History UsefulNotes / WeimarRepublic

12th Feb '18 5:10:07 PM nombretomado
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* "Ich Erinnere Mich an die Weimarer Republik", a song by Music/TheWorldInfernoFriendshipSociety, told from the point of view of PeterLorre and other German exiles.

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* "Ich Erinnere Mich an die Weimarer Republik", a song by Music/TheWorldInfernoFriendshipSociety, told from the point of view of PeterLorre Creator/PeterLorre and other German exiles.
3rd Feb '18 7:47:05 PM somerandomdude
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The question of whether the Nazis were "voted into power" or seized it sometimes comes up. On the one hand, it's true that the Nazi party never won an absolute majority of votes--in the March 1933 election with Hitler already chancellor, the National Socialist party gained 43.9% of the vote.[[note]]Even ''with'' voter intimidation and persecution of leftists.[[/note]] While this may seem extraordinary, it only seems so to countries with a two-party system (like the US). Many countries in the world have multiple parties in their governments, requiring parties to make alliances to govern effectively. In such a system, a party receiving 44% of the vote is a big win. Even though the Nazis "only" held 44% of the vote, its opponents were fractured into so many little parties that they didn't matter. The Nazis managed to get an agreement with another right wing party, and ''that'' got them over 50% both of the votes and of the seats in parliament. Furthermore, the third-largest party was the communists. Either way, democracy had been given a thumbs down by a majority of Germans. The Nazis banned the Communist party while still maintaining a facade of democracy, and there was a relatively free vote (with the Communists "abstaining" due to mostly being in jail) on whether Hitler should be given the power to make laws on his own. Hitler got the required two-thirds majority of those present, despite the Social Democrats voting against him, and the other parties (that had voted for Hitler in exchange for promises Hitler mostly broke) dissolved themselves, with the social democratic party being dissolved through Hitler's new legislative powers.

to:

The question of whether the Nazis were "voted into power" or seized it sometimes comes up. On the one hand, it's true that Hitler was defeated soundly in the 1932 ''presidential'' election, and that the Nazi party never won an absolute majority of votes--in the March 1933 election with Hitler already chancellor, the National Socialist party gained 43.9% of the vote.[[note]]Even ''with'' voter intimidation and persecution of leftists.[[/note]] While this may seem extraordinary, it only seems so to countries with a two-party system (like the US). Many countries in the world have multiple parties in their governments, requiring parties to make alliances to govern effectively. In such a system, a party receiving 44% of the vote is a big win. Even though the Nazis "only" held 44% of the vote, its opponents were fractured into so many little parties that they didn't matter. The Nazis managed to get an agreement with another right wing party, and ''that'' got them over 50% both of the votes and of the seats in parliament. Furthermore, the third-largest party was the communists. Either way, democracy had been given a thumbs down by a majority of Germans. The Nazis banned the Communist party while still maintaining a facade of democracy, and there was a relatively free vote (with the Communists "abstaining" due to mostly being in jail) on whether Hitler should be given the power to make laws on his own. Hitler got the required two-thirds majority of those present, despite the Social Democrats voting against him, and the other parties (that had voted for Hitler in exchange for promises Hitler mostly broke) dissolved themselves, with the social democratic party being dissolved through Hitler's new legislative powers.
21st Jan '18 3:09:17 PM nombretomado
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* "Ich Erinnere Mich an die Weimarer Republik", a song by [[TheWorldInfernoFriendshipSociety The World/Inferno Friendship Society]], told from the point of view of PeterLorre and other German exiles.

to:

* "Ich Erinnere Mich an die Weimarer Republik", a song by [[TheWorldInfernoFriendshipSociety The World/Inferno Friendship Society]], Music/TheWorldInfernoFriendshipSociety, told from the point of view of PeterLorre and other German exiles.
27th Nov '17 5:51:08 PM danlansdowne
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Culturally, the Weimar Republic was very productive. Most notably, it contained the Cabaret culture (which produced Creator/MarleneDietrich), UsefulNotes/{{Dada}}ism, Bauhaus architecture, German Expressionism and director Creator/FritzLang, who probably created the RobotGirl trope (and others) in ''Film/{{Metropolis}}''. Even Creator/AlfredHitchcock made some British-German coproductions during this time. Then there were [[UsefulNotes/DichterAndDenker lots and lots of famous writers and intellectuals]]: Creator/BertoltBrecht, Kurt Tucholsky, Erich Maria Remarque, Erich Kästner, brothers Thomas and Heinrich Mann, Elias Canetti, Lion Feuchtwanger, Ödön von Horváth, Robert Musil, and so on. UsefulNotes/Berlin grew to a size it still hasn't reached again and some of the social housing from that era is now protected as UNESCO world heritage sites - Not exactly what you'd expect of "the Projects".

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Culturally, the Weimar Republic was very productive. Most notably, it contained the Cabaret culture (which produced Creator/MarleneDietrich), UsefulNotes/{{Dada}}ism, Bauhaus architecture, German Expressionism and director Creator/FritzLang, who probably created the RobotGirl trope (and others) in ''Film/{{Metropolis}}''. Even Creator/AlfredHitchcock made some British-German coproductions during this time. Then there were [[UsefulNotes/DichterAndDenker lots and lots of famous writers and intellectuals]]: Creator/BertoltBrecht, Kurt Tucholsky, Erich Maria Remarque, Erich Kästner, brothers Thomas and Heinrich Mann, Elias Canetti, Lion Feuchtwanger, Ödön von Horváth, Robert Musil, and so on. UsefulNotes/Berlin UsefulNotes/{{Berlin}} grew to a size it still hasn't reached again and some of the social housing from that era is now protected as UNESCO world heritage sites - Not exactly what you'd expect of "the Projects".
27th Nov '17 3:17:34 PM Jhonny
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Culturally, the Weimar Republic was very productive. Most notably, it contained the Cabaret culture (which produced Creator/MarleneDietrich), UsefulNotes/{{Dada}}ism, Bauhaus architecture, German Expressionism and director Creator/FritzLang, who probably created the RobotGirl trope (and others) in ''Film/{{Metropolis}}''. Even Creator/AlfredHitchcock made some British-German coproductions during this time. Then there were [[UsefulNotes/DichterAndDenker lots and lots of famous writers and intellectuals]]: Creator/BertoltBrecht, Kurt Tucholsky, Erich Maria Remarque, Erich Kästner, brothers Thomas and Heinrich Mann, Elias Canetti, Lion Feuchtwanger, Ödön von Horváth, Robert Musil, and so on.

to:

Culturally, the Weimar Republic was very productive. Most notably, it contained the Cabaret culture (which produced Creator/MarleneDietrich), UsefulNotes/{{Dada}}ism, Bauhaus architecture, German Expressionism and director Creator/FritzLang, who probably created the RobotGirl trope (and others) in ''Film/{{Metropolis}}''. Even Creator/AlfredHitchcock made some British-German coproductions during this time. Then there were [[UsefulNotes/DichterAndDenker lots and lots of famous writers and intellectuals]]: Creator/BertoltBrecht, Kurt Tucholsky, Erich Maria Remarque, Erich Kästner, brothers Thomas and Heinrich Mann, Elias Canetti, Lion Feuchtwanger, Ödön von Horváth, Robert Musil, and so on.
on. UsefulNotes/Berlin grew to a size it still hasn't reached again and some of the social housing from that era is now protected as UNESCO world heritage sites - Not exactly what you'd expect of "the Projects".
27th Nov '17 11:49:11 AM jeez
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* ''BabylonBerlin'' is set here. [[DepartmentOfRedundancyDepartment In Berlin]].

to:

* ''BabylonBerlin'' ''Series/BabylonBerlin'' is set here. [[DepartmentOfRedundancyDepartment In Berlin]].
1st Nov '17 2:12:23 AM SaltyWaffles
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Weimar (so called because that's where the constitution was written - Berlin remained the capital [[note]]but when the constitution was made, there was too much unrest there (again), so the delegates, fearing for their lives, moved to the much-quieter city of Weimar[[/note]]) was the government that ran Germany from the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne until the UsefulNotes/{{Nazi|Germany}}s took power.

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Weimar (so called because that's where the constitution was written - Berlin written--Berlin remained the capital [[note]]but when the constitution was made, there was too much unrest there (again), so the delegates, fearing for their lives, moved to the much-quieter city of Weimar[[/note]]) was the government that ran Germany from the end of UsefulNotes/WorldWarOne until the UsefulNotes/{{Nazi|Germany}}s took power.



Structurally, the Republic wasn't actually terribly different from the Hohenzollern Empire. Rather than an Emperor, there was a directly-elected ''[[UsefulNotes/ThePresidentsOfGermany Reichspräsident]]'' (Reich President), who on account of his level of power was called (only half-jokingly) the ''[[CaptainErsatz Ersatzkaiser]]'' ("Fake/Replacement Emperor"). Other than that, there were only a few other changes, the requirement that the Chancellor have the support of the Reichstag and the extensive emergency powers of the President (Article 48) being the most important. Their new constitution was supposed to be the Best Constitution Ever, thus uniting the best things (considered) from the constitutions of the most successful western democracies: A strong president as in the US of A, a strong parliament as in the (Third) French republic, and direct democracy / plebiscites as in Switzerland.[[note]]Interestingly none of the plebiscites on the Reich level succeeded, though some came awfully close. The constitution of UsefulNotes/TheBonnRepublic does not allow for any form of direct democracy on the federal level and many state constitutions initially didn't either. Whether this is a good thing or not has come up repeatedly in UsefulNotes/TheBerlinRepublic and overall a tendency in favor of direct democracy has shown itself in state constitutional amendments and local plebiscites being easier than ever before[[/note]] [[GoldenMeanFallacy All of these backfired spectacularly]]: The strength of the president became a problem when a half-senile, easily influenced Hindenburg had almost-dictatorial powers; the strong parliament, which could kick out every government they didn't like, made governing first difficult and finally impossible, when the Nazis and the Commies got more than 50% of the votes; and the plebiscites were welcome opportunities for agitators from both left and right to spread their propaganda.

The first few years (and for that matter the last few years) of the Weimar Republic was a time of enormous political instability. Between 1918 and 1923 there was an attempted coup by either the far right or the far left every year, as well as almost 500 political assassinations - most of them committed by right wing organizations like the ''Freikorps'' or ''Organisation Konsul'', most of which went unpunished - especially those committed by right wing extremists, as many judges were unreconstructed monarchists.. The last one in 1923, the Munich Beer Putsch, was actually led by UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler. He got less than half a year in jail and wrote ''Mein Kampf''.

to:

Structurally, the Republic wasn't actually terribly different from the Hohenzollern Empire. Rather than an Emperor, there was a directly-elected ''[[UsefulNotes/ThePresidentsOfGermany Reichspräsident]]'' (Reich President), who who, on account of his level of power power, was called (only half-jokingly) the ''[[CaptainErsatz Ersatzkaiser]]'' ("Fake/Replacement Emperor"). Other than that, there were only a few other changes, changes: the requirement that the Chancellor have the support of the Reichstag and the extensive emergency powers of the President (Article 48) being the most important. Their new constitution was supposed to be the Best Constitution Ever, thus uniting the best things (considered) from the constitutions of the most successful western democracies: A a strong president as in the US of A, America, a strong parliament as in the (Third) French republic, and direct democracy / plebiscites democracy/plebiscites as in Switzerland.[[note]]Interestingly [[note]]Interestingly, none of the plebiscites on the Reich level succeeded, though some came awfully close. The constitution of UsefulNotes/TheBonnRepublic does not allow for any form of direct democracy on the federal level and many state constitutions initially didn't either. Whether this is a good thing or not has come up repeatedly in UsefulNotes/TheBerlinRepublic and overall a tendency in favor of direct democracy has shown itself in state constitutional amendments and local plebiscites being easier than ever before[[/note]] [[GoldenMeanFallacy All of these backfired spectacularly]]: The the strength of the president became a problem when a half-senile, easily influenced Hindenburg had almost-dictatorial powers; the strong parliament, which could kick out every government they didn't like, made governing first difficult and finally impossible, impossible when the Nazis and the Commies got more than 50% of the votes; votes, and the plebiscites were welcome opportunities for agitators from both left and right to spread their propaganda.

The first few years (and (and, for that matter matter, the last few years) of the Weimar Republic was a time of enormous political instability. Between 1918 and 1923 1923, there was an attempted coup by either the far right or the far left every year, as well as almost 500 political assassinations - most assassinations--most of them committed by right wing organizations like the ''Freikorps'' or ''Organisation Konsul'', most of which went unpunished - especially unpunished--especially those committed by right wing extremists, as many judges were unreconstructed monarchists.. monarchists. The last one in 1923, one, the Munich Beer Putsch, Putsch in 1923, was actually led by UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler. He got less than half a year in jail and wrote ''Mein Kampf''.



Economically, though... well, the Mark suffered from RidiculousExchangeRates, thousands of people lost any money that wasn't saved as gold, foreign currency or silver, and when things looked as if they had somewhat stabilized, the economic crisis of 1929 struck. This might have also recorded one of the first cases of RidiculousFutureInflation... except not in the future, and with somehow worse inflation. Case in point: You could sit down for tea when the inflation was at it's worst at take the bill 2 hours later, only to find that your bill had somehow doubled within the two hours you were eating. Germany became so ruined that people didn't even hesitate to give their vote to UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler after he promised them economic prosperity. The Nazis beating up their opponents also contributed, though the violence was entirely mutual.

to:

Economically, though... well, the Mark suffered from RidiculousExchangeRates, thousands of people lost any money that wasn't saved as gold, foreign currency currency, or silver, and when things looked as if they had somewhat stabilized, the economic crisis of 1929 struck. This might have also recorded one of the first cases of RidiculousFutureInflation... except not in the future, and with somehow worse inflation. Case in point: You you could sit down for tea when the inflation was at it's worst at take the bill 2 hours later, only to find that your bill had somehow doubled within the two hours you were eating. Germany became so ruined that people didn't even hesitate to give their vote to UsefulNotes/AdolfHitler after he promised them economic prosperity. The Nazis beating up their opponents also contributed, though the violence was entirely mutual.



The question of whether the Nazis were "voted into power" or seized it sometimes comes up. On the one hand, it's true that the Nazi party never won an absolute majority of votes -- in the March 1933 election with Hitler already chancellor, the National Socialist party gained 43.9% of the vote.[[note]]Even ''with'' voter intimidation and persecution of leftists.[[/note]] While this may seem extraordinary, it only seems so to countries with a two-party system (like the US). Many countries in the world have multiple parties in their governments, requiring parties to make alliances to govern effectively. In such a system a party receiving 44% of the vote is a big win. Even though the Nazis "only" held 44% of the vote, its opponents were fractured into so many little parties they didn't matter. The Nazis managed to get an agreement with another right wing party and ''that'' got them over 50% both of the votes and of the seats in parliament. Furthermore, the third-largest party were the communists. Either way, democracy had been given a thumbs down by a majority of Germans. The Nazis banned the Communist party while still maintaining a facade of democracy and there was a relatively free vote (with the Communists "abstaining" due to mostly being in jail) on whether Hitler should be given the power to make laws on his own. Hitler got the required two thirds majority of those present, despite the Social Democrats voting against him and the other parties (that had voted for Hitler in exchange for promises Hitler mostly broke) dissolved themselves with the social democratic party being dissolved through Hitler's new legislative powers.

Historians' perceptions of the Weimar Republic differ. Marxist historians present it as an example of capitalism in crisis, arguing that the rise of the far-right and later the Nazis was orchestrated and abetted by business interests to preserve their power. Others, like William L. Shirer, present it as being doomed from the start, and that its later history was simply a failed state stumbling from crisis to crisis until its inevitable final collapse. Still more, like Ian Kershaw, adopt a more moderate approach, pointing out that at no point was the rise of Hitler and the end of the republic inevitable; on the contrary, the Republic gained strength during the boom years, and, even after the crisis of the Great Depression the electoral support of the anti-democratic forces of Nazism and Communism was actually falling and the Nazi Party almost bankrupt by the time Franz von Papen made his fateful decision to invite the Nazis into the cabinet in 1933.

to:

The question of whether the Nazis were "voted into power" or seized it sometimes comes up. On the one hand, it's true that the Nazi party never won an absolute majority of votes -- in votes--in the March 1933 election with Hitler already chancellor, the National Socialist party gained 43.9% of the vote.[[note]]Even ''with'' voter intimidation and persecution of leftists.[[/note]] While this may seem extraordinary, it only seems so to countries with a two-party system (like the US). Many countries in the world have multiple parties in their governments, requiring parties to make alliances to govern effectively. In such a system system, a party receiving 44% of the vote is a big win. Even though the Nazis "only" held 44% of the vote, its opponents were fractured into so many little parties that they didn't matter. The Nazis managed to get an agreement with another right wing party party, and ''that'' got them over 50% both of the votes and of the seats in parliament. Furthermore, the third-largest party were was the communists. Either way, democracy had been given a thumbs down by a majority of Germans. The Nazis banned the Communist party while still maintaining a facade of democracy democracy, and there was a relatively free vote (with the Communists "abstaining" due to mostly being in jail) on whether Hitler should be given the power to make laws on his own. Hitler got the required two thirds two-thirds majority of those present, despite the Social Democrats voting against him him, and the other parties (that had voted for Hitler in exchange for promises Hitler mostly broke) dissolved themselves themselves, with the social democratic party being dissolved through Hitler's new legislative powers.

Historians' perceptions of the Weimar Republic differ. Marxist historians present it as an example of capitalism in crisis, arguing that the rise of the far-right and later the Nazis was orchestrated and abetted by business interests to preserve their power. Others, like William L. Shirer, present it as being doomed from the start, and that its later history was simply a failed state stumbling from crisis to crisis until its inevitable final collapse. Still more, like Ian Kershaw, adopt a more moderate approach, pointing out that at no point was the rise of Hitler and the end of the republic inevitable; on the contrary, the Republic gained strength during the boom years, and, even after the crisis of the Great Depression Depression, the electoral support of the anti-democratic forces of Nazism and Communism was actually falling falling, and the Nazi Party almost bankrupt by the time Franz von Papen made his fateful decision to invite the Nazis into the cabinet in 1933.
31st Oct '17 10:20:11 AM jeez
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[[quoteright:350:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/weimarar_republik.gif]]

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[[quoteright:350:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/weimarar_republik.gif]] org/pmwiki/pub/images/weimarar_republik_5.gif]]
31st Oct '17 10:18:28 AM jeez
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Added DiffLines:

[[quoteright:350:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/weimarar_republik.gif]]
[[caption-width-right:350:''"They carry the name of the enterprise - but who carries its spirit?"'']]
30th Oct '17 4:07:30 AM jeez
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* ''BabylonBerlin'' is set here. [[DeparmentOfRedundancyDepartment In Berlin]].

to:

* ''BabylonBerlin'' is set here. [[DeparmentOfRedundancyDepartment [[DepartmentOfRedundancyDepartment In Berlin]].
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