No. To all of them.
There are no hard-and-fast rules as to how to handle any kind of perspective, other than to do it with purpose.
Does the entire novel have to take place from one character's perspective?
Switching narrators is actually sort of common in literature, but look if the different perspectives add anything different to the story that couldn't be shown another way.
Should the prologue have the perspective character introduce themselves?
I believe most literature written in first person has the character introduce themselves to other characters, or have a character call them by name. No non-amateur work of literature that I have seen has begun with the narrator introducing themselves to you, the reader. As a side note, take a good look at your story to see if you really need a prologue, or if it's just a glorified first chapter.
I realize that page is about fantasy prologues, but I think its advice applies to all genres.
Can the perspective character talk about things they didn't know about at that point of the story but find out about later?
They can narrate from whatever point during or after the action. Again, no real rules on this.