History UsefulNotes / SnailsAndSoOn

7th Feb '18 7:26:50 PM nombretomado
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* [[Literature/HarryPotterAndTheGobletOfFire Hermione has to inform Ron what it is when the students from foreign wizarding schools (one being Beauxbatons) arrive]]; this becomes doubly funny given how the two end up, and triply so when EmmaWatson (born to English parents in France) was cast as Hermione.

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* [[Literature/HarryPotterAndTheGobletOfFire Hermione has to inform Ron what it is when the students from foreign wizarding schools (one being Beauxbatons) arrive]]; this becomes doubly funny given how the two end up, and triply so when EmmaWatson Creator/EmmaWatson (born to English parents in France) was cast as Hermione.
1st Jan '18 8:48:06 PM karstovich2
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Foie gras itself dates back to Roman times, but it first became popular in Europe thanks to Jewish dietary laws, which forbid lard outright and ban butter for cooking meat. Jewish people in the Mediterranean used olive oil, and in the Middle East used sesame oil, but neither were easy to get in the northern parts of Europe. European Jews thus tended to use poultry fat (''schmaltz'' in Yiddish), which naturally required a fat bird--typically a chicken, duck, or goose. To get the most fat out of each bird, the Jewish community began overfeeding the ducks and geese kept for the purpose, which had the side effect of enlarging the bird's liver. The liver, which grew bigger in part because of additional fat in it, was considered so tasty that Christians would buy it from Jewish shops, and so foie gras swept the continent--including France, where the Christians picked up the custom from visiting Germans (French Jews--for the periods that Jews were allowed in France[[note]]France had an annoying habit, like many other European realms, of letting some Jews into the country, letting them settle in, only to kick the Jewish population out again a couple of generations later, and then invite them back in again because the Church still banned Christians from making loans and the King needed money.[[/note]]--used olive oil and had no more use for fattened poultry than the next Frenchman).

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Foie gras itself dates back to Roman times, but it first became popular in Europe thanks to Jewish dietary laws, which forbid lard outright and ban butter for cooking meat. Jewish people in the Mediterranean used olive oil, and in the Middle East used sesame oil, but neither were easy to get in the northern parts of Europe. Central and Eastern European Jews thus tended to use poultry fat (''schmaltz'' in Yiddish), which naturally required a fat bird--typically a chicken, duck, or goose. To get the most fat out of each bird, the Jewish community began overfeeding the ducks and geese kept for the purpose, which had the side effect of enlarging the bird's liver. The liver, which grew bigger in part because of additional fat in it, was considered so tasty that Christians would buy it from Jewish shops, and so foie gras swept the continent--including France, where the Christians picked up the custom from visiting Germans (French Jews--for the periods that Jews were allowed in France[[note]]France had an annoying habit, like many other European realms, of letting some Jews into the country, letting them settle in, only to kick the Jewish population out again a couple of generations later, and then invite them back in again because the Church still banned Christians from making loans and the King needed money.[[/note]]--used olive oil and had no more use for fattened poultry than the next Frenchman).
31st Dec '17 3:10:46 PM karstovich2
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Snails. They actually taste like mussels (not surprising, since they are near relatives, both being molluscs and all that). Considered a delicacy, and not eaten that often either (many Frenchmen are just as disgusted as Americans by the idea of eating them), they are nonetheless considered high-class cuisine in some quarters. The French recipe for them calls for removing the snails from their shells, cooking them in garlic butter and/or stock and/or wine, pouring the resultant mixture back into the shells, and garnish with parsley, pine nuts, or just more garlic. Snails are in fact occasionally eaten in most countries of southern Europe and North Africa (anyone who's ever been in a Moroccan bazaar can testify to the presence of carts full of gigantic dishes of stewed snails). [[note]Snails were also British peasant food until they went out of favour sometime in the late 1700's; the are known by the traditional euphemism as ''wall-fruit'' and are still regularly eaten in places like Somerset and Norfolk [[/note]]; the European tradition of eating snails goes back at ''least'' to [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire the Romans]]. More recently, French gourmets have started consuming snail eggs, which they liken to caviar (and which is about as expensive).

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Snails. They actually taste like mussels (not surprising, since they are near relatives, both being molluscs and all that). Considered a delicacy, and not eaten that often either (many Frenchmen are just as disgusted as Americans by the idea of eating them), they are nonetheless considered high-class cuisine in some quarters. The French recipe for them calls for removing the snails from their shells, cooking them in garlic butter and/or stock and/or wine, pouring the resultant mixture back into the shells, and garnish with parsley, pine nuts, or just more garlic. Snails are in fact occasionally eaten in most countries of southern Europe and North Africa (anyone who's ever been in a Moroccan bazaar can testify to the presence of carts full of gigantic dishes of stewed snails). [[note]Snails [[note]]Snails were also British peasant food until they went out of favour sometime in the late 1700's; the are known by the traditional euphemism as ''wall-fruit'' and are still regularly eaten in places like Somerset and Norfolk [[/note]]; the European tradition of eating snails goes back at ''least'' to [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire the Romans]]. More recently, French gourmets have started consuming snail eggs, which they liken to caviar (and which is about as expensive).
31st Dec '17 3:10:06 PM karstovich2
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Snails. They actually taste like mussels (not surprising, since they are near relatives, both being molluscs and all that). Considered a delicacy, and not eaten that often either (many Frenchmen are just as disgusted as Americans by the idea of eating them). While there is a specifically French recipe for them (calling for removing the snails from their shells, cooking them in garlic butter and/or stock and/or wine, pouring the resultant mixture back into the shells, and garnish with parsley, pine nuts, or just more garlic), snails are in fact occasionally eaten in most countries of southern Europe and North Africa (anyone who's ever been in a Moroccan bazaar can testify to the presence of carts full of gigantic dishes of stewed snails). Snails were also British peasant food until they went out of favour sometime in the late 1700's[[note]]They are known by the traditional euphemism as ''wall-fruit'' and are still regularly eaten in places like Somerset and Norfolk [[/note]]; the European tradition of eating snails goes back at ''least'' to [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire the Romans]].

to:

Snails. They actually taste like mussels (not surprising, since they are near relatives, both being molluscs and all that). Considered a delicacy, and not eaten that often either (many Frenchmen are just as disgusted as Americans by the idea of eating them). While there is a specifically them), they are nonetheless considered high-class cuisine in some quarters. The French recipe for them (calling calls for removing the snails from their shells, cooking them in garlic butter and/or stock and/or wine, pouring the resultant mixture back into the shells, and garnish with parsley, pine nuts, or just more garlic), snails garlic. Snails are in fact occasionally eaten in most countries of southern Europe and North Africa (anyone who's ever been in a Moroccan bazaar can testify to the presence of carts full of gigantic dishes of stewed snails). Snails [[note]Snails were also British peasant food until they went out of favour sometime in the late 1700's[[note]]They 1700's; the are known by the traditional euphemism as ''wall-fruit'' and are still regularly eaten in places like Somerset and Norfolk [[/note]]; the European tradition of eating snails goes back at ''least'' to [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire the Romans]].
Romans]]. More recently, French gourmets have started consuming snail eggs, which they liken to caviar (and which is about as expensive).
17th Nov '17 10:03:06 PM karstovich2
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Also known as "La Grande Cuisine", Haute Cuisine (literally "High Cooking") has its roots in the cuisine of the Middle Ages and of [[UsefulNotes/LEtatCestMoi the Ancien Régime]] but really took off after UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution, when the guilds were disbanded and anyone could be a chef if they wanted--if they could hack it. The founder of the modern form of this style is generally considered to be [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie-Antoine_Carême Marie-Antoine Carême]], who was one of the first celebrity chefs (and a chef to celebrities: he spent much of his career in the employ of the French diplomat/politician[=/=]MagnificentBastard [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Maurice_de_Talleyrand-Périgord Talleyrand]]). However, there was a lot of variation in the early-to-mid-19th century, and the style was eventually [[TropeCodifier codified]] (and simplified; Carême's dishes, made for heads of state and diplomats and designed to impress, could be quite complex) by Georges Auguste Escoffier in the late 19th century. This is the cuisine of fine restaurants and hotels, of the well to do who could afford cooks. Haute Cuisine uses spices very sparingly in contrast to the heavily spiced medieval dishes of France,[[note]]Partially an economic/imperial consideration: in the Middle Ages all of Europe had to buy spices via the Middle East, but eventually the new colonialism drastically ''reduced'' prices--and lent the whole business a distinctly nationalistic cast, as the Spanish, Dutch, and English took over all of the spice-producing territories (the Philippines, Indonesia, and India/Sri Lanka and later Malaysia). In the mercantilist spirit of the early modern period, the French court started to do without the spices from the East, since they were produced by the enemy.[[/note]] but uses fresh herbs more liberally. Most recipes call for extraordinary amounts of cream and butter, and deglazes and reductions based on wine are common. Fresh ingredients are pulled from all over France, from Normandy and Brittany to Lorraine and Provence, so you will find a truly astonishing variety, but it does not take on much of the regional character. If you go to an expensive French restaurant, this is most likely what you will be served, if it isn't Nouvelle cuisine (see below). At its best, it's a bit antiquated but very enjoyable; at its worst, you get what Calvin Trillin once described as "stuff-stuff with heavy": indifferently prepared with leaden, pasty sauces and dull flavors, barely worth putting on a buffet table, never mind in front of a $50/plate diner.

to:

Also known as "La Grande Cuisine", Haute Cuisine (literally "High Cooking") has its roots in the cuisine of the Middle Ages and of [[UsefulNotes/LEtatCestMoi the Ancien Régime]] but really took off after UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution, when the guilds were disbanded and anyone could be a chef if they wanted--if they could hack it. The founder of the modern form of this style is generally considered to be [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie-Antoine_Carême Marie-Antoine Carême]], who was one of the first celebrity chefs (and a chef to celebrities: he spent much of his career in the employ of the French diplomat/politician[=/=]MagnificentBastard [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Maurice_de_Talleyrand-Périgord Talleyrand]]). However, there was a lot of variation in the early-to-mid-19th century, and the style was eventually [[TropeCodifier codified]] (and simplified; Carême's dishes, made for heads of state and diplomats and designed to impress, could be quite complex) complex, and there was a lot of variation in the early-to-mid-19th century, as not everyone adopted his techniques and ideas right away. However, Carême gradually became the gold standard by which other
French chefs are measured, and by the late 19th century,
Georges Auguste Escoffier in the late 19th century.would cement Carême's status by developing a [[TropeCodifier codification]] of French cuisine developed by adapting and simplifying Carême's recipes. This is the cuisine of fine restaurants and hotels, of the well to do who could afford cooks. Haute Cuisine uses spices very sparingly in contrast to the heavily spiced medieval dishes of France,[[note]]Partially an economic/imperial consideration: in the Middle Ages all of Europe had to buy spices via the Middle East, but eventually the new colonialism drastically ''reduced'' prices--and lent the whole business a distinctly nationalistic cast, as the Spanish, Dutch, and English took over all of the spice-producing territories (the Philippines, Indonesia, and India/Sri Lanka and later Malaysia). In the mercantilist spirit of the early modern period, the French court started to do without the spices from the East, since they were produced by the enemy.[[/note]] but uses fresh herbs more liberally. Most recipes call for extraordinary amounts of cream and butter, and deglazes and reductions based on wine are common. Fresh ingredients are pulled from all over France, from Normandy and Brittany to Lorraine and Provence, so you will find a truly astonishing variety, but it does not take on much of the regional character. If you go to an expensive French restaurant, this is most likely what you will be served, if it isn't Nouvelle cuisine (see below). At its best, it's a bit antiquated but very enjoyable; at its worst, you get what Calvin Trillin once described as "stuff-stuff with heavy": indifferently prepared with leaden, pasty sauces and dull flavors, barely worth putting on a buffet table, never mind in front of a $50/plate diner.
29th Aug '17 7:19:01 AM karstovich2
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* Béarnaise: Hollandaise, but with a reduction of white wine vinegar, shallot, and tarragon substituted for lemon juice, seasoned with black pepper[[note]]Chefs like to debate whether the black pepper should be introduced as whole peppercorns cooked with the shallots and tarragon in the vinegar reduction, or if it should be added finely ground at the very end[[/note]] and finished with fresh herbs (adding fresh tarragon is a must; chervil may also be added). A traditional French accompaniment to ''entrecôte'', i.e. grilled steak, especially strip or Porterhouse, aficionados often describe it as the greatest steak sauce in the world.

to:

* Béarnaise: Hollandaise, but the lemon juice is replaced with a reduction of white wine vinegar, shallot, and tarragon substituted for lemon juice, tarragon, seasoned with black pepper[[note]]Chefs like to debate whether the black pepper should be introduced as whole peppercorns cooked with the shallots and tarragon in the vinegar reduction, or if it should be added finely ground at the very end[[/note]] and finished with fresh herbs (adding fresh tarragon is a must; chervil may also be added). A traditional French accompaniment to ''entrecôte'', i.e. grilled steak, especially strip or Porterhouse, aficionados often describe it as the greatest steak sauce in the world.
28th Aug '17 6:48:47 PM karstovich2
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Incidentally, while we're talking about the US, French regional cuisine is the direct ancestor of the famous [[UsefulNotes/CuisinesInAmerica Cajun and Creole cuisines of Louisiana]]; many traditional Louisiana dishes are French regional ones, adapted to use New World ingredients (e.g. bell peppers instead of carrots) and with Spanish, African, Native American, and British/American Southern influences added on top. In general, Cajun cuisine hewed closer to old-style French peasant cooking, while Creole cuisine was both more receptive to foreign influences and--being derived from the cooking of more urban colonists--also paid more attention to developments in continental French cooking. However, today, these cuisines, although still distinct, have also taken a lot of influence from each other, are very popular outside Louisiana and are generally considered one of the greatest achievements of the American kitchen (world-class New Orleans-style restaurants have appeared even outside the US)...so touché, French food snobs.

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Incidentally, while we're talking about the US, French regional cuisine is the direct ancestor of the famous [[UsefulNotes/CuisinesInAmerica Cajun and Creole cuisines of Louisiana]]; many traditional Louisiana dishes are French regional ones, adapted to use New World ingredients (e.g. bell peppers instead of carrots) and with Spanish, African, Native American, and British/American Southern influences added on top. In general, Cajun cuisine hewed closer to old-style French peasant cooking, while Creole cuisine was both more receptive to foreign influences (particularly taking tomatoes from colonial Spanish cooking and certain ingredients like okra from African cuisine) and--being derived from the cooking of more urban colonists--also paid more attention to developments in continental French cooking.cooking (the extensive use of butter characteristic of Creole cooking is Continental influence, in contrast to the Cajuns who historically used lard). However, today, these cuisines, although still distinct, have also taken a lot of influence from each other, are very popular outside Louisiana and are generally considered one of the greatest achievements of the American kitchen (world-class New Orleans-style restaurants have appeared even outside the US)...so touché, French food snobs.
28th Aug '17 6:41:31 PM karstovich2
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Also known as "La Grande Cuisine", Haute Cuisine (literally "High Cooking") has its roots in the cuisine of the Middle Ages and of [[UsefulNotes/LEtatCestMoi the Ancien Régime]] but really took off after UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution, when the guilds were disbanded and anyone could be a chef if they wanted--if they could hack it. The founder of the modern form of this style is generally considered to be [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie-Antoine_Carême Marie-Antoine Carême]], who was one of the first celebrity chefs (and a chef to celebrities: he spent much of his career in the employ of the French diplomat/politician[=/=]MagnificentBastard [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Maurice_de_Talleyrand-Périgord Talleyrand]]); however, there was a lot of variation in the early-to-mid-19th century, and the style was eventually [[TropeCodifier codified]] (and simplified; Carême's dishes, made for heads of state and diplomats and designed to impress, could be quite complex) by Georges Auguste Escoffier in the late 19th century. This is the cuisine of fine restaurants and hotels, of the well to do who could afford cooks. Haute Cuisine uses spices very sparingly in contrast to the heavily spiced medieval dishes of France,[[note]]Partially an economic/imperial consideration: in the Middle Ages all of Europe had to buy spices via the Middle East, but eventually the new colonialism drastically ''reduced'' prices--and lent the whole business a distinctly nationalistic cast, as the Spanish, Dutch, and English took over all of the spice-producing territories (the Philippines, Indonesia, and India/Sri Lanka and later Malaysia). In the mercantilist spirit of the early modern period, the French court started to do without the spices from the East, since they were produced by the enemy.[[/note]] but uses fresh herbs more liberally. Most recipes call for extraordinary amounts of cream and butter, and deglazes and reductions based on wine are common. Fresh ingredients are pulled from all over France, from Normandy and Brittany to Lorraine and Provence, so you will find a truly astonishing variety, but it does not take on much of the regional character. If you go to an expensive French restaurant, this is most likely what you will be served, if it isn't Nouvelle cuisine (see below). At its best, it's a bit antiquated but very enjoyable; at its worst, you get what Calvin Trillin once described as "stuff-stuff with heavy": indifferently prepared with leaden, pasty sauces and dull flavors, barely worth putting on a buffet table, never mind in front of a $50/plate diner.

to:

Also known as "La Grande Cuisine", Haute Cuisine (literally "High Cooking") has its roots in the cuisine of the Middle Ages and of [[UsefulNotes/LEtatCestMoi the Ancien Régime]] but really took off after UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution, when the guilds were disbanded and anyone could be a chef if they wanted--if they could hack it. The founder of the modern form of this style is generally considered to be [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marie-Antoine_Carême Marie-Antoine Carême]], who was one of the first celebrity chefs (and a chef to celebrities: he spent much of his career in the employ of the French diplomat/politician[=/=]MagnificentBastard [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Maurice_de_Talleyrand-Périgord Talleyrand]]); however, Talleyrand]]). However, there was a lot of variation in the early-to-mid-19th century, and the style was eventually [[TropeCodifier codified]] (and simplified; Carême's dishes, made for heads of state and diplomats and designed to impress, could be quite complex) by Georges Auguste Escoffier in the late 19th century. This is the cuisine of fine restaurants and hotels, of the well to do who could afford cooks. Haute Cuisine uses spices very sparingly in contrast to the heavily spiced medieval dishes of France,[[note]]Partially an economic/imperial consideration: in the Middle Ages all of Europe had to buy spices via the Middle East, but eventually the new colonialism drastically ''reduced'' prices--and lent the whole business a distinctly nationalistic cast, as the Spanish, Dutch, and English took over all of the spice-producing territories (the Philippines, Indonesia, and India/Sri Lanka and later Malaysia). In the mercantilist spirit of the early modern period, the French court started to do without the spices from the East, since they were produced by the enemy.[[/note]] but uses fresh herbs more liberally. Most recipes call for extraordinary amounts of cream and butter, and deglazes and reductions based on wine are common. Fresh ingredients are pulled from all over France, from Normandy and Brittany to Lorraine and Provence, so you will find a truly astonishing variety, but it does not take on much of the regional character. If you go to an expensive French restaurant, this is most likely what you will be served, if it isn't Nouvelle cuisine (see below). At its best, it's a bit antiquated but very enjoyable; at its worst, you get what Calvin Trillin once described as "stuff-stuff with heavy": indifferently prepared with leaden, pasty sauces and dull flavors, barely worth putting on a buffet table, never mind in front of a $50/plate diner.
13th Aug '17 9:38:40 PM karstovich2
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* Allemande: Velouté+eggs+lemon juice+cream. Intended to evoke rich German gravies, typically served over eggs, chicken, poached fish, and gratins.

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* Allemande: Velouté+eggs+lemon juice+cream. Some or all of the roux in the velouté may be omitted, as eggs and cream can serve its function of thickening the sauce. Intended to evoke rich German gravies, typically served over eggs, chicken, poached fish, and gratins.
13th Aug '17 9:35:27 PM karstovich2
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* Béarnaise: Hollandaise, but with a reduction of white wine vinegar, shallot, and tarragon substituted for lemon juice, finished with fresh herbs like chervil, shallot, and tarragon. A traditional French accompaniment to ''entrecôte'', i.e. grilled steak, especially strip or Porterhouse, aficionados often describe it as the greatest steak sauce in the world.

to:

* Béarnaise: Hollandaise, but with a reduction of white wine vinegar, shallot, and tarragon substituted for lemon juice, seasoned with black pepper[[note]]Chefs like to debate whether the black pepper should be introduced as whole peppercorns cooked with the shallots and tarragon in the vinegar reduction, or if it should be added finely ground at the very end[[/note]] and finished with fresh herbs like chervil, shallot, and tarragon. (adding fresh tarragon is a must; chervil may also be added). A traditional French accompaniment to ''entrecôte'', i.e. grilled steak, especially strip or Porterhouse, aficionados often describe it as the greatest steak sauce in the world.
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