History UsefulNotes / TheFrenchRevolution

11th Jan '17 6:05:17 PM nombretomado
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* ''LookToTheWest'' features an AlternateHistory version.

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* ''LookToTheWest'' ''Literature/LookToTheWest'' features an AlternateHistory version.
5th Dec '16 7:36:48 PM Xtifr
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** On the side of the counter-revolution, during the Restoration a number of myths were formed to glorify Jean Chouan as a martyr for the rebellion in Mayenne and Brittany. The real Chouan was called Jean Cottereau and he was a smuggler and suspected murderer who rose against the Republic because they were clamping down on his illegal businesses. The restoration transformed him into a ReactionaryFantasy of a Robin Hood who rose against an "unlawful" republic while living in the forest with his merry men.[[note]]In general a lot of the myths of the Chouannerie and Vendeean rebellion, until very recently, drew from oral histories and tall tales than actual research though the latter is compounded by the fact that very little first-hand records exist about the Civil War.[[/note]]

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** On the side of the counter-revolution, during the Restoration a number of myths were formed to glorify Jean Chouan as a martyr for the rebellion in Mayenne and Brittany. The real Chouan was called Jean Cottereau and he was a smuggler and suspected murderer who rose against the Republic because they were clamping down on his illegal businesses. The restoration transformed him into a ReactionaryFantasy reactionary fantasy of a Robin Hood who rose against an "unlawful" republic while living in the forest with his merry men.[[note]]In general a lot of the myths of the Chouannerie and Vendeean rebellion, until very recently, drew from oral histories and tall tales than actual research though the latter is compounded by the fact that very little first-hand records exist about the Civil War.[[/note]]
14th Nov '16 1:59:33 PM Morgenthaler
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** Later Romantics such as Percy Shelley, John Keats and Lord Byron who were liberal-leftist felt that the Revolution brought the spirit of change in Europe. They felt that poets and poetry should also be revolutionary, that artists could and should change society with art, a central belief in romantic literature. Some Romantic composers such as Beethoven were initially pro-Revolutionary but turned bitter when Napoleon became Emperor, i.e. [[CallARabbitASmeerp a king with a different name]]. Some other Romantics, even liberals, saw Napoleon as ''the'' Romantic Hero, a {{Badass}} who by sheer merit and talent, recognized and rewarded by the Revolution, brought modernity to Europe by radically upsetting ideas of aristocracy and monarchy. His youth and good looks, made him closer to a ByronicHero than Byron himself.

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** Later Romantics such as Percy Shelley, John Keats and Lord Byron who were liberal-leftist felt that the Revolution brought the spirit of change in Europe. They felt that poets and poetry should also be revolutionary, that artists could and should change society with art, a central belief in romantic literature. Some Romantic composers such as Beethoven were initially pro-Revolutionary but turned bitter when Napoleon became Emperor, i.e. [[CallARabbitASmeerp a king with a different name]]. Some other Romantics, even liberals, saw Napoleon as ''the'' Romantic Hero, a {{Badass}} badass who by sheer merit and talent, recognized and rewarded by the Revolution, brought modernity to Europe by radically upsetting ideas of aristocracy and monarchy. His youth and good looks, made him closer to a ByronicHero than Byron himself.
23rd Oct '16 12:04:47 PM karstovich2
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The King himself shared some of this frustration, and he and his various finance ministers (Turgot, Necker, and Callonne) spent the better part of the 1780s trying to figure out a way to reform the royal finances and thus avert financial catastrophe. They had a number of good ideas (and a large number of not-so-good ones), but that didn't really matter because in order for any royal decree to come into effect as law, it had to be registered by the ''parlements''[[note]] Local judicial and quasi-legislative assemblies of jurists across France that held an important role in France's legislative process (you thought the King's word was law? He wished!) As it so happened, the ''parlements'' were made up of people who to the last man would be adversely affected by any serious reform, and they used every trick in the book to prevent or at least delay registration of any reform laws--and very effectively, since they were all lawyers.[[/note]] Thus in late 1786, the King called an "Assembly of Notables"--an appointed body of high-ranking and prominent men called in to advise the King, not called since 1620, in the hope that that would pressure the ''parlements'' to register the laws. No such luck--when the Notables met in 1787, they were mostly from the same class as the members of the ''parlements'', and uniformly the response of the Assembly was "We can't help you. The only way to get around the ''parlements'' is to call the Estates-General." Calling an Estates-General was exactly what UsefulNotes/LouisXVI was trying to avoid. The Estates-General was an ancient body, going back to the truly feudal era, and largely similar to the old structure of the English/British Parliament: an assembly of clergy (the "First Estate"), an assembly of nobles (the "Second Estate"),[[note]]Of course, these first two are merged in the English system to become the House of Lords[[/note]] and of everyone else (the "Third Estate"). Each "estate" chose its representatives, who would then meet and discuss and advise the King on important matters of state--particularly matters of finance (as France's patchwork tax system was often structured in a way that made it hard to change without an Estates-General). Louis knew that if he called an Estates-General, he could probably force through the needed financial reforms, but he also knew that the same Estates-General might attempt to conduct reforms and make demands that went beyond the royal finances, possibly even holding the financial reforms hostage to gain concessions[[note]]Despite being a little dim, Louis was well aware that this is more or less exactly what had happened to [[UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfStuart Charles I of England]] about [[UsefulNotes/EnglishCivilWar 150 years previously]]. There was a ''reason'' that none of the French monarchs had seen fit to call one since 1614--an Estates-General was a powerful tool because of the immense legitimacy it had to make big changes, but that same legitimacy made it extremely ''dangerous''. Better, Louis thought, to try to make do with what was possible without the Estates.[[/note]] But the Assembly of Notables was his last chance, and they told him in no uncertain terms that he had no options. So in May 1789, King Louis XVI called a meeting of the Estates-General at Versailles.

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The King himself shared some of this frustration, and he and his various finance ministers (Turgot, Necker, and Callonne) spent the better part of the 1780s trying to figure out a way to reform the royal finances and thus avert financial catastrophe. They had a number of good ideas (and a large number of not-so-good ones), but that didn't really matter because in order for any royal decree to come into effect as law, it had to be registered by the ''parlements''[[note]] Local judicial and quasi-legislative assemblies of jurists across France that held an important role in France's legislative process (you thought the King's word was law? He wished!) As it so happened, the ''parlements'' were made up of people who to the last man would be adversely affected by any serious reform, and they used every trick in the book to prevent or at least delay registration of any reform laws--and very effectively, since they were all lawyers.[[/note]] Thus in late 1786, the King called an "Assembly of Notables"--an appointed body of high-ranking and prominent men called in to advise the King, not called since 1620, in the hope that that would pressure the ''parlements'' to register the laws. No such luck--when the Notables met in 1787, they were mostly from the same class as the members of the ''parlements'', and uniformly the response of the Assembly was "We can't help you. The only way to get around the ''parlements'' is to call the Estates-General." Calling an "

Louis was not pleased at this response, because (1) he knew that (the point of the Assembly was not to get ''around'' the ''parlements'', but to encourage/pressure the ''parlements'' to do what the King wanted), and (2) calling the
Estates-General was exactly what UsefulNotes/LouisXVI was he and the royal ministry had been trying to avoid. The Estates-General was an ancient body, going back to the truly feudal era, and largely similar to the old structure of the English/British Parliament: an assembly of clergy (the "First Estate"), an assembly of nobles (the "Second Estate"),[[note]]Of course, these first two are merged in the English system to become the House of Lords[[/note]] and of everyone else (the "Third Estate"). Each "estate" chose its representatives, who would then meet and discuss and advise the King on important matters of state--particularly matters of finance (as France's patchwork tax system was often structured in a way that made it hard to change without an Estates-General). Louis knew that if he called an Estates-General, he could probably force through the needed financial reforms, but he also knew that the same Estates-General might attempt to conduct reforms and make demands that went beyond the royal finances, possibly even holding the financial reforms hostage to gain concessions[[note]]Despite being a little dim, Louis was well aware that this is more or less exactly what had happened to [[UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfStuart Charles I of England]] about [[UsefulNotes/EnglishCivilWar 150 years previously]]. There was a ''reason'' that none of the French monarchs had seen fit to call one since 1614--an Estates-General was a powerful tool because of the immense legitimacy it had to make big changes, but that same legitimacy made it extremely ''dangerous''. Better, Louis thought, to try to make do with what was possible without the Estates.[[/note]] But the Assembly of Notables was his last chance, and they told him in no uncertain terms that he had no options. So in May 1789, King Louis XVI called a meeting of the Estates-General at Versailles.
26th Sep '16 2:54:18 PM JulianLapostat
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* Constitutional Monarchy at the time enjoyed consensus until the death of Mirabeau. At this time, [[EarlyInstallmentWeirdness even Robespierre was reluctant]] about a Republic, he wanted to erode the King's inviolability and veto, but felt confident in the Constitutional Monarchy. This changed after the Flight to Varennes, an unmitigated PR disaster which overnight sent the King from HunderPercentAdorationRating to ZeroPercentApprovalRating, led to a protest that was suppressed by the Champs de Mars massacre, which split the existing factions and converted moderates into radicals.
* A faction of the Jacobins, led by Jacques Pierre Brissot came to be called the Girondins or Brissotins. They were the leading voices in the years 1792-early 1793. They were slow to pass reforms, represented and catered to the provincial cities rather than the Parisian sans-culottes/nascent working-class. They also sought to energize the Revolution by declaring war on Austria which Robespierre famously opposed, only to be silenced as it gained support even among extremists like the Hebertists.

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* Constitutional Monarchy at the time enjoyed consensus until the death of Mirabeau. At this time, [[EarlyInstallmentWeirdness even Robespierre was reluctant]] about a Republic, he wanted to erode the King's inviolability and veto, but felt confident in the Constitutional Monarchy. This changed after the Flight to Varennes, an unmitigated PR disaster which overnight sent discredited the King from HunderPercentAdorationRating to ZeroPercentApprovalRating, formerly popular King, led to a protest that gathering to petition for a formation of a Republic, which was suppressed by the National Guard, leading to the Champs de Mars massacre, which split the existing factions massacre. This led to increasing polarization and factionalism, and converted moderates into radicals.
* A faction of the Jacobins, led by Jacques Pierre Jacques-Pierre Brissot came to be called the Girondins or Brissotins. They were the leading voices in the years 1792-early 1793. They were slow to pass reforms, represented and catered to the provincial cities rather than the Parisian sans-culottes/nascent working-class. They also sought to energize the Revolution by declaring war on Austria which Robespierre famously opposed, only to be silenced as it gained support even among extremists like the Hebertists.



* It was during the Revolution that the Louvre Palace, already used as a warehouse for the Royal Art collection and a residency for artists patronized by the throne, became the Louvre Museum, opening it to the public and declaring it part of the cultural patrimony. Likewise the Royal Garden became the Jardin des Plantes, headed by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, who would eventually become a key pre-Darwin evolutionary theorist. That said some artists and scientists suffered during this time, including Chateaubriand (who was a fierce royalist), Beaumarchais (the playwright, author of "The Marriage of Figaro" who moonlighted as an arms dealer for both the American and French Revolutions) and one of the victims of the Terror was the father of Modern Chemistry, Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier himself, because of his past as a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferme_g%C3%A9n%C3%A9rale tax collector]] and a Girondin.

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* It was during the Revolution that the Louvre Palace, already used as a warehouse for the Royal Art collection and a residency for artists patronized by the throne, became the Louvre Museum, opening it to the public and declaring it part of the cultural patrimony. Likewise the Royal Garden became the Jardin des Plantes, headed by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, who would eventually become a key pre-Darwin evolutionary theorist. That said some artists and scientists suffered during this time, including time[[note]]Including Chateaubriand (who was a fierce royalist), Beaumarchais (the playwright, author of "The Marriage of Figaro" who moonlighted as an arms dealer for both the American and French Revolutions) and one of the victims of the Terror was the father of Modern Chemistry, Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier himself, because of his past as a [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ferme_g%C3%A9n%C3%A9rale tax collector]] and a Girondin. [[/note]]



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26th Sep '16 2:51:15 PM JulianLapostat
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* Louis XVI stayed King until 1792. He called the Estates-General in 1789 and despite recalcitrance, took an oath to abide by the Constitutional Monarchy which, at Mirabeau's insistence, gave him a veto. This did not work out quite as expected since, the King and the Royal Court kept issuing vetoes on every issue (earning him and his wife the nickname "Monsieur and Madame Veto"). Mirabeau and Lafayette tried to urge the King to begin reforms but the Queen was paranoid and distrusted both of them.
* Constitutional Monarchy at the time enjoyed consensus until the death of Mirabeau. This changed after the Flight to Varennes, an unmitigated PR disaster which overnight sent the King from HunderPercentAdorationRating to ZeroPercentApprovalRating. was the event which really split the existing factions into Constitutional and Republic Lines. At this time, even Robespierre was reluctant about a Republic, he wanted to erode the King's inviolability and put him on trial for his treason, but still backed the 1791 Constitution. The Storming of the Tuileries marked the end of Constitutional Monarchy and the birth of the Republic, which led to calls for a new republican constitution.

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* Louis XVI stayed King until 1792. His title before the Revolution was King of France and Navarre. In 1791, when he swore to uphold the Constitution, his title changed to "King of the French"[[note]]This title would be revived by King Louis Philippe [[UsefulNotes/FrenchPoliticalSystem during the July Monarchy]][[/note]]. He called the Estates-General in 1789 and despite recalcitrance, took an oath to abide by the Constitutional Monarchy which, at Mirabeau's insistence, gave him a veto. This did not work out quite as expected since, the King and the Royal Court kept issuing vetoes on every issue (earning him and his wife the nickname "Monsieur and Madame Veto"). Mirabeau and Lafayette tried to urge the King to begin reforms but the Queen was paranoid and distrusted both of them.\n
* Constitutional Monarchy at the time enjoyed consensus until the death of Mirabeau. At this time, [[EarlyInstallmentWeirdness even Robespierre was reluctant]] about a Republic, he wanted to erode the King's inviolability and veto, but felt confident in the Constitutional Monarchy. This changed after the Flight to Varennes, an unmitigated PR disaster which overnight sent the King from HunderPercentAdorationRating to ZeroPercentApprovalRating. ZeroPercentApprovalRating, led to a protest that was suppressed by the event Champs de Mars massacre, which really split the existing factions and converted moderates into Constitutional and Republic Lines. At this time, even Robespierre was reluctant about a Republic, he wanted to erode the King's inviolability and put him on trial for his treason, but still backed the 1791 Constitution. The Storming of the Tuileries marked the end of Constitutional Monarchy and the birth of the Republic, which led to calls for a new republican constitution.radicals.



* When the War started losing ground, and General Dumouriez who the Girondins had touted as highly sympathetic to the nation, defected to the enemy along with other noble defections, France found its borders threatened. This led to a city-wide insurrection that put the Jacobins in power, the Girondins imprisoned and the proper beginning of the ReignOfTerror, as a wartime measure to meet the armies on France's borders.
* To meet the challenge of the war, the [[EmergencyAuthority emergency laws]] of the Terror were unleashed. The National Convention apppointed the Commitee of Public Safety, essentially the first war cabinet, and provided them mandate to ensure that the government remains "Revolutionary until the Peace". This introduced mass {{Conscription}} - the Levee en masse issued by the great engineer Lazare Carnot. This involved able-bodied men, women and children performing all kinds of actions in what is often seen as the first attempt to mount a total war. Women were sent to hospitals and sent to work while the men were sent to fight the War in all kinds of capacities. Such initiative and mobilization would be repeated on a far grander scale during UsefulNotes/WorldWarI and UsefulNotes/WorldWarII.

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* The Storming of the Tuileries marked the end of Constitutional Monarchy and the birth of the Republic, which led to calls for a new republican constitution. This event took place on August 10, 1792 and was led by Cordeliers, sans culottes, the Paris Commune, the National Guard as well as volunteers from the Province called Federalists. They came mainly from Marseilles and along the way they picked up a song and popularized it during their march, this became known as "La marseillaise".
* The King was imprisoned in the Temple Fortress after the insurrection, while the Queen was kept at La Force prison. He was executed in January 1793. The debates during the trial hardened the political polarization between Jacobins and Girondins, and the execution of the King broke off diplomatic relations between France and England, which had grown worse and worse until finally the Girondins declared war on England, which led to a NavalBlockade around France.
* As the war started going badly, there were calls for {{Conscription}}. An attempt to call for conscription in the Vendee region provoked a massacre of 200 Republicans at Machecoul and the weakness of the early troops sent to deal with them exacerbated an insurrection into a full-blown counter-revolutoniary rebellion.
When the War started losing ground, and General Dumouriez who the Girondins had touted as highly sympathetic to the nation, defected to the enemy along with other noble defections, France found its borders threatened. This led to a city-wide insurrection that put the Jacobins in power, drove the Girondins imprisoned to exile and prison, sparking another provincial rebellion, described as the proper beginning of the ReignOfTerror, as a wartime measure to meet the armies federalist revolt. France [[EverythingTryingToKillYou now had enemies on France's borders.
all its sides, two rebellions inside its border, and an increasingly angry Parisian mob]].
* To meet the challenge of the war, the [[EmergencyAuthority emergency laws]] of the Terror were unleashed. unleashed, in response to public demand. It was justified by Minister of Justice Georges Danton as maintaining [[https://www.britannica.com/topic/state-monopoly-on-violence the state monopoly on violence]] and to this end, Danton established the Revolutionary Tribunals. The proper beginning of the Terror comes with the passing of the Law of Suspects. The ReignOfTerror was confined geographically to Paris, and areas of external and internal revolt, with the majority of France unaffected by it.
*
The National Convention apppointed granted mandate to the Commitee of Public Safety, essentially the first war cabinet, and provided them mandate Safety to ensure that the government remains "Revolutionary until the Peace". This Membership in the Committee was renewed every month by votes in the convention and they were an executive body of 12 Men, charged with revolutionary dictatorship. They introduced mass {{Conscription}} - the Levee en masse issued by the great engineer Lazare Carnot. This involved able-bodied men, women and children performing all kinds of actions in what is often seen as the first attempt to mount a total war. Women were sent to hospitals and sent to work while the men were sent to fight the War in all kinds of capacities. Such initiative and mobilization would be repeated on a far grander scale during UsefulNotes/WorldWarI and UsefulNotes/WorldWarII.
* The Terror killed 17,000 people by Guillotine after a trial. While unofficial executions may have gone up to 40,000. Towards the final month of Thermidor, it became worse, a period called the "Great Terror". Statistically, and contrary to popular belief, only 8% of the victims were aristocrats (who considering they were 1% of the population did feel a disproportionate impact), 25% of the victims were bourgeois and middle-class, 28% were peasants and working-class and the rest were clergy. During the "Great Terror" after the Law of 22 Prarial, [[AxCrazy where 1000 people were executed in a single month]] ([[UpToEleven matching the executions in Paris the previous year]]), the victims became 38% Nobility, 26% Clergy, with [[EatTheRich the wealthy victims]] discriminated against since the law deprived them of a [[KangarooCourt right to call for witnesses, legal representatives or evidence]] by which according to Georges Couthon ([[HangingJudge who drafted the law to the Convention]]), wealthier accused escaped the blade before. Ironically, the largest single mass-execution of the Revolution, 77 people in a single day happened on the day after Robespierre's execution. Over three days , the National Convention purged and executed without trial 100 people connected to Robespierre and the Paris Commune.



* During the Terror, the Revolutionary Calendar was introduced. The calendar operated in decimal measures[[note]]Each Day had 10 Hours, Each Hour Had 100 Minutes and Each Minute Had 100 Seconds. Each month had thirty days organized in three 10 day weeks, with the tenth day being a public holiday. Five extra days were added to the end of the year to make a total of 365 days and a leap year likewise had six extra days.[[/note]]. Each year had 12 months divided into sets of three months to reflect the four seasons of Autumn (Vendémiaire [[note]]from Latin vindemia, "grape harvest"[[/note]], Brumaire [[note]] From brume, French for "fog"[[/note]], Frimaire [[note]] (From French frimas, "frost")[[/note]]), Winter (Nivôse [[note]] from Latin nivosus, "snowy"[[/note]], Pluviôse [[note]]from Latin pluvius, "rainy"[[/note]], Ventôse [[note]](from Latin ventosus, "windy")[[/note]]), Spring, (Germinal [[note]]from Latin germen, "germination"[[/note]], Floréal [[note]]from Latin flos, "flower"[[/note]], Prairial [[note]](from French prairie, "pasture")[[/note]]) and Summer (Messidor[[note]]Harvest[[/note]], Thermidor[[note]]summer heat[[/note]], Fructidor[[note]]Fruitful Month[[/note]]). There is a conversion table [[http://www.shtukoviny.ru/calendar/index.html for contemporary dates into the French Calendar]]. The real problems with the use of the calendar aside from widespread cultural inertia with the Gregorian calendar, is that the new months while corresponding well, more or less, with the seasonal structure of France was not quite as appropriate to the colonies or parts of France where a Snowy Month (Nivôse) doesn't snow. During the Terror, the Gregorian calendar continued to be use in daily practice, and it was the Directory government that made serious efforts to enforce it facing opposition from workers who hated the number of holidays being reduced. The Calendar remains well known on account for the fact that some of the dates have become proverbial, namely 9 Thermidor(The Fall of Robespierre), and 18 Brumaire (The Rise of Napoleon).



* The Reign of Terror under the Committee of Public Safety, killed 17,000 people by Guillotine after a trial. While unofficial executions may have gone up to 40,000. Towards the final month of Thermidor, it became worse, a period called the "Great Terror". Statistically, and contrary to popular belief, only 8% of the victims were aristocrats (who considering they were 1% of the population did feel a disproportionate impact), 25% of the victims were bourgeois and middle-class, 28% were peasants and working-class and the rest were clergy. During the "Great Terror" after the Law of 22 Prarial, [[AxCrazy where 1000 people were executed in a single month]] ([[UpToEleven matching the executions in Paris the previous year]]), the victims became 38% Nobility, 26% Clergy, with [[EatTheRich the wealthy victims]] discriminated against since the law deprived them of a [[KangarooCourt right to call for witnesses, legal representatives or evidence]] by which according to Georges Couthon ([[HangingJudge who drafted the law to the Convention]]), wealthier accused escaped the blade before.



* There were several different governments during this time:
** The National Assembly (1789)
** The National Constituent Assembly (1789-1791)
** Legislative Assembly (1791-1792)
** National Convention (1792-1795), of which the Committee of Public Safety was a sub-group, as was the Paris Commune.
** The Directory (1795-1799)
* Napoleon Bonaparte ended this when he took direct power. [[SarcasmMode It's not like he caused any more mess.]] At least he stabilized the country and its institutions and consolidated most of the reforms of the Revolution with his Napoleonic Code (authored by Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès, a member of the National Convention).

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* There were several different The Different governments during this time:
**
of the Revolution were: The National Assembly (1789)
**
(1789), The National Constituent Assembly (1789-1791)
**
(1789-1791), Legislative Assembly (1791-1792)
**
(1791-1792), National Convention (1792-1795), of which The Directory (1795-1799) and the Committee of Public Safety was a sub-group, as was the Paris Commune.Consulate (1799-1804).
** The Directory (1795-1799)
* Napoleon Bonaparte ended this when he took direct power. [[SarcasmMode It's not like He was initially a co-conspirator of a liberal coup masterminded by Abbe Sieyes, but he caused any more mess.]] At least he stabilized hijacked the country and its institutions and consolidated most plot to strengthen his power. Bonaparte initially served as one of three Consuls in the Consulate before declaring himself TheEmperor in December 1804 (marking the end of the First French Republic). During the Consulate, he ended Dechristianization, conducted a Concordat with the Catholic Church and oversaw the consolidation of many Revolutionary reforms of the Revolution with his Napoleonic Code (authored by Jean-Jacques-Régis de Cambacérès, a member of the National Convention).
25th Sep '16 10:43:38 PM JulianLapostat
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!! Some basic notes]]

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!! Some basic notes]]notes
25th Sep '16 10:41:31 PM JulianLapostat
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[[foldercontrol]]
[[folder: Some basic notes]]

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[[foldercontrol]]
[[folder:
!! Some basic notes]]
25th Sep '16 10:37:11 PM JulianLapostat
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These debates, at first, played out in the National Assembly, in journals, debated in the clubs and the streets. Eventually [[SeriousBusiness it became matters of life and death]], as everyone took a stance for their beliefs on increasingly partisan lines. A series of incidents took place, often described as [[ShortLivedBigImpact a century's worth of activity in a decade]]. The King after seemingly accepting the Constitution and Limited Monarchy, discredited himself in the failed plot of the Flight to Varennes. This set of a chain reaction of events: [[LongList Then there was an agitation for war, a second insurrection that toppled the Constitutional Monarchy and installed the First French Republic, victory and setbacks in the battlefield, the execution of the King, internal insurrections in different parts of France, invasion by external powers on all sides, calls for extreme measures on the government to meet these threats]], the ReignOfTerror with its many high profile victims, [[BackFromTheBrink the stunning reversal of the military situation]] from the jaws of defeat to total victory, the end of Terror, a new conservative Republic that resorted to using the army to purge factions that seem to topple the centrist hegemony, and ending with the military coup of UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte.

to:

These debates, at first, played out in the National Assembly, in journals, debated in the clubs and the streets. Eventually [[SeriousBusiness it became matters of life and death]], as everyone took a stance for their beliefs on increasingly partisan lines. A series of incidents took place, often described as [[ShortLivedBigImpact a century's worth of activity in a decade]]. The King after seemingly accepting the Constitution and Limited Monarchy, discredited himself in the failed plot of the Flight to Varennes. This set of a chain reaction of events: [[LongList Then there was an agitation for war, war to spread the revolution, a second insurrection that toppled the Constitutional Monarchy and installed the First French Republic, victory and setbacks in the battlefield, the execution of the King, internal insurrections in different parts of France, invasion by external powers on all sides, calls for extreme measures on the government to meet these threats]], the ReignOfTerror with its many high profile victims, [[BackFromTheBrink the stunning reversal of the military situation]] from the jaws of defeat to total victory, the end of Terror, the terror, a new conservative Republic that resorted to using the army to purge factions that seem to topple the centrist hegemony, and ending with the military coup of UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte.



!! Some basic notes:

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!! [[foldercontrol]]
[[folder:
Some basic notes:notes]]



* Constitutional Monarchy at the time enjoyed consensus until the death of Mirabeau and the succeeding Flight to Varennes, an unmitigated PR disaster which overnight sent the King from HunderPercentAdorationRating to ZeroPercentApprovalRating. was the event which really split the existing factions into Constitutional and Republic Lines. At this time, even Robespierre was reluctant about a Republic, he wanted to erode the King's inviolability and put him on trial for his treason, but still backed the 1791 Constitution. The Storming of the Tuileries marked the end of Constitutional Monarchy and the birth of the Republic, which led to calls for a new republican constitution.

to:

* Constitutional Monarchy at the time enjoyed consensus until the death of Mirabeau and Mirabeau. This changed after the succeeding Flight to Varennes, an unmitigated PR disaster which overnight sent the King from HunderPercentAdorationRating to ZeroPercentApprovalRating. was the event which really split the existing factions into Constitutional and Republic Lines. At this time, even Robespierre was reluctant about a Republic, he wanted to erode the King's inviolability and put him on trial for his treason, but still backed the 1791 Constitution. The Storming of the Tuileries marked the end of Constitutional Monarchy and the birth of the Republic, which led to calls for a new republican constitution.



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25th Sep '16 10:34:06 PM JulianLapostat
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The era in French History known for UsefulNotes/MarieAntoinette [[BeamMeUpScotty allegedly]] saying "Let Them Eat Cake" for which the people responded, by storming the Bastille, then Versailles, until the found her and her husband and guillotined them, and a few other nobles for good measure. It promised Liberty, Equality, Fraternity but [[MeetTheNewBoss led to the rise of]] UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte. He marched across Europe, stopped only by Richard {{Sharpe}} or the [[WarAndPeace Russian winter]], depending on your nationality. That's TheThemeParkVersion. The real history of the French Revolution was even more of [[GambitPileup a wild ride]]. Start with a series of nations (Britanny, Gascogne, etc. etc.) that have little in common with each other but are bound by King and Church. France was drained by [[UsefulNotes/WarOfTheSpanishSuccession three]] [[UsefulNotes/SevenYearsWar major]] [[UsefulNotes/TheAmericanRevolution world]] wars in the last hundred years, and lots of smaller ones besides. There were these expensive-to-make-and-keep royal palaces, a new and very young king and queen who don't have a clue how to run the country, a nobility that did not want to pay exorbitant taxes even if they had money and didn't use it at all, with the emerging middle and lower-classes being asked to foot an exorbitant bill. A nation with an obsolete form of government that had missed the reforms [[UsefulNotes/EnglishCivilWar that]] [[UsefulNotes/HanoverStuartWars modernized England]] in the intervening hundred years. Over and above, there was the escalating famine, where bread is too expensive for the average person in the Parisian Basin to buy. The famous cahiers de doléances ([[LongList list of grievances]]) petitioned in 1789 outlined the frustration people across France felt towards the government and society, complaining about hunting rights, pointless taxes, poor infrastructure, corrupt nobles, corrupt priests and general frustration. Alexis de Tocqueville later noted that the cahiers essentially called for ''the simultaneous and systematic abolition of all the laws and and all the customs obtaining throughout the kingdom.''

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The era in French History known for UsefulNotes/MarieAntoinette [[BeamMeUpScotty allegedly]] saying "Let Them Eat Cake" for which the people responded, by storming the Bastille, then Versailles, until the found her and her husband and guillotined them, and a few other nobles for good measure. It promised Liberty, Equality, Fraternity but [[MeetTheNewBoss led to the rise of]] UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte. He marched across Europe, stopped only by Richard {{Sharpe}} or the [[WarAndPeace Russian winter]], depending on your nationality. That's TheThemeParkVersion. The real history of the French Revolution was even more of [[GambitPileup a wild ride]]. Start with a series of nations (Britanny, Gascogne, etc. etc.) that have little in common with each other but are bound by King and Church. France was drained by [[UsefulNotes/WarOfTheSpanishSuccession three]] [[UsefulNotes/SevenYearsWar major]] [[UsefulNotes/TheAmericanRevolution world]] wars in the last hundred years, and lots of smaller ones besides. There were these expensive-to-make-and-keep royal palaces, a new and very young king and queen who don't have a clue how to run the country, a nobility that did not want to pay exorbitant taxes even if they had money and didn't use it at all, with the emerging middle and lower-classes being asked to foot an exorbitant bill. A nation with an obsolete form of government that had missed the reforms [[UsefulNotes/EnglishCivilWar that]] [[UsefulNotes/HanoverStuartWars modernized England]] in the intervening hundred years. Over and above, there was the escalating famine, where bread is too expensive for the average person in the Parisian Basin to buy. The famous cahiers de doléances ([[LongList list of grievances]]) petitioned in 1789 outlined the frustration people across France felt towards the government and society, complaining about hunting rights, pointless taxes, poor infrastructure, corrupt nobles, corrupt priests and general frustration. Alexis de Tocqueville later noted that the cahiers essentially called for ''the simultaneous and systematic abolition of all the laws and and all the customs obtaining throughout the kingdom.'' \n



These debates, at first, played out in the National Assembly, in journals, debated in the clubs and the streets. Eventually [[SeriousBusiness it became matters of life and death]], as everyone took a stance for their beliefs on increasingly partisan lines. A series of incidents took place, often described as [[ShortLivedBigImpact a century's worth of activity in a decade]]. The King after seemingly accepting the Constitution and Limited Monarchy, discredited himself in the failed plot of the Flight to Varennes. This set of a chain reaction of events: [[DisasterDominoes Then there was an agitation for war, a second insurrection that toppled the Constitutional Monarchy and installed the First French Republic, victory and setbacks in the battlefield, the execution of the King, internal insurrections in different parts of France, invasion by external powers on all sides, calls for extreme measures on the government to meet these threats]], the ReignOfTerror with its many high profile victims and public endorsement of state violence, [[BackFromTheBrink the stunning reversal of the military situation]] from the jaws of defeat to total victory, the end of Terror, a new conservative Republic that resorted to using the army to purge factions that seem to topple the centrist hegemony, and ending with the military coup of UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte.

to:

These debates, at first, played out in the National Assembly, in journals, debated in the clubs and the streets. Eventually [[SeriousBusiness it became matters of life and death]], as everyone took a stance for their beliefs on increasingly partisan lines. A series of incidents took place, often described as [[ShortLivedBigImpact a century's worth of activity in a decade]]. The King after seemingly accepting the Constitution and Limited Monarchy, discredited himself in the failed plot of the Flight to Varennes. This set of a chain reaction of events: [[DisasterDominoes [[LongList Then there was an agitation for war, a second insurrection that toppled the Constitutional Monarchy and installed the First French Republic, victory and setbacks in the battlefield, the execution of the King, internal insurrections in different parts of France, invasion by external powers on all sides, calls for extreme measures on the government to meet these threats]], the ReignOfTerror with its many high profile victims and public endorsement of state violence, victims, [[BackFromTheBrink the stunning reversal of the military situation]] from the jaws of defeat to total victory, the end of Terror, a new conservative Republic that resorted to using the army to purge factions that seem to topple the centrist hegemony, and ending with the military coup of UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte.
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http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.TheFrenchRevolution