History UsefulNotes / WarsOfTheRoses

16th Apr '17 3:48:50 PM capretty
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The Wars of the Roses were a series of [[SuccessionCrisis dynastic civil wars]] set in [[UsefulNotes/{{Britain}} England]] between [[TheLateMiddleAges 1455 and 1485]]. They originated in a struggle between descendants of two of King Edward III [[UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfPlantagenet Plantagenet]]'s eight sons. [[Usefulnotes/HenryTheFourth Henry]] "Bolingbroke" of the [[TheClan House of Lancaster]] [[TheUsurper stole the throne]] from his cousin, Edward's first grandson Richard II. Although his house had a couple of strong monarchs (see Theatre/HenryV), Henry VI turned out to be a strange boy with mental issues. He was challenged for the throne by TheRival [[FeudingFamilies House of York]] (a cousin line descended from Edward III). After thirty years of conflict, in which almost all of the Lancastrians died, [[TakeAThirdOption Henry VII]] from UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfTudor was crowned. He was a cousin of the Lancastrian side, and married a daughter of the Yorkist faction, uniting the two sides. However some historians claim this wasn't the end of the Wars, as there were still threats to Henry from Yorkist Pretenders, which a lot of the nobility didn't seem ready to help him against.

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The Wars of the Roses were a series of [[SuccessionCrisis dynastic civil wars]] set in [[UsefulNotes/{{Britain}} England]] between [[TheLateMiddleAges 1455 and 1485]]. They originated in a struggle between descendants of two of King Edward III [[UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfPlantagenet Plantagenet]]'s eight sons. [[Usefulnotes/HenryTheFourth Henry]] "Bolingbroke" of the [[TheClan House of Lancaster]] [[TheUsurper stole the throne]] from his cousin, Edward's first grandson Richard II. Although his house had a couple of strong monarchs (see Theatre/HenryV), Henry VI turned out to be a strange boy with mental issues. He was challenged for the throne by TheRival [[FeudingFamilies House of York]] (a cousin line descended from Edward III). After thirty years of conflict, in which almost all of the Lancastrians died, [[TakeAThirdOption Henry VII]] from UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfTudor was crowned. He was a cousin of the Lancastrian side, and married Elizabeth of York, a daughter of the Yorkist faction, uniting the two sides. However some historians claim this wasn't the end of the Wars, as there were still threats to Henry from Yorkist Pretenders, which a lot of the nobility didn't seem ready to help him against.
14th Apr '17 3:34:35 AM Ruddigore
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Added DiffLines:

* RichesToRags: The Wars played a key role in the eventual decline and downfall of the once all-powerful Medici Bank. As their power and wealth grew, the Medici eventually opened a branch of their business in London. This branch made the fatal mistake of loaning colossal sums of money to different claimants and their supporters despite the historical tendency of English monarchs to default on loans. When the dust settled, the Medici found to their horror that a great many of their debtors were now dead or ruined and thus unable to repay a penny. On top of that, they'd spent a great deal of money backing ''Lancastrian'' nobles, only for the ''Yorkist'' Edward IV to end up on the throne. Worse still, Edward was in no position to pay off any of the money he owed either, and was only able to offer the Medici exemption from tariffs on wool exports (English wool being a huge part of the European textile industry). The Medici were forced to close their London branch in 1478, with final losses of 51,533 florins, an astronomical sum for the time.
3rd Jan '17 9:54:33 PM Chytus
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On a side note, the "Wars of the Roses" were [[BeamMeUpScotty never called that by contemporaries]]. While the name does come from the [[FlowerMotifs White and Red Rose]] badges of the Yorkists and Lancastrians, respectively, it wasn't until Creator/{{Shakespeare}} and Creator/WalterScott that the conflict became known by its now common name. Earlier commentators might have called it the English Civil War (a name later taken by a [[UsefulNotes/EnglishCivilWar rather more ideological conflict]]) or perhaps as the War of the English Succession (which later became a now-disused name for the [[UsefulNotes/HanoverStuartWars Nine Years' War]]). Until WorldWarOne, the Battle of Towton was the bloodiest single day for British soldiery; around 28,000 men perished on those snowy fields, a record that would not be surpassed until the opening day of the Battle of the Somme 450 years later.

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On a side note, the "Wars of the Roses" were [[BeamMeUpScotty never called that by contemporaries]]. While the name does come from the [[FlowerMotifs White and Red Rose]] badges of the Yorkists and Lancastrians, respectively, it wasn't until Creator/{{Shakespeare}} and Creator/WalterScott that the conflict became known by its now common name. Earlier commentators might have called it the English Civil War (a name later taken by a [[UsefulNotes/EnglishCivilWar rather more ideological conflict]]) or perhaps as the War of the English Succession (which later became a now-disused name for the [[UsefulNotes/HanoverStuartWars Nine Years' War]]). Until WorldWarOne, UsefulNotes/WorldWarI, the Battle of Towton was the bloodiest single day for British soldiery; around 28,000 men perished on those snowy fields, a record that would not be surpassed until the opening day of the Battle of the Somme 450 years later.



* InstantAwesomeJustAddDragons: Invoked by Henry Tudor, who used a red dragon as his personal banner while rallying his troops. Partly served as a marker of his Welsh heritage (the red dragon being a popular national emblem of Wales), and partly as a sign of his claim that he would bring the English monarchy back to its glory days of medieval chivalry. It's the sort of unabashed romanticism that you would expect of an English monarch who named his eldest son "[[KingArthur Arthur]]".
* ItsPersonal: See CycleOfRevenge. In a war that was essentially a long succession of family feuds, a few moments like this were inevitable. For Richard of York, it was probably his rival Edmund of Somerset replacing him as a Commander in France, and later being named the godfather of the infant Prince Edward. For Somerset, it was probably being imprisoned in the Tower of London by York. For Edward of York, his father's death at the Battle of Wakefield strengthened his resolve to crush the Lancastrians at all costs. Similarly, Somerset's death at the Battle of Saint Albans left his son Henry determined to crush the Yorkists, while Henry Tudor was galvanized into becoming a major player in the Wars after his father Edmund and his grandfather Owen were both captured and executed by Yorkist forces.
* LaserGuidedKarma: See HistoryRepeats. Not only were the Wars of the Roses preceded by a strikingly similar civil conflict in France, the mentally unstable French monarch who made that war possible (Charles VI) was actually the father of Catherine de Valois, the French princess who Henry V married to solidify his claim to the French throne--thus making him Henry VI's grandfather. Considering Henry VI's later bouts of instability (which may have been caused by some form of schizophrenia), it's quite possible that he inherited his grandfather's mental illness, and that Henry V inadvertently brought about the fall of the House of Plantagenet by trying to exploit the civil war in France.

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* InstantAwesomeJustAddDragons: Invoked by Henry Tudor, who used a red dragon as his personal banner while rallying his troops. Partly served as a marker of his Welsh heritage (the red dragon being a popular national emblem of Wales), and partly as a sign of his claim that he would bring the English monarchy back to its glory days of medieval chivalry. It's the sort of unabashed romanticism that you would expect of an English monarch who named his eldest son "[[KingArthur "[[Myth/KingArthur Arthur]]".
* ItsPersonal: See CycleOfRevenge. In a war that was essentially a long succession of family feuds, a few moments like this were inevitable. For Richard of York, it was probably his rival Edmund of Somerset replacing him as a Commander in France, and later being named the godfather of the infant Prince Edward. For Somerset, it was probably being imprisoned in the Tower of London by York. For Edward of York, his father's death at the Battle of Wakefield strengthened his resolve to crush the Lancastrians at all costs. Similarly, Somerset's death at the Battle of Saint Albans left his son Henry determined to crush the Yorkists, while Henry Tudor was galvanized into becoming a major player in the Wars after his father Edmund and his grandfather Owen were both captured and executed by Yorkist forces.
* LaserGuidedKarma: See HistoryRepeats. Not only were the Wars of the Roses preceded by a strikingly similar civil conflict in France, the mentally unstable French monarch who made that war possible (Charles VI) was actually the father of Catherine de Valois, the French princess who Henry V married to solidify his claim to the French throne--thus making him Henry VI's grandfather. Considering Henry VI's later bouts of instability (which may have been caused by some form of schizophrenia), it's quite possible that he inherited his grandfather's mental illness, and that Henry V inadvertently brought about the fall of the House of Plantagenet by trying to exploit the civil war in France.



* TakeAThirdOption: Who won the Wars of the Roses: the House of York or the House of Lancaster? It's a trick question; ''neither'' side technically won in the end, as the throne was ultimately inherited by the newly christened House of Tudor. Though Henry VII fought on the Lancastrian side, and he was descended from the same royal line as Henry VI, he set up a new royal house that bore the name of his own father, Edmund Tudor. The sigil of the House of Tudor (see page image) was made both red and white to emphasize the fact that it was neither York nor Lancaster.

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* TakeAThirdOption: Who won the Wars of the Roses: the House of York or the House of Lancaster? It's a trick question; ''neither'' side technically won in the end, as the throne was ultimately inherited by the newly christened House of Tudor. Though Henry VII fought on the Lancastrian side, and he was descended from the same royal line as Henry VI, he set up a new royal house that bore the name of his own father, Edmund Tudor. The sigil of the House of Tudor (see page image) was made both red and white to emphasize the fact that it was neither York nor Lancaster.



* TyrantTakesTheHelm: See HistoricalVillainUpgrade. Richard III's ascension to the throne is often portrayed this way, since he technically seized the throne from the lawful heir Prince Edward V (who was just 12 years old at the time). Whether he could justifiably be called a "tyrant", however, is a matter of much debate.

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* TyrantTakesTheHelm: See HistoricalVillainUpgrade. Richard III's ascension to the throne is often portrayed this way, since he technically seized the throne from the lawful heir Prince Edward V (who was just 12 years old at the time). Whether he could justifiably be called a "tyrant", however, is a matter of much debate.
12th Dec '16 4:30:35 PM Solicitr
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* NotSoDifferent: From a certain perspective, there were ''no'' "rightful" monarchs in the House of York or the House of Lancaster. Chances were, if you didn't seize the throne of England by force, you inherited it from somebody who did. As you might expect, this made questions of proper rulership considerably more contentious.

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* NotSoDifferent: From a certain perspective, there were ''no'' "rightful" monarchs in the House of York or the House of Lancaster. The Lancastrian possession of the crown stemmed from Henry Bolingbroke's forcible usurpation[[note]] and almost certainly the subsequent murder[[/note]] of the rightful king, Richard II, while the Yorkist claim was inferior even to the Lancastrians.' The eventual winner, Henry Tudor, had essentially no claim to the throne whatsoever, since his only (English) royal blood came in the female line from a bastard branch of the family which had been formally excluded from the succession by Act of Parliament. Chances were, if you didn't seize the throne of England by force, you inherited it from somebody who did. As you might expect, this made questions of proper rulership considerably more contentious.
12th Dec '16 4:20:29 PM Solicitr
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* NonIndicativeName: The House of Lancaster wasn't based in the Duchy of Lancaster, and it wasn't a "House" (a clan bearing the common family name "Lancaster") in the traditional sense. The name refers to the fact that the House, as the Reigning one, was founded by Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster; and the rebel faction was centered around Richard Duke of York and his claim to the throne. Both sides' actual surname was Plantagenet.

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* NonIndicativeName: The House of Lancaster wasn't based in the Duchy of Lancaster, and it wasn't a "House" (a clan bearing the common family name "Lancaster") in the traditional sense. The name refers to the fact that the House, House was established as the Reigning one, was founded reigning branch of the royal family by Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster; and the rebel faction was centered around Richard Duke of York and his hereditary claim to the throne. Both sides' Houses' actual surname was Plantagenet.
12th Dec '16 4:15:46 PM Solicitr
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* NonIndicativeName: The House of Lancaster wasn't based in the Duchy of Lancaster, and it wasn't a "House" (a clan bearing the common family name "Lancaster") in the traditional sense. The name refers to the fact that the Duchy of Lancaster was historically a private holding ruled directly by the reigning royal family, rather than by one of their subservient lords. [[note]] That tradition actually still survives today. One of Queen Elizabeth II's many royal titles is "Duke of Lancaster".[[/note]] Lancastrians were loyal to the reigning royal family of England, while Yorkists wanted to see them overthrown.

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* NonIndicativeName: The House of Lancaster wasn't based in the Duchy of Lancaster, and it wasn't a "House" (a clan bearing the common family name "Lancaster") in the traditional sense. The name refers to the fact that the Duchy of Lancaster House, as the Reigning one, was historically a private holding ruled directly founded by Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Lancaster; and the reigning royal family, rather than by one rebel faction was centered around Richard Duke of their subservient lords. [[note]] That tradition actually still survives today. One of Queen Elizabeth II's many royal titles is "Duke of Lancaster".[[/note]] Lancastrians were loyal York and his claim to the reigning royal family of England, while Yorkists wanted to see them overthrown.throne. Both sides' actual surname was Plantagenet.
20th Nov '16 8:18:53 AM Morgenthaler
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* In Terry Pratchett's ''{{Nation}}'', it's mentioned that one of Daphne's ancestors fought in the War of the Roses... wearing a '''pink''' rose and thus ended up fighting both sides at once. Because everyone thought it was bad luck to kill a madman, he lived through it. Fanshaws may be pigheaded and stupid, but they fight.

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* In Terry Pratchett's ''{{Nation}}'', ''Literature/{{Nation}}'', it's mentioned that one of Daphne's ancestors fought in the War of the Roses... wearing a '''pink''' rose and thus ended up fighting both sides at once. Because everyone thought it was bad luck to kill a madman, he lived through it. Fanshaws may be pigheaded and stupid, but they fight.
30th Oct '16 7:04:32 AM Anddrix
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* [[WhatDoYouMeanItsNotPolitical Subtly referred]] to in Creator/TimBurton's ''Film/AliceInWonderland''.

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* [[WhatDoYouMeanItsNotPolitical Subtly referred]] to in Creator/TimBurton's ''Film/AliceInWonderland''.''Film/AliceInWonderland2010''.
3rd Oct '16 9:16:01 PM nanshe
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* HistoryRepeats: The Wars between the Yorkists and Lancastrians in Britain were actually preceded by the somewhat lesser-known wars between the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armagnac–Burgundian_Civil_War Armagnacs and Burgundians]] in France, which ended some twenty years before the Wars of the Roses began. Like the later conflict in Britain, France's civil war began when King Charles VI was rendered unfit to rule by his mental instability, leading to an escalating petty quarrel between two of his closest advisors--the Count of Armagnac and the Duke of Burgundy--over which of them would rule the realm in his stead. Interestingly, much of the escalation in the earlier war happened because Henry VI's father decided to back the Duke of Burgundy and play both sides off against each other, correctly recognizing that the chaos would make France much easier to conquer. He probably didn't count on his own son suffering the same fate as Charles.

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* HistoryRepeats: The Wars between the Yorkists and Lancastrians in Britain were actually preceded by the somewhat lesser-known wars between the [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Armagnac–Burgundian_Civil_War Armagnacs and Burgundians]] in France, which ended some twenty years before the Wars of the Roses began. Like the later conflict in Britain, France's civil war began when King Charles VI was rendered unfit to rule by his mental instability, leading to an escalating petty quarrel between two of his closest advisors--the Count advisors--his brother, the Duke of Armagnac Orleans and his cousin, the Duke of Burgundy--over which of them would rule the realm in his stead. Interestingly, much of the escalation in the earlier war happened because Henry VI's father decided to back the Duke of Burgundy and play both sides off against each other, correctly recognizing that the chaos would make France much easier to conquer. He probably didn't count on his own son suffering the same fate as Charles.



* TheRival: The Duke of York to the Duke of Somerset, and vice versa. York ''really'' wanted to be appointed Lord Protector by Henry VI, and his ambitions only grew after the Duke of Gloucester and the Duke of Suffolk wound up dead after losing control of the Protectorate. Understandably, York resented Somerset for his closeness to the king, believing that--as a direct descendant of Edward III--he deserved a share of royal power as his birthright. Similarly, Somerset came to resent York after he actually ''did'' rise to power as Lord Protector, and used his influence to have Somerset imprisoned in the Tower of London.

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* TheRival: The Richard, Duke of York to the Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, and vice versa. York Richard ''really'' wanted to be appointed Lord Protector by Henry VI, and his ambitions only grew after the Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester and the William de la Pole, Duke of Suffolk wound up dead after losing control of the Protectorate. Understandably, York Richard resented Somerset Edmund for his closeness to the king, believing that--as a direct descendant of Edward III--he deserved a share of royal power as his birthright. Similarly, Somerset Edmund came to resent York Richard after he actually ''did'' rise to power as Lord Protector, and used his influence to have Somerset Edmund imprisoned in the Tower of London.



* SuccessionCrisis: Richard Plantagenet and Henry VI were cousins, and both of them could rightly claim to be direct descendants of King Edward III (Richard through his grandfather Edmund of Langley, Henry through his great-grandfather John of Gaunt). Even the old principal of proper inheritance didn't exactly hold much water at the time, since Henry's grandfather Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV) only took the throne [[NotSoDifferent by seizing it from his cousin Richard II]]. This, combined with a general lack of faith in Henry VI's leadership, made the question of determining the "proper" king much more complicated.

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* SuccessionCrisis: Richard Plantagenet and Henry VI were cousins, and both of them could rightly claim to be direct descendants of King Edward III (Richard through his grandfather great-grandfather Edmund of Langley, Henry through his great-grandfather great-great-grandfather, John of Gaunt). Even the old principal of proper inheritance didn't exactly hold much water at the time, since Henry's grandfather Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV) only took the throne [[NotSoDifferent by seizing it from his cousin Richard II]]. This, combined with a general lack of faith in Henry VI's leadership, made the question of determining the "proper" king much more complicated.
2nd Oct '16 8:01:16 AM SilentStranger
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* ''[[Series/{{Blackadder}} The Black Adder]]'' tells the tale of Edmund Plantagenet, grandson of Richard III, whose family history was [[WrittenByTheWinners erased from history by the House of Tudor]].

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* ''[[Series/{{Blackadder}} The Black Adder]]'' tells the tale of Edmund Plantagenet, grandson of Adder]]'''s premise is that Richard III, whose III actually won the battle of Bosworth Field, but was accidently beheaded by his incompetent nephew Edmund while trying to take his horse. Subsequently, Edmunds father Richard, one of the Princes In the Tower who were never imprisoned or killed, is crowned king and becomes Richard IV. After a 13-year reign, the entire family history was line, including Edmund, is wiped out in a botched attempt by Edmund (now calling himself the Black Adder) to seize the throne for himself, with Edmund technically being king for about 30 seconds before succumbing to poisoning. The entire period is [[WrittenByTheWinners erased from history by the House of Tudor]].Tudor]], with Henry Tudor claiming the throne and changing the historical records to show that he won the battle, as well as portraying Richard III as a tyrant and kin-slayer.
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