Useful Notes: Australian History
See Also: convict colony to Botany Bay, which arrived on the 26th of January 1788 and established itself at Sydney. In 1804 the first major case of civil unrest, known as the Battle of Castle Hill or the Irish Rebellion, resulted in one sided Curb-Stomp Battle between 57 soldiers of the New South Wales corp and Auxilaries and 400 Irish convicts. This battle is noted as the first instance of armed combat between Europeans on Australian soil and is usually over-shadowed by a more renowned Curb-Stomp Battle that occurred in the Gold Rush period. In 1808 corrupt officers of the military government mutinied and overthrew the governor, William Bligh (yes, that Captain Bligh). In 1810 the British government appointed governor, Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, who began to convert the colony from a prison camp into a predominantly civil society. More colonies were founded in the early 1800s, either as worse places to send convicts who misbehaved in New South Wales (Queensland, Tasmania, Norfolk Island) or as free settlements with (Victoria, Western Australia) or without (New Zealand, South Australia) convict labourers in indentures. Eventually the free settlers, time-expired convicts, and locally-born dominated the population to such an extent that Sydney, Brisbane, Hobart, and Melbourne were no longer suitable as convict colonies. Transportation of convicts to Sydney ended in 1848, the last convicts transported to Australia at all arrived in Western Australia in 1869. By the mid 19th century the six colonies of New South Wales (the first one), Tasmania (formerly Van Diemen's Land), Western Australia (formerly the Swan River Colony), South Australia, Victoria and Queensland were settled (in that order) and got self government, and many explorers were sent around, such as:
- Matthew Flinders. Circumnavigated Australia for the first time. With his cat. No, really.
- Robert O'Hara Burke and William John Wills discovered a way to go from south to north in hope of finding an inland sea. Didn't work out too well: not only is there no inland sea in Australia, every member of the party but one died, even though many were helped by the Yandruwandha tribe.
- This was only the most famous of many instances in which heroic European explorers died of thirst and starvation in countryside where the Aborigines were able to support themselves indefinitely.