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Anime and Manga
- Richard from Monster.
- In the "Father Brown" stories by G. K. Chesterton, Father Brown (the series detective) meets and bests a thief named Flambeau, who, because he wants to atone for his crimes (Brown having stopped him from going down the slippery slope when he was going to frame someone for his crime), then assists Father Brown in solving crimes by providing information about how professional criminals work.
- Charlie Parker, the eponymous detective from a series of books by John Connolly, embodies this trope. He slips off the deep end after the death of his wife and child and spends the rest of his life making up for what he did after their death. He's still not shy about killing people though - he just makes sure that the people he's killing are truly evil. The Black Angel suggests that this is the whole reason for Parker's existence in-universe. He is one of the angels the fell from heaven after Lucifer's revolt, but rather than descending to hell, he became stranded on earth, spending his many lifetimes helping others - dead and alive - in penance for his sins. However, the ending of The Wrath of Angels seems to refute this theory - according to various in-universe authorities there is a fallen angel present in the series recurring cast, but it isn't Charlie.
- In Larry Niven's Gil the Arm stories, Gil Hamilton lost an arm in an accident in space. However, only prosthetics are available in space, as accidents in space tend to quickly ruin transplant stock and the minarchist Belters don't regularly execute "criminals" for their organs. He thus immigrates to Earth to take advantage of the UN-sponsored organ harvesting programme, justifying it to himself that his new arm would most likely come from an executed murderer(forgetting that an earlier Niven story had people broken up for running traffic lights). Surprise - his brand-new limb came not from a villain, but from the seized stockpile of a criminal who killed people for their organs. Lacking the moral composure to have the arm removed, he joined the Amalgamated Regional Militia (aka ARM), the agency which polices illegal body harvesting... but spends more time suppressing inconvenient technologies and hunting illegal pregnancies.
- In Discworld, Commander Vimes has killed a lot of people, and even though they were mostly self-defence, he's aware that he wasn't really thinking about that when he killed them. He explicitly tells The Dragon in Snuff that he recognised him as a killer the moment he saw him - because he's used to seeing a killer's face every day in his own mirror.
- Jerry Spinoza of J.R. Rain's The Vampire with the Dragon Tattoo became a private detective after his drinking led to the death of his son. He specializes in missing child cases in hopes of repaying his debt by saving the children of others.
- Skulduggery Pleasant: It's never given as an explicit reason why he became a detective, but he does have a very dark past which includes having once been exactly the sort of mass-murdering supervillain he now spends his days defeating.
Live Action TV
- Leroy Jethro Gibbs in NCIS (Former Marine sniper) Gibbs also killed his wife's and daughter's murderer, although he has stated that he "never lost a day of sleep over [him]".
- Mac Taylor in CSI: NY (Former Marine)
- Seeley Booth in Bones (Ex-sniper) He actually voiced this as his reasoning for joining the FBI.
- A supporting character on Bones was secretly working for a villain while he was doing the lab work to solve other crimes...
- Horatio Caine in CSI: Miami (Kinda) He tries to catch as many murderers as subject him to Suicide by Cop. Preferably not by Suicide by Cop.
- Ezekiel Stone of Brimstone killed the man who raped his wife. When Ezekiel was later killed in the line of duty he was sent to Hell because, no matter how deserving of death the rapist had been, Stone's actions had been motivated by anger and the need for revenge instead of a desire for justice. The Devil sent him back to Earth to hunt down and return 113 escaped souls with the promise of a chance at entering Heaven (Not a guarantee, just the offering of a chance) if he captured all the escapees. Notably, Ezekiel has no personal regrets about what he did.
- He never really killed, but Sebastian Stark of Shark was once a defense attorney . However, after one of his clients who he managed to get acquitted went on to kill his wife shortly after, Stark switched teams and becomes a prosecutor.
- Likewise, Patrick Jane of The Mentalist didn't kill anyone, but his family was killed by a serial killer whom he'd offended with his fake psychic routine. Assisting the police is his way of making amends for this error, as well as his former career of conning people.
- The Cowboy Cop protagonist of the show Maou became a detective out of guilt over having accidentally killed someone when he was younger (and having been let off scot-free because his rich and influential father pulled some strings).
- Castle: Captain Montgomery spent his career trying to atone for his actions as a rookie, when among other things he was complicit in the death of Beckett's mother.
- In Body of Proof, former neurosurgeon Megan Hunt is trying to atone for killing a patient on the table after neurological damage causes her hands to numb occasionally. She becomes a medical examiner because she can't kill anyone if they're already dead.
- The Suikoden series has the Oboro Detective Agency in Suikoden V.
- A less severe example in Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney is Ron DeLite, a former thief, opening a security business that helped other businesses defend themselves against thieves. Of course the twist is that he then turns around and sells the plans to other thieves. At least his wife's in on it this time.
- L.A. Noire's Cole Phelps was a Marine in the war. Specifically, he was The Neidermeyer who ended up leading an attack on Japanese civilians.
- Career con man Frank Abagnale, Jr. (on whose life the Leonardo DiCaprio film Catch Me If You Can was based) eventually settled down and became a high-profile securities consultant who specialized in the sort of crime he used to commit. It is also notable that to this day he has never taken money from law enforcement for his consultation, even refusing reimbursement for travel expenses.