thus be able to do this as another perk of the job.
20th May '16 5:24:39 PM Lirodon
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* In 1996, the Federal Communications Commission required [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Children%27s_Television_Act TV stations]] to air three hours per-week of "[[EdutainmentShow core educational programming]]", serving the "educational and informational needs of children". The "E/I" law has been looped around by broadcasters for decades: the law requires that these programs must be regularly scheduled between 7:00 a.m. and 10 p.m.. At first, broadcasters decided to air these programs during a de facto GraveyardSlot (often buried alongside {{Infomercial}}s) for non-preschool children's programming: when the supposed target demographic[[note]](those in good health, that is)[[/note]] were usually in school. Green Bay's WLUK historically aired reruns of ''Series/LittleHouseOnThePrairie'' to comply, although it has since been replaced by more conventional E/I programming on weekends. The shift of children's television viewership to cable networks has changed how broadcasters comply, however: the major networks' Saturday morning blocks are now entirely dedicated to E/I programming only.
* Another part of the act mentioned above bans "host-selling" (showing an ad for a product related to the show that it airs during), as it will turn the whole show into a commercial. The FCC claims no jurisdiction over cable channels when it comes to these sorts of content rules. That meant that the practical effect of the Children's Television Act was to basically slowly kill kids' shows on broadcast television, while the practical effect of restrictions on content in shows for adults is to cripple broadcasters' ability to show the sort of edgy programming cable has become known for.

to:

* In 1996, the Federal Communications Commission required [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Children%27s_Television_Act TV stations]] to air three hours per-week of "[[EdutainmentShow core educational programming]]", serving the "educational and informational needs of children". The "E/I" law has been looped around by broadcasters for decades: the law requires that these programs must be regularly scheduled between 7:00 a.m. and 10 p.m.. At first, broadcasters decided to air these programs during a de facto GraveyardSlot (often buried alongside {{Infomercial}}s) for non-preschool children's programming: the ''de facto'' FridayNightDeathSlot of when the supposed target demographic[[note]](those in good health, that is)[[/note]] demographic were usually in school. Some stations tried to pass off non-educational shows as E/I, but only Green Bay's WLUK was truly successful, having historically aired reruns of ''Series/LittleHouseOnThePrairie'' to comply, although as E/I credit. [[note]](although it has since been replaced by more conventional E/I programming on weekends. The shift of children's television viewership weekends, with ''Little House'' giving away to cable networks has changed how broadcasters comply, however: the major networks' Saturday morning blocks are now entirely dedicated to E/I programming only.
Kelly Ripa)[[//note]]
* Another part of the act mentioned above Act bans "host-selling" (showing an ad for a product related to the show that it airs during), as it will turn the whole show into a commercial. The FCC claims no jurisdiction over cable channels when it comes to these sorts of content rules. That meant that the practical effect of the Children's Television Act was to basically slowly kill kids' shows on broadcast television, while the practical effect of restrictions on content in shows for adults is to cripple broadcasters' ability to show the sort of edgy programming cable has become known for. E/I programs have largely moved to the graveyard slot of weekends. National sports broadcasts shuffle things further, especially on the west coast.
20th May '16 5:17:58 PM Lirodon
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* In 1996, The Federal Communications Commission required [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Children%27s_Television_Act TV stations]] to air “[[EdutainmentShow educational and informative]]” contents three hours a week, apart from the news; the hours to do so was to be between 7 AM and 10 PM. During the early years, most of that aired from 7 AM-3 PM, which erroneously created many loopholes.
** Since children [[note]] those in good health that is [[/note]] were usually in school during said hours, many adverts with questionable content during an “E/I” show got aired.
** Both live-action and animated programs with “educational and informative” dialogue can get around this.
** It doesn't have to be done in one setting, just 30 minutes a day minimum, on which day of the week isn't listed. This why many stations like CBS, ABC, and NBC tends to air “E/I” shows on weekends since children are likely to be home, leaving talk shows, like Series/TheDoctors, to air on weekdays because they count as “E/I” program due to the contents often being classified as “educational and informative”. The mentioned show talks about medical information, therefore it’s an “E/I” show and meets the requirements.[[note]]Although only a few unethical stations do this with ''The Doctors'' and the stations have to paste in the E/I bug themselves[[/note]]
** Another part of the act mentioned above tells stations to prevent host-selling (showing an ad for a product related to the show that it airs during), as it will turn the whole show into a commercial. A few channels have somehow avoided getting fines, however, for doing this. Here are a few examples:
** Disney Channel is able to avoid this by not running traditional advertising, but once in a while, they will run something that violates the host-selling rule by showing something that ties into their shows (for example, a ''WesternAnimation/SofiaTheFirst'' LeapFrog ad played on the premiere of one of the specials, and a few ''WesternAnimation/DocMcStuffins'' episodes end with a short show entitled ''Nina Needs To Go!'', which always ends with an ad for Pull-Ups which show designs featuring Doc and friends on them for a brief moment. Airings of ''WesternAnimation/MickeyMouseClubhouse'' suffer the same problem as well with at least one of the ads, which shows a glimpse of a Minnie Mouse potty chair for a few seconds, but overall, it's now not as FCC-unfriendly, as it's averted on weekends when it airs on [[WesternAnimation/MilesFromTomorrowland a show Pull-Ups doesn't even have on their products.]]
** It's worth noting that the only such instance where this was possibly reported to the FCC was when the "Snow" episode of ''Nina Needs To Go!'' aired during a winter-themed episode of of ''WesternAnimation/JakeAndTheNeverlandPirates'' that aired on Memorial Day of 2014. This was the only time it aired during that show, possibly because a parent saw the connection between the Pull-Ups commercial and the program it aired during.
** Nicktoons somehow avoided this rule with ''WesternAnimation/{{Zevo3}}'', [[http://www.commercialfreechildhood.org/link/fcc-decide-if-nicktoons-zevo-3-kids-program-or-advertisement although some people tried to prevent its broadcast]].
** During its last two years on the air, TheHub aired ''[[WesternAnimation/MyLittlePonyEquestriaGirls Equestria Girls]]'' ads during episodes of ''WesternAnimation/MyLittlePonyFriendshipIsMagic'' and My Little Pony ads during the Equestria Girls films.

to:

* In 1996, The the Federal Communications Commission required [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Children%27s_Television_Act TV stations]] to air “[[EdutainmentShow three hours per-week of "[[EdutainmentShow core educational programming]]", serving the "educational and informative]]” contents three hours a week, apart from informational needs of children". The "E/I" law has been looped around by broadcasters for decades: the news; the hours to do so was to law requires that these programs must be regularly scheduled between 7 AM 7:00 a.m. and 10 PM. During p.m.. At first, broadcasters decided to air these programs during a de facto GraveyardSlot (often buried alongside {{Infomercial}}s) for non-preschool children's programming: when the early years, most of that aired from 7 AM-3 PM, which erroneously created many loopholes.
** Since children [[note]] those
supposed target demographic[[note]](those in good health health, that is [[/note]] is)[[/note]] were usually in school during said hours, many adverts with questionable content during an “E/I” show got aired.
** Both live-action and animated programs with “educational and informative” dialogue can get around this.
** It doesn't have
school. Green Bay's WLUK historically aired reruns of ''Series/LittleHouseOnThePrairie'' to be done in one setting, just 30 minutes a day minimum, on which day of the week isn't listed. This why many stations like CBS, ABC, and NBC tends to air “E/I” shows on weekends comply, although it has since children been replaced by more conventional E/I programming on weekends. The shift of children's television viewership to cable networks has changed how broadcasters comply, however: the major networks' Saturday morning blocks are likely now entirely dedicated to be home, leaving talk shows, like Series/TheDoctors, to air on weekdays because they count as “E/I” program due to the contents often being classified as “educational and informative”. The mentioned show talks about medical information, therefore it’s an “E/I” show and meets the requirements.[[note]]Although only a few unethical stations do this with ''The Doctors'' and the stations have to paste in the E/I bug themselves[[/note]]
**
programming only.
*
Another part of the act mentioned above tells stations to prevent host-selling bans "host-selling" (showing an ad for a product related to the show that it airs during), as it will turn the whole show into a commercial. A few The FCC claims no jurisdiction over cable channels when it comes to these sorts of content rules. That meant that the practical effect of the Children's Television Act was to basically slowly kill kids' shows on broadcast television, while the practical effect of restrictions on content in shows for adults is to cripple broadcasters' ability to show the sort of edgy programming cable has become known for.
** Even without FCC intervention, the MoralGuardians seem to look at broadcast with a more critical eye, though how much of that is because they
have somehow avoided more hope of getting fines, however, for doing this. Here are a few examples:
** Disney Channel is able
the FCC to avoid this by not running traditional advertising, but once in a while, they will run do something that violates the host-selling rule by showing something that ties into about their shows (for example, a ''WesternAnimation/SofiaTheFirst'' LeapFrog ad played on the premiere of one of the specials, and a few ''WesternAnimation/DocMcStuffins'' episodes end with a short show entitled ''Nina Needs To Go!'', which always ends with an ad for Pull-Ups which show designs featuring Doc and friends on complaints isn't clear. That didn't stop them for a brief moment. Airings of ''WesternAnimation/MickeyMouseClubhouse'' suffer the same problem as well with at least one of the ads, which shows a glimpse of a Minnie Mouse potty chair for a few seconds, but overall, it's now not as FCC-unfriendly, as it's averted on weekends when it airs on [[WesternAnimation/MilesFromTomorrowland a show Pull-Ups doesn't even have on their products.]]
** It's worth noting that the only such instance where this was possibly reported to the FCC was when the "Snow" episode of ''Nina Needs To Go!'' aired during a winter-themed episode of of ''WesternAnimation/JakeAndTheNeverlandPirates'' that aired on Memorial Day of 2014. This was the only time it aired during that show, possibly because a parent saw the connection between the Pull-Ups commercial and the program it aired during.
** Nicktoons somehow avoided this rule with
from complaining about ''WesternAnimation/{{Zevo3}}'', [[http://www.commercialfreechildhood.org/link/fcc-decide-if-nicktoons-zevo-3-kids-program-or-advertisement although some people tried a Nickelodeon cartoon made to prevent its broadcast]].
** During its last two years on the air, TheHub
promote Sketchers shoes]]. [[Creator/DiscoveryFamily The Hub]] also aired ''[[WesternAnimation/MyLittlePonyEquestriaGirls Equestria Girls]]'' toy ads during episodes of ''WesternAnimation/MyLittlePonyFriendshipIsMagic'' and My Little Pony ads during the Equestria Girls films. films.



** Note that most of these are cable networks, which the FCC claims no jurisdiction over when it comes to these sorts of content rules. That meant that the practical effect of the Children's Television Act was to basically slowly kill kids' shows on broadcast television, while the practical effect of restrictions on content in shows for adults is to cripple broadcasters' ability to show the sort of edgy programming cable has become known for (although even without FCC intervention the MoralGuardians seem to look at broadcast with a more critical eye, though how much of that is because they have more hope of getting the FCC to do something about their complaints isn't clear).



* Creator/{{ITV}} had to designate one of its affiliates to assume liability for programmes made by third-party production companies in case they get fined by Ofcom for violating rules (ITV, obviously, has to take responsibility for in-house productions, paying fines on behalf of all of the licensees it owns. Which is most of them). So which one did they pick? Channel Television, a small, then-independent franchise which the Channel Islands. Ofcom fines are calculated based on a percentage (up to 5%) of the broadcaster's advertising revenue, so it's not hard to see why ITV did this. After Ofcom imposed stricter rules on policy compliance, this practice quickly ended.

to:

* Creator/{{ITV}} had to designate one of its affiliates to assume liability for programmes made by third-party production companies in case they get fined by Ofcom for violating rules (ITV, obviously, has to take responsibility for in-house productions, paying fines on behalf of all of the licensees it owns. Which is most of them). So which one did they pick? Channel Television, a small, then-independent franchise which serves the Channel Islands. Ofcom fines are calculated based on a percentage (up to 5%) of the broadcaster's advertising revenue, so revenue; as Channel is the smallest ITV region, it's not hard to see why ITV did this. After Ofcom imposed stricter rules on policy compliance, this practice quickly ended. ITV has since acquired Channel as well.
20th May '16 4:44:12 PM Lirodon
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*** This witch hunt (even though it only involved one of the three types of sharing agreements) created a rift in several major transactions occurring with Sinclair, along with mid-market broadcaster Gray Television, who suddenly went all out in their respective acquisitions of Allbritton and Hoak to avoid ''any'' use of sharing agreements. In the event of conflicts requiring such an agreement, they decided to, instead, buy the station's assets (e.g. programming, equipment) but ''move the programming to a digital subchannel of an existing station they legally own'', and leave the rest of the station as a corpse left to rot in the FCC's paper shredder (shut down entirely, license revoked), or preferably, sold to a minority broadcaster in need (which thankfully, Sinclair and Gray decided to do.

to:

*** This witch hunt (even though it only involved one of the three types of sharing agreements) created a rift in several major transactions occurring with Sinclair, along with mid-market broadcaster Gray Television, who suddenly went all out in their respective acquisitions of Allbritton and Hoak to avoid ''any'' use of sharing agreements. In the event of conflicts requiring such an agreement, they decided to, instead, buy the station's assets (e.g. programming, equipment) but ''move the programming to a digital subchannel of an existing station they legally own'', and leave the rest of the station as a corpse left to rot own''. The stations were, in the FCC's paper shredder (shut down entirely, license revoked), or preferably, turn, sold to a minority broadcaster in need (which thankfully, minority-owned broadcasters; Sinclair sold theirs to Howard Stirk Holdings, which is a "friend" in several other markets), and Gray decided came back to do.life as independently-run stations with varying numbers of digital subchannel networks.
18th May '16 9:14:15 AM Jhonny
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Added DiffLines:

* Airline pricing in general is arcane and invites this type of behavior. Very often a ticket A to C with a layover in B is cheaper than a ticket A to B. Of course buying a ticket A to C and never getting on the flight B to C can get you anything from a shrug to being banned from ever flying with them ever again from the airline. Another frequently abused loophole is Lufthansa's [=AIRail=], which sells you train tickets to the airport (for example from Stuttgart to Frankfurt Airport a distance too short for any type of flights to make economic sense) and gives you miles on said tickets. Sometimes the train does not cost extra but still brings miles. As there is no "checking in" on German trains nobody can verify whether you actually ever boarded the train. But you get the miles regardless.
18th May '16 3:42:57 AM Morgenthaler
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* Loophole Abuse was what made TheKnightsTemplar the richest organization in Medieval Europe, and in the process created the modern concept of banking. They were originally organized as a peacekeeping force in the Holy Land, charged with protecting the new wave of Christian Pilgrims making the journey to Jerusalem after the end of the First Crusade. Many of these Pilgrims were either rich people looking to go on a new fashionable journey, or else were simply traveling with all their earthly wealth on them. So the Templar mandate extended to protecting their money and private property as well as their lives: they would often hold onto a person's valuables for safekeeping until they were out of danger, sometimes receiving a generous "donation" for their troubles. As a Holy Order, they were technically bound by a Vow of Poverty, and therefore forbidden to earn money or own property. But this idea of "managing" wealth was such a new concept, and such a gray area under Church Law, that they were able to finagle a distinction between "managing" and "owning." By taking the valuables entrusted to them, and managing them "on behalf" of their patrons, they became wealthy as an organization while still technically being able to claim they owned none of it themselves.

to:

* Loophole Abuse was what made TheKnightsTemplar UsefulNotes/TheKnightsTemplar the richest organization in Medieval Europe, and in the process created the modern concept of banking. They were originally organized as a peacekeeping force in the Holy Land, charged with protecting the new wave of Christian Pilgrims making the journey to Jerusalem after the end of the First Crusade. Many of these Pilgrims were either rich people looking to go on a new fashionable journey, or else were simply traveling with all their earthly wealth on them. So the Templar mandate extended to protecting their money and private property as well as their lives: they would often hold onto a person's valuables for safekeeping until they were out of danger, sometimes receiving a generous "donation" for their troubles. As a Holy Order, they were technically bound by a Vow of Poverty, and therefore forbidden to earn money or own property. But this idea of "managing" wealth was such a new concept, and such a gray area under Church Law, that they were able to finagle a distinction between "managing" and "owning." By taking the valuables entrusted to them, and managing them "on behalf" of their patrons, they became wealthy as an organization while still technically being able to claim they owned none of it themselves.
11th May '16 8:31:56 AM PaddyMurphy
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* Islam forbids the consumption of alcohol... or, to be specific, "fermented drinks made with fruits or grains". Rum is made using sugar cane, and vodka using potatoes. Sugar cane and potatoes being neither fruits nor grains, some Muslims say this makes them fair game. Turkish Muslims are known for Raki, which is an aniseed-based distilled spirit somewhat like licorice-tasting vodka, but made from herbs, so still fair game.

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* Islam forbids the consumption of alcohol... or, to be specific, "fermented drinks made with fruits or grains". Rum is made using sugar cane, mead using honey and vodka using potatoes. Sugar cane cane, honey, and potatoes being neither fruits nor grains, some Muslims say this makes them fair game. Turkish Muslims are known for Raki, which is an aniseed-based distilled spirit somewhat like licorice-tasting vodka, but made from herbs, so still fair game.game, while Ethiopians and Eritreans are know for Tej, a kind of mead[[note]]There are sizable portions of Christians in both countries, so the Tej isn't necessarily made or consumed by Muslims.[[/note]].
28th Apr '16 7:22:11 AM Tdarcos
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* Students in the 2005 class of Peter Fröhlich at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore figured out how to have everyone get an A in the final. Don't go to the test. Because the way the test was scored is that the highest grade gets an A, and then everyone else with a lower score is then graded on the curve, if no one showed up, everyone would have the same grade: zero, thus everyone got an A. The students did camp out in front of the classroom in case anyone broke the embargo. The rules were changed to prevent this from happening again.

to:

* Students in the 2005 class of Peter Fröhlich at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore figured out how to have everyone get an A in the final. Don't go to the test.final. Because the way the test was scored is that the highest grade gets an A, and then everyone else with a lower score is then graded on the curve, if no one showed up, everyone would have the same grade: zero, thus everyone got an A. The students did camp out in front of the classroom in case anyone broke the embargo.embargo, but as it turned out, no one did. The rules were changed to prevent this from happening again.
26th Apr '16 11:31:29 PM Lirodon
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* Creator/{{ITV}} had to designate one of its affiliates to have liability responsibility for programmes made by producers not controlled by the network. So who did they pick? The Channel Islands' Channel Television, the smallest of them all, which only serves a population of about 120,000. As Ofcom fines are up to 5% of advertising revenue, it's not hard to see why (If ITV itself assumped compliance, it would have to pay fines accounting for nearly all of the Channel 3 licencees in the United Kingdom, as it owns nearly all of them). After Ofcom imposed stricter rules on policy compliance, this practice quickly ended. ITV has also bought Channel since then.

to:

* Creator/{{ITV}} had to designate one of its affiliates to have assume liability responsibility for programmes made by producers not controlled third-party production companies in case they get fined by Ofcom for violating rules (ITV, obviously, has to take responsibility for in-house productions, paying fines on behalf of all of the network. licensees it owns. Which is most of them). So who which one did they pick? The Channel Islands' Channel Television, the smallest of them all, a small, then-independent franchise which only serves a population of about 120,000. As the Channel Islands. Ofcom fines are up calculated based on a percentage (up to 5% 5%) of the broadcaster's advertising revenue, so it's not hard to see why (If ITV itself assumped compliance, it would have to pay fines accounting for nearly all of the Channel 3 licencees in the United Kingdom, as it owns nearly all of them).did this. After Ofcom imposed stricter rules on policy compliance, this practice quickly ended. ITV has also bought Channel since then.
26th Apr '16 6:33:12 PM Lirodon
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* Sweden has strict advertising laws; among other things, banning advertising directly to children, and for a while, only allowing commercial breaks between programs, and not during them. However, this only really affected the lone commercial OTA network at the time, [=TV4=]; cable/satellite channels could air all the advertising they wanted, since they broadcast from neighboring countries with looser laws (such as Denmark, Norway, and the United Kingdom) and fed "pan-Nordic" feeds serving multiple countries in the same reason using multiple subtitle and audio tracks per-language.
** [=TV4=] attempted to loop around the "you can only air ads between programs" rule by [[ExactWords splintering shows to air an interstitial "Inför" program for another TV4 show in the middle of it, and airing commercials between these two "programs".]] The government saw through [=TV4=]'s ruse, ruling that these Inför shows were not real programs. Until the advertising laws were finally loosened in 2002, TV4 would use alternative interstitials, including a profile of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swedish_name_day_list_of_2001 the current name day]], and a celebrity book club.

to:

* Sweden has strict advertising laws; among other things, banning advertising directly to children, and for a while, only allowing commercial breaks between programs, and not during them. However, this only really affected the lone commercial OTA network at the time, [=TV4=]; cable/satellite most pay TV channels could air all the advertising they wanted, since they actually broadcast from neighboring countries out of neighbouring companies with looser laws (such laws, such as Denmark, Norway, and the United Kingdom) and fed "pan-Nordic" Kingdom with feeds serving multiple countries in meant to serve the same reason entire Nordic region by using multiple subtitle and a different audio tracks per-language.
track for each region.
** [=TV4=] attempted to loop around the "you can only air ads between programs" rule by [[ExactWords splintering shows to air an interstitial "Inför" program for another TV4 show in the middle of it, and airing commercials between these two "programs".]] The government saw through [=TV4=]'s ruse, ruling that these Inför shows were not real programs. Until the advertising laws were finally loosened in 2002, TV4 [=TV4=] would use alternative interstitials, including a profile of [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swedish_name_day_list_of_2001 the current name day]], and a celebrity book club.


Added DiffLines:

* Creator/{{ITV}} had to designate one of its affiliates to have liability responsibility for programmes made by producers not controlled by the network. So who did they pick? The Channel Islands' Channel Television, the smallest of them all, which only serves a population of about 120,000. As Ofcom fines are up to 5% of advertising revenue, it's not hard to see why (If ITV itself assumped compliance, it would have to pay fines accounting for nearly all of the Channel 3 licencees in the United Kingdom, as it owns nearly all of them). After Ofcom imposed stricter rules on policy compliance, this practice quickly ended. ITV has also bought Channel since then.
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