History UsefulNotes / TheKoreanWar

27th Mar '17 3:25:14 PM Jhonny
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The obvious solution was to turn the PRC's ideological opposition to the USA into a very real, very concrete struggle which would force them to turn to the Soviets for aid. Since neither the USA, nor Britain, nor France would sell armaments to nor trade with the PRC while they were at war with it this would enable the USSR to profit very handsomely from selling arms to, trading with, and developing the PRC. And naturally, just as the USA was refusing to share nuclear weapons technology with Britain and France (under the ''McMahon Act'' preserving Nuclear Secrets), so the USSR should refuse to share it with China.

All Stalin had to do was, when the Americans inevitably intervened and, under the ambitious General MacArthur inevitably sought to conquer northern Korea, promise Mao that the Soviet Union would provide the PRC with 'air cover' and 'air defenses' and 'artillery'. When the Chinese intervened Stalin then revealed that Soviet 'air cover' and 'air defenses' were only going to be in place over Chinese territory and that the 'artillery' was not going to be freely given: it was going to be sold. And it was not going to be sold cheaply.

to:

The obvious solution was to turn the PRC's ideological opposition to the USA into a very real, very concrete struggle which would force them to turn to the Soviets for aid. Since neither the USA, nor Britain, nor France would sell armaments to nor trade with the PRC while they were at war with it this would enable the USSR to profit very handsomely from selling arms to, trading with, and developing the PRC. And naturally, just as the USA was refusing to share nuclear weapons technology with Britain and France (under the ''McMahon ''[=McMahon=] Act'' preserving Nuclear Secrets), so the USSR should refuse to share it with China.

All Stalin had to do was, when the Americans inevitably intervened and, under the ambitious General MacArthur [=MacArthur=] inevitably sought to conquer northern Korea, promise Mao that the Soviet Union would provide the PRC with 'air cover' and 'air defenses' and 'artillery'. When the Chinese intervened Stalin then revealed that Soviet 'air cover' and 'air defenses' were only going to be in place over Chinese territory and that the 'artillery' was not going to be freely given: it was going to be sold. And it was not going to be sold cheaply.
26th Mar '17 12:10:19 AM MAI742
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->''"In war there is no substitute for victory."''
-->--'''UsefulNotes/DouglasMacArthur.'''

The closest the [[UsefulNotes/HistoryOfTheColdWar Cold War]] ever got to going 'hot', the Korean War of 1950-53 is known as "the 6.25 War" (the war began on the 25th of June) or just "6.25" in UsefulNotes/{{South Korea}}, the "Fatherland Liberation War" in UsefulNotes/{{North Korea}}, and 'the ''[[Series/{{Mash}} M*A*S*H]]'' war' in the English-speaking world. The two Koreas are still ''de jure'' at war, as they only ever agreed to a ceasefire, but ''de facto'' at peace as no serious fighting has ensued in the decades since the ceasefire was concluded. In fact their relationship has been more or less amicable, especially after 1998.

Both Korean states had been harassing each other along the border, and both had aspirations of placing the whole peninsula under their own style of government. On 25 June (6.25) 1950, North Korea took the initiative, crossed the 38th parallel and launched an invasion of South Korea.

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->''"In war there ->''"There is no substitute for victory.not a single unit in the United Democratic Forces now driving the Kuomintang from Manchuria that does not have my troops in it [...] at the end of the Manchurian campaign these roops will be seasoned, trained veterans. When the Americans and the Russians withdraw, we will be able to liberate [southern] Korea immediately."''
-->--'''UsefulNotes/DouglasMacArthur.'''

-->--'''Ch'oe Yonggon''', DPRK Defence Minister (translated by Bruce Cummings) [[note]] printed in Bruce Cummings' ''The Origins of the Korean War: The Roaring of the Cataract 1947-1950 (Princeton, 1990), p.359 [[/note]]

The closest the [[UsefulNotes/HistoryOfTheColdWar Cold War]] USA ever got came to going 'hot', using several hundred nuclear weapons upon the People's Republic of China, the Korean War of 1950-53 is known as "the 6.25 War" (the war began on the 25th of June) or just "6.25" in UsefulNotes/{{South Korea}}, the "Fatherland Liberation War" in UsefulNotes/{{North Korea}}, and 'the ''[[Series/{{Mash}} M*A*S*H]]'' war' in the English-speaking world. The two Koreas are still ''de jure'' at war, as they only ever agreed to a ceasefire, but ''de facto'' at peace as no serious fighting has ensued in the decades since the ceasefire was concluded. In fact their relationship has been more or less amicable, especially after 1998.

Both Korean states At least 50,000 Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK, 'North' Korea) served in at least the final three years (1948-50) of the Chinese Civil War on the side of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). After most of the Chinese-majority provinces of the Mainland had been harassing each other conquered, on the 1st of October 1949 Chairman Mao of the CCP declared the foundation of the People's Republic of China (PRC). Chinese Nationalist Party (KMG) forces continued to hold out along the Chinese-Burman border, Chinese Central Asia, and both Hainan Island but the war was effectively over by then. The PRC's People's Liberation Army (PLA) was simply unable to deploy most of its troops in these remote and inaccessible areas, so it demobilised most of its forces and allowed the DPRK units to return to North Korea with their equipment and weapons - and experience in battle.

Within Korea itself, tensions
had aspirations of placing grown as the whole Republic of Korea (ROK, 'South' Korea) began to descend into internicine strife and let groups within its society instigate border incidents with the North which were soon reciprocated. In a curious inversion of present-day affairs, where the south is the (relatively) orderly and prosperous of the two and the north is the semi-anarchic basketcase, in the period 1945-50 the north achieved a high degree of popular contentment due to state investment in education, basic healthcare, workers' rights, etc where as the south had begun a backslide into kleptocratic mayhem. The US occupation authorities had somewhat unwisely decided to innoculate south Korean society against Socialism by defunding the school system and encouraging the clique of oligarchs led by President Park to deny unemployment subsidies, safe working conditions, limited working hours etc. to South Korean workers.

Some historians such as Allan R. Millet have contested that the Korean (Civil) War began as early as the Jeju Island Uprising of Spring 1948, and terrorist attacks and rioting by the (Communist) Korean Labor Party on the
peninsula proper. Korean Christian and Pro-Capitalist paramilitary groups were strengthened and in many cases led by 'landlords' and 'capitalists' (rich rentier-farmers who had lost most of their land in the DPRK Land Reforms, factory/mine/shop owners whose assets had been nationalised) whose assets had been seized but had been allowed to flee to the South. These paramilitary groups instituted repression within the south and launched raids into the north, which were combated by regular DPRK forces.

In March 1950, Stalin responded to DPRK leader Kim Il-Sung's latest request for permission to invade South Korea in the affirmative. There were a number of reasons for this. First and foremost was that Stalin knew that the PRC would someday become the most powerful country in the Communist Bloc by virtue of its sheer economic potential (with c.500 million citizens to the USSR's post-WWII 180 million). Secondly, Stalin knew that the realities of geopolitics meant that aside from a common ideology, the USSR and PRC had no common interests or enemies. Thirdly, Stalin knew that the reconstruction and development aid which the USA could offer the PRC was an order of magnitude larger than what the USSR could give it.

The obvious solution was to turn the PRC's ideological opposition to the USA into a very real, very concrete struggle which would force them to turn to the Soviets for aid. Since neither the USA, nor Britain, nor France would sell armaments to nor trade with the PRC while they were at war with it this would enable the USSR to profit very handsomely from selling arms to, trading with, and developing the PRC. And naturally, just as the USA was refusing to share nuclear weapons technology with Britain and France (under the ''McMahon Act'' preserving Nuclear Secrets), so the USSR should refuse to share it with China.

All Stalin had to do was, when the Americans inevitably intervened and,
under their own style of government. the ambitious General MacArthur inevitably sought to conquer northern Korea, promise Mao that the Soviet Union would provide the PRC with 'air cover' and 'air defenses' and 'artillery'. When the Chinese intervened Stalin then revealed that Soviet 'air cover' and 'air defenses' were only going to be in place over Chinese territory and that the 'artillery' was not going to be freely given: it was going to be sold. And it was not going to be sold cheaply.

On 25 June (6.25) 1950, North Korea took the initiative, crossed the 38th parallel and launched an invasion of South Korea.



In the meantime the United States appealed to the United Nations for intervention. Normally this might've been a waste of time, as Stalin [[SlaveToPR would have been compelled to use the USSR's veto power to stop the Capitalist Imperial Powers from waging war on a communist country under the U.N. banner]]. Fortunately for Stalin, South Korea, and the USA the North Korean invasion had come while the Soviets were still boycotting the U.N. security council in protest at the [[PeoplesRepublicOfTyranny People's Republic of China]] (est.1949) not being given [[UsefulNotes/NoMoreEmperors the Republic of China's]] (est.1911)'s seat on the Security Council [[NoMoreEmperors despite the former having conquered virtually all of the latter]]. This is good for South Korea and the USA because South Korea will continue to exist as U.S. ally/client state, and good for the USSR because it could use a distraction from the 'reorganisation' of eastern Europe (from heavily-bullied allies into outright satellite states).



And in a sane world, that's where the war would've ended, after only a single bloody year. But negotiations dragged on for two more years, and men continued to die by the thousands with no territorial gains for either side (much like WorldWarOne a generation earlier, only this time with jets). The Soviet Union snuck in some pilots, partly as a show of solidarity with the PRC but also to gain experience in modern air-air combat. The UN forces knew they were there, but weren't keen on starting a war with the [[Main/{{RedsWithRockets}} Reds With Rockets]].[[note]] American and British fighter pilots had standing orders to kill any enemy fighter pilot suspected of being a Russian. Not shoot him down, ''kill him''. This was to send a message to the Soviets, who insisted that [[BlatantLies every Mig-15 was being flown by a "brave Chinese volunteer."]] [[/note]] Finally, in 1953 both sides agreed to a cease-fire that set up a demilitarized zone between the two countries, and remains in effect today.[[note]]Technically, though, as there never was an actual peace treaty between the two sides, the two nations are still at war with one another. There's even been a few incidents along the DMZ, as well as attacks on vessels in waters both nations claim as theirs.[[/note]]

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And in a sane world, that's where the war would've ended, after only a single bloody year. But negotiations dragged on for two more years, and men continued to die by the thousands with no territorial gains for either side (much like WorldWarOne a generation earlier, only this time with jets). The Soviet Union snuck in some pilots, partly as a show of solidarity with the PRC but also to gain experience in modern air-air combat. The UN forces knew they were there, but weren't keen on starting a war with the [[Main/{{RedsWithRockets}} Reds With Rockets]].[[note]] American and British fighter pilots had standing orders to kill any enemy fighter pilot suspected of being a Russian. Not shoot him down, ''kill him''. This was to send a message to the Soviets, who insisted that [[BlatantLies every Mig-15 was being flown by a "brave Chinese volunteer."]] [[/note]] [[/note]]

In Spring 1953, the US Far East Command endorsed OPLAN (Operations Plan) 8-52 in the event of DPRK non-acceptance of their final ceasefire proposal. This called for a final offensive to occupy DPRK territory, which depending upon results was to end with more favourable ceasefire terms or ''debellatio'' (destruction of the opposing state). If resistance was too difficult, the offensive was to be enabled through the employment of an initial bombardment of 480 tactical nuclear weapons upon the towns and cities of the DPRK and Chinese Manchuria which possessed railway stations to annihilate stockpiles of food, ammunition, and concentrations of reserve troops as well as forestalling the movement of these to the front. If this proved insufficient, the use of a further 120 weapons was authorised to maintain the disuse of the DPRK-Manchurian road-rail networks.

Finally, in 1953 both sides agreed to a cease-fire that set up a demilitarized zone between the two countries, and remains in effect today.[[note]]Technically, though, as there never was an actual peace treaty between the two sides, the two nations are still at war with one another. There's even been a few incidents along the DMZ, as well as attacks on vessels in waters both nations claim as theirs.[[/note]]



The war saw the real start of jet-based air combat (jets had been used in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, but only in the very late stages of the war and in no case did jet fight jet). On the plus side, this war took advantage of major advances in antibiotics (penicillin had become as common as sulfa antibiotics), surgery, and transportation (including by helicopter) to create very effective care for the wounded. If you were a UN soldier wounded in combat and arrived at a MASH unit alive in that war, your chances of survival there were a whopping 97%. Amongst the Chinese forces, or European forces just a generation earlier, the average wounded soldier's chances could well have been a mere 50-50.

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The Korean War was largely fought by the same commanders and with the same doctrines, weapons, and equipment as the Second World War. The USA and its allies had counted upon their superiority in nuclear weapons to make up for their lack of conventional armament, and the Soviets only sold obsolescent WWII-vintage armaments to the PRC and DPRK - they kept all armaments designed and produced since 1945 for themselves. However, the war saw did see the real start of jet-based air combat (jets had been used in UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, but only in the very late stages of the war and in no case did jet fight jet). On the plus side, this war took advantage of major advances in antibiotics (penicillin had become as common as sulfa antibiotics), surgery, and transportation (including by helicopter) to create very effective care for the wounded. If you were a UN soldier wounded in combat and arrived at a MASH unit alive in that war, your chances of survival there were a whopping 97%. Amongst the Chinese forces, or European forces just a generation earlier, the average wounded soldier's chances could well have been a mere 50-50.
1st Mar '17 6:06:04 PM TheWildWestPyro
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* ''Assembly'', 2007 Chinese film which also takes place during the Chinese Civil War

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* ''Assembly'', a 2007 Chinese film which also takes place during the Chinese Civil WarWar.
1st Mar '17 6:02:38 PM TheWildWestPyro
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[=MacArthur=] promptly advocates the nuclear carpet-bombing of PRC cities to disrupt their supply lines (making him every bit as much of a GeneralRipper as the later [[DrStrangelove movie version]]) and [[UsefulNotes/HarryTruman President Truman]] has no choice but to fire him after he does so in public[[note]]Like most historical events, it was far more complicated than that. Essentially, [=MacArthur=] wanted to follow up the carpet-bombing with an invasion of northern China. Truman, being possessed of a brain and an ounce of humanity, didn't. However, [=MacArthur=] was dead-set in his plan, and ultimately made it clear that he was going to ignore the orders issued by the President (who is, after all, Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces), and Truman had no choice but to ask for his resignation. However, [=MacArthur=] essentially walked into the meeting with the President ''knowing that would happen'', and baited Truman into doing so. They actually parted amicably, agreeing that both sides had done what they needed to do: Truman would get to run the war the sane way, and [=MacArthur=] would get out of the war with his integrity intact[[/note]]. Breathing a sigh of relief, the PRC's leadership goes ahead with urban education and bomb-shelter programmes anyway just in case the USA changes its mind about nuking them. This makes the first generation of kids to fear nuclear holocaust Chinese. How nice.

to:

[=MacArthur=] promptly advocates the nuclear carpet-bombing of PRC cities to disrupt their supply lines (making him every bit as much of a GeneralRipper as the later [[DrStrangelove movie version]]) and [[UsefulNotes/HarryTruman President Truman]] has no choice but to fire him after he does so in public[[note]]Like most historical events, it was far more complicated than that. Essentially, [=MacArthur=] wanted to follow up the carpet-bombing with an invasion of northern China. Truman, being possessed of a brain and an ounce of humanity, didn't. However, [=MacArthur=] was dead-set in his plan, and ultimately made it clear that he was going to ignore the orders issued by the President (who is, after all, Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces), and Truman had no choice but to ask for his resignation. However, [=MacArthur=] essentially walked into the meeting with the President ''knowing that would happen'', and baited Truman into doing so. They actually parted amicably, agreeing that both sides had done what they needed to do: Truman would get to run the war the sane way, and [=MacArthur=] would get out of the war with his integrity intact[[/note]]. Breathing a sigh of relief, the PRC's leadership goes ahead with urban education and bomb-shelter programmes anyway just in case the USA changes its mind about nuking them. This makes the first generation of Chinese kids to fear nuclear holocaust Chinese.from America. How nice.
25th Feb '17 2:03:31 PM nombretomado
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* The DaleBrown novel ''Battle Born''

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* The DaleBrown Creator/DaleBrown novel ''Battle Born''
23rd Feb '17 10:56:44 PM vexer
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* ''Film/{{Inchon}}'', a 1981 American film funded by Sun Myung Moon. Famously considered one of the worst movies of all time, it "won" four [[UsefulNotes/GoldenRaspberryAward Razzies]]. As a box office failure, it's often mentioned in the same breath as ''Film/HeavensGate''. [=MacArthur=] was played by Creator/LaurenceOlivier, who [[TropeNamer provided the name for]] MoneyDearBoy when describing why he took the part.

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* ''Film/{{Inchon}}'', a 1981 American film funded by Sun Myung Moon. Famously considered one of the worst movies of all time, time when it originally came out, it "won" four [[UsefulNotes/GoldenRaspberryAward Razzies]]. As a box office failure, it's often mentioned in the same breath as ''Film/HeavensGate''.''Film/HeavensGate'', though like that film, it does have it's share of fans today, some of which think it got way more hate then it deserved. [=MacArthur=] was played by Creator/LaurenceOlivier, who [[TropeNamer provided the name for]] MoneyDearBoy when describing why he took the part.
23rd Feb '17 10:41:19 PM vexer
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* ''[[Film/{{Taegukgi}} Taegukgi: The Brotherhood of War]]'' (AKA: ''Taegukgi hwinalrimyeo'', ''Brotherhood: Taegukgi''), a 2007 South Korean film. "Taegukgi" is a name for the flag of South Korea. The movie is about two brothers who get caught up in the war: the older brother does everything he can to get medals so he can request for his younger brother to be sent home; when he believes his brother has died in a fire he does a FaceHeelTurn to North Korea out of despair.

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* ''[[Film/{{Taegukgi}} Taegukgi: The Brotherhood of War]]'' (AKA: ''Taegukgi hwinalrimyeo'', ''Brotherhood: Taegukgi''), a 2007 2004 South Korean film. "Taegukgi" is a name for the flag of South Korea. The movie is about two brothers who get caught up in the war: the older brother does everything he can to get medals so he can request for his younger brother to be sent home; when he believes his brother has died in a fire he does a FaceHeelTurn to North Korea out of despair.
22nd Jan '17 1:19:00 PM jamespolk
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* ''Welcome to Dongmakgol'' (2005), a South Korean film

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* ''Welcome to Dongmakgol'' ''Film/WelcomeToDongmakgol'' (2005), a South Korean film
28th Dec '16 2:12:01 AM najhoant
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* ''Operation Chromite'', a South Korean film from 2016 about the Battle of Inchon starring Creator/LiamNeeson as General [=MacArthur=].
20th Oct '16 10:26:28 AM Morgenthaler
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In the meantime the United States appealed to the United Nations for intervention. Normally this might've been a waste of time, as Stalin [[SlaveToPR would have been compelled to use the USSR's veto power to stop the Capitalist Imperial Powers from waging war on a communist country under the U.N. banner]]. Fortunately for Stalin, South Korea, and the USA the North Korean invasion had come while the Soviets were still boycotting the U.N. security council in protest at the [[PeoplesRepublicOfTyranny People's Republic of China]] (est.1949) not being given [[NoMoreEmperors the Republic of China's]] (est.1911)'s seat on the Security Council [[NoMoreEmperors despite the former having conquered virtually all of the latter]]. This is good for South Korea and the USA because South Korea will continue to exist as U.S. ally/client state, and good for the USSR because it could use a distraction from the 'reorganisation' of eastern Europe (from heavily-bullied allies into outright satellite states).

to:

In the meantime the United States appealed to the United Nations for intervention. Normally this might've been a waste of time, as Stalin [[SlaveToPR would have been compelled to use the USSR's veto power to stop the Capitalist Imperial Powers from waging war on a communist country under the U.N. banner]]. Fortunately for Stalin, South Korea, and the USA the North Korean invasion had come while the Soviets were still boycotting the U.N. security council in protest at the [[PeoplesRepublicOfTyranny People's Republic of China]] (est.1949) not being given [[NoMoreEmperors [[UsefulNotes/NoMoreEmperors the Republic of China's]] (est.1911)'s seat on the Security Council [[NoMoreEmperors despite the former having conquered virtually all of the latter]]. This is good for South Korea and the USA because South Korea will continue to exist as U.S. ally/client state, and good for the USSR because it could use a distraction from the 'reorganisation' of eastern Europe (from heavily-bullied allies into outright satellite states).
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