History UsefulNotes / TheChancellorsOfGermany

3rd Sep '16 11:21:50 AM Morgenthaler
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Titles called "Chancellor" (''Kanzler'') go way back. The Carolingian Empire and the HolyRomanEmpire had positions called [[Literature/{{Discworld}} "Archchancellor"]] (''Erzkanzler''). After the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Prussia and Austria had State Chancellors (''Staatskanzler'').

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Titles called "Chancellor" (''Kanzler'') go way back. The Carolingian Empire and the HolyRomanEmpire UsefulNotes/HolyRomanEmpire had positions called [[Literature/{{Discworld}} "Archchancellor"]] (''Erzkanzler''). After the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Prussia and Austria had State Chancellors (''Staatskanzler'').
2nd Sep '16 2:06:56 PM Morgenthaler
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The [[AllTheLittleGermanies North German Confederation]] (which was the prototype of the [[ImperialGermany empire]]; it even had the same flag) had a Federal Chancellor (''Bundeskanzler'') between 1867 and 1871, who was, of course, Otto von Bismarck.

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The [[AllTheLittleGermanies [[UsefulNotes/AllTheLittleGermanies North German Confederation]] (which was the prototype of the [[ImperialGermany [[UsefulNotes/ImperialGermany empire]]; it even had the same flag) had a Federal Chancellor (''Bundeskanzler'') between 1867 and 1871, who was, of course, Otto von Bismarck.
26th Aug '16 11:53:45 AM Jhonny
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* Heinrich Brüning (1930-1932) -- Centre Party. Together with Hindenburg, he sought to undermine the influence of the unstable Reichstag and ruled with presidential emergency decrees instead of laws under toleration by the SPD. His attempts to ease the Great Depression were a failure and the election of 1930 saw massive gains for the Nazis and Communists, which led to a massive withdrawal of foreign money from Germany. He, however, managed to have the reparation payments reduced to 3 billion goldmark (which were never paid) and banned the Nazi SS and SA. A dispute over agricultural aids with Hindenburg ended his administration. Historians views on Brüning are mixed. Brüning later wrote memoirs (he died in 1970) to extricate himself from the blame naturally laid at him (his economic policies were similar in nature and effect to those of UsefulNotes/HerbetHoover in the US). One of the most controversial aspects of his term was the deflationary policies which on the one hand worsened the economic depression and on the other helped lead to the end of German reparations. He later said [[IMeantToDoThat the latter was his goal all along]], but it is more likely that he honestly believed cutting government spending in the worst depression in ages was a good idea.

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* Heinrich Brüning (1930-1932) -- Centre Party. Together with Hindenburg, he sought to undermine the influence of the unstable Reichstag and ruled with presidential emergency decrees instead of laws under toleration by the SPD. His attempts to ease the Great Depression were a failure and the election of 1930 saw massive gains for the Nazis and Communists, which led to a massive withdrawal of foreign money from Germany. He, however, managed to have the reparation payments reduced to 3 billion goldmark (which were never paid) and banned the Nazi SS and SA. A dispute over agricultural aids with Hindenburg ended his administration. Historians views on Brüning are mixed. Brüning later wrote memoirs (he died in 1970) to extricate himself from the blame naturally laid at him (his economic policies were similar in nature and effect to those of UsefulNotes/HerbetHoover UsefulNotes/HerbertHoover in the US). One of the most controversial aspects of his term was the deflationary policies which on the one hand worsened the economic depression and on the other helped lead to the end of German reparations. He later said [[IMeantToDoThat the latter was his goal all along]], but it is more likely that he honestly believed cutting government spending in the worst depression in ages was a good idea.
26th Aug '16 4:59:53 AM Jhonny
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* Heinrich Brüning (1930-1932) -- Centre Party. Together with Hindenburg, he sought to undermine the influence of the unstable Reichstag and ruled with presidential emergency decrees instead of laws under toleration by the SPD. His attempts to ease the Great Depression were a failure and the election of 1930 saw massive gains for the Nazis and Communists, which led to a massive withdrawal of foreign money from Germany. He, however, managed to have the reparation payments reduced to 3 billion goldmark (which were never paid) and banned the Nazi SS and SA. A dispute over agricultural aids with Hindenburg ended his administration. Historians views on Brüning are mixed. Brüning later wrote memoirs (he died in 1970) to extricate himself from the blame naturally laid at him (his economic policies were similar in nature and effect to those of HerbetHoover in the US). One of the most controversial aspects of his term was the deflationary policies which on the one hand worsened the economic depression and on the other helped lead to the end of German reparations. He later said [[IMeantToDoThat the latter was his goal all along]], but it is more likely that he honestly believed cutting government spending in the worst depression in ages was a good idea.

to:

* Heinrich Brüning (1930-1932) -- Centre Party. Together with Hindenburg, he sought to undermine the influence of the unstable Reichstag and ruled with presidential emergency decrees instead of laws under toleration by the SPD. His attempts to ease the Great Depression were a failure and the election of 1930 saw massive gains for the Nazis and Communists, which led to a massive withdrawal of foreign money from Germany. He, however, managed to have the reparation payments reduced to 3 billion goldmark (which were never paid) and banned the Nazi SS and SA. A dispute over agricultural aids with Hindenburg ended his administration. Historians views on Brüning are mixed. Brüning later wrote memoirs (he died in 1970) to extricate himself from the blame naturally laid at him (his economic policies were similar in nature and effect to those of HerbetHoover UsefulNotes/HerbetHoover in the US). One of the most controversial aspects of his term was the deflationary policies which on the one hand worsened the economic depression and on the other helped lead to the end of German reparations. He later said [[IMeantToDoThat the latter was his goal all along]], but it is more likely that he honestly believed cutting government spending in the worst depression in ages was a good idea.
26th Aug '16 4:59:32 AM Jhonny
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* Heinrich Brüning (1930-1932) -- Centre Party. Together with Hindenburg, he sought to undermine the influence of the unstable Reichstag and ruled with presidential emergency decrees instead of laws under toleration by the SPD. His attempts to ease the Great Depression were a failure and the election of 1930 saw massive gains for the Nazis and Communists, which led to a massive withdrawal of foreign money from Germany. He, however, managed to have the reparation payments reduced to 3 billion goldmark (which were never paid) and banned the Nazi SS and SA. A dispute over agricultural aids with Hindenburg ended his administration. Historians views on Brüning are mixed.

to:

* Heinrich Brüning (1930-1932) -- Centre Party. Together with Hindenburg, he sought to undermine the influence of the unstable Reichstag and ruled with presidential emergency decrees instead of laws under toleration by the SPD. His attempts to ease the Great Depression were a failure and the election of 1930 saw massive gains for the Nazis and Communists, which led to a massive withdrawal of foreign money from Germany. He, however, managed to have the reparation payments reduced to 3 billion goldmark (which were never paid) and banned the Nazi SS and SA. A dispute over agricultural aids with Hindenburg ended his administration. Historians views on Brüning are mixed. Brüning later wrote memoirs (he died in 1970) to extricate himself from the blame naturally laid at him (his economic policies were similar in nature and effect to those of HerbetHoover in the US). One of the most controversial aspects of his term was the deflationary policies which on the one hand worsened the economic depression and on the other helped lead to the end of German reparations. He later said [[IMeantToDoThat the latter was his goal all along]], but it is more likely that he honestly believed cutting government spending in the worst depression in ages was a good idea.
26th Aug '16 4:51:54 AM Jhonny
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* Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (1894-1900) -- Elderly (he was already 75 in 1894) former prime minister of Bavaria and diplomat. He finished the ''Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch'' (BGB), the first civil code for all of Germany, which is still in force today. The BGB is widely regarded as a masterwork of civil law and several countries wholly or partly modeled their after it, most notably Japan, which at the time had a major ForeignCultureFetish for all things Prussian.

to:

* Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (1894-1900) -- Elderly (he was already 75 in 1894) former prime minister of Bavaria and diplomat. He finished the ''Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch'' (BGB), the first civil code for all of Germany, which is still in force today. The BGB is widely regarded as a masterwork of civil law and several countries wholly or partly modeled their theirs after it, most notably Japan, which at the time had a major ForeignCultureFetish for all things Prussian.
26th Aug '16 4:51:20 AM Jhonny
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* Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (1894-1900) -- Elderly (he was already 75 in 1894) former prime minister of Bavaria and diplomat. He finished the ''Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch'' (BGB), the first civil code for all of Germany, which is still in force today.

to:

* Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst (1894-1900) -- Elderly (he was already 75 in 1894) former prime minister of Bavaria and diplomat. He finished the ''Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch'' (BGB), the first civil code for all of Germany, which is still in force today. The BGB is widely regarded as a masterwork of civil law and several countries wholly or partly modeled their after it, most notably Japan, which at the time had a major ForeignCultureFetish for all things Prussian.
26th Aug '16 4:49:14 AM Jhonny
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* Leo von Caprivi (1890-1894) -- Or, to give his full name, Georg Leo [[TheVonTropeFamily von Caprivi]] [[OverlyLongName de Caprera de Montecuccoli]], who was made a count in 1891. This former general, who also had been the head of the German navy from 1883 to 1888, had the thankless job of being Bismarck's successor, against whom almost anyone would've compared unfavorably. He began the implementation of Wilhelm II's "New Course" into German policy: Social reforms, more free trade and a pro-British foreign policy. The latter included giving up the good relations with Russia, since he himself admitted that he wasn't MagnificentBastard enough to maintain Bismarck's complex foreign policy based on secret treaties. He finished the negotiations for the Zanzibar treaty, which traded land between Germany and the British Empire. A strip of land in Namibia is still named after him.

to:

* Leo von Caprivi (1890-1894) -- Or, to give his full name, Georg Leo [[TheVonTropeFamily von Caprivi]] [[OverlyLongName de Caprera de Montecuccoli]], who was made a count in 1891. This former general, who also had been the head of the German navy from 1883 to 1888, had the thankless job of being Bismarck's successor, against whom almost anyone would've compared unfavorably. He began the implementation of Wilhelm II's "New Course" into German policy: Social reforms, more free trade and a pro-British foreign policy. The latter included giving up the good relations with Russia, since he himself admitted that he wasn't MagnificentBastard enough to maintain Bismarck's complex foreign policy based on secret treaties. He finished the negotiations for the Zanzibar treaty, which traded land between Germany and the British Empire. The widely believed interpretation that Germany traded Zanzibar for Heligoland is only half true. In fact, Germany let the British have free reign in Zanzibar (Germany had never owned or claimed it) and Britain gave Heligoland to Germany - overall no bad deal as Heligoland is still German and Zanzibar is not British any more. A strip of land in Namibia is still named after him.
26th Aug '16 4:45:28 AM Jhonny
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* Konrad Adenauer (1949-1963) -- Christian Democrat (i.e. Conservative). Nicknamed "Der Alte" ("The old one" - he was 73 years old in 1949 and died aged 91) and "the Fox of Rhöndorf". [[DecidedByOneVote Won by just one vote]] - it is claimed, his own, but later became the only Federal Chancellor to govern without a coalition partner (from 1960 to 1961). Former ''Oberbürgermeister'' (mayor) of Cologne (since 1917) and a prominent politician of the Centre party, he had already been considered for the chancellor's office during the Weimar Republic. [[DisproportionateRetribution The Nazis destroyed his political career - and later even threw him in a concentration camp - for refusing to shake the hand of an influential Nazi leader]]. Adenauer oriented Germany towards the West (''Westbindung''), reconciled with France and, together with Ludwig Erhard, made the economic boom (''Wirtschaftswunder'') possible. Together with De Gaulle, he laid the foundation for the EU. He made UsefulNotes/{{Bonn}}, a dinky town on the Rhine within commuting distance from Rhöndorf (the village where he lived), the capital, and secured the return of the last Germany [=POWs=] from the Soviet Union in 1955. He played boccia at his vacation home on Lake Como and had seven kids and even more grandkids. (Helmut Kohl isn't among them, although he called himself "Adenauer's grandson".) Feared for his sharp tongue, he did not endear himself to the Austrians when he said about their demands for reparations that he would like to send Hitler's bones in lieu of payment. Had some memorable missteps such as publicly making snide comments about Willy Brandt's illegitimate parentage on the day the Wall was built (when Brandt was mayor of West Berlin) or the melodramatic Bundestag statement "We have an abyss of treason!" at the beginning of the ''Spiegel'' affair that resulted in the resignation of his minister of defence, Franz Josef Strauß. At the time, some of his policies were very controversial, especially the ''Westbindung'' and rearmament, which were seen by his critics has obstacles to German reunification and e. g. led to his minister of the interior, [[UsefulNotes/ThePresidentsOfGermany Gustav Heinemann]] leaving his cabinet and founding his own party.[[note]] It did not help that Adenauer was a Catholic Rhinelander with a well-known visceral dislike for Prussia and Berlin (which he considered a pagan city) and was suspected of sabotaging reunification so that the Catholic majority in West Germany could endure. [[/note]] With benefit of hindsight, many of Adenauer's policies are now seen as inevitable under the conditions of the Cold War. Adenauer has also been criticized for allowing former Nazis into important government positions too easily (the most infamous case is that of the head of the chancellor's office, Hans Globke, the author of the official legal commentary to the Nuremberg Race Laws)[[note]] Adenauer's comment on this was "I cannot throw away the dirty water if I don't have clean water[[/note]], but he also did a lot to bring the settlement of Jewish recompensation claims on the road and to usher in friendly relations between Germany and Israel. In 2003, he was voted greatest German of all time.

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* Konrad Adenauer (1949-1963) -- Christian Democrat (i.e. Conservative). Nicknamed "Der Alte" ("The old one" - he was 73 years old in 1949 and died aged 91) and "the Fox of Rhöndorf". [[DecidedByOneVote Won by just one vote]] - it is claimed, his own, but later became the only Federal Chancellor to govern without a coalition partner (from 1960 to 1961). Former ''Oberbürgermeister'' (mayor) of Cologne (since 1917) and a prominent politician of the Centre party, he had already been considered for the chancellor's office during the Weimar Republic. [[DisproportionateRetribution The Nazis destroyed his political career - and later even threw him in a concentration camp - for refusing to shake the hand of an influential Nazi leader]]. Adenauer oriented Germany towards the West (''Westbindung''), reconciled with France and, together with Ludwig Erhard, made the economic boom (''Wirtschaftswunder'') possible. Together with De Gaulle, he laid the foundation for the EU. He made UsefulNotes/{{Bonn}}, a dinky town on the Rhine within commuting distance from Rhöndorf (the village where he lived), the capital, and secured the return of the last Germany [=POWs=] from the Soviet Union in 1955. He played boccia at his vacation home on Lake Como and had seven kids and even more grandkids. (Helmut Kohl isn't among them, although he called himself "Adenauer's grandson".) Feared for his sharp tongue, he did not endear himself to the Austrians when he said about their demands for reparations that he would like to send Hitler's bones in lieu of payment. Had some memorable missteps such as publicly making snide comments about Willy Brandt's illegitimate parentage on the day the Wall was built (when Brandt was mayor of West Berlin) or the melodramatic Bundestag statement "We have an abyss of treason!" at the beginning of the ''Spiegel'' affair that resulted in the resignation of his minister of defence, Franz Josef Strauß. At the time, some of his policies were very controversial, especially the ''Westbindung'' and rearmament, which were seen by his critics has obstacles to German reunification and e. g. led to his minister of the interior, [[UsefulNotes/ThePresidentsOfGermany Gustav Heinemann]] leaving his cabinet and founding his own party.[[note]] It did not help that Adenauer was a Catholic Rhinelander with a well-known visceral dislike for Prussia and Berlin (which he considered a pagan city) and was suspected of sabotaging reunification so that the Catholic majority in West Germany could endure. [[/note]] With benefit of hindsight, many of Adenauer's policies are now seen as inevitable under the conditions of the Cold War. Adenauer has also been criticized for allowing former Nazis into important government positions too easily (the most infamous case is that of the head of the chancellor's office, Hans Globke, the author of the official legal commentary to the Nuremberg Race Laws)[[note]] Adenauer's comment on this was "I cannot throw away the dirty water if I don't have clean water[[/note]], water"[[/note]], but he also did a lot to bring the settlement of Jewish recompensation claims on the road and to usher in friendly relations between Germany and Israel. In 2003, he was voted greatest German of all time.
26th Aug '16 3:20:16 AM Morgenthaler
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'''[[TheBerlinRepublic Berlin Republic]]''' (1990-present)

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'''[[TheBerlinRepublic '''[[UsefulNotes/TheBerlinRepublic Berlin Republic]]''' (1990-present)
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