History UsefulNotes / SnailsAndSoOn

2nd Jan '17 9:20:29 AM karstovich2
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Snails. They actually taste like mussels (not surprising, since they are near relatives, both being molluscs and all that). Considered a delicacy, and not eaten that often either (many Frenchmen are just as disgusted as Americans by the idea of eating them). While there is a specifically French recipe for them, snails are in fact occasionally eaten in most countries of southern Europe and North Africa (anyone who's ever been in a Moroccan bazaar can testify to the presence of carts full of gigantic dishes of stewed snails). Snails were also British peasant food until they went out of favour sometime in the late 1700's[[note]]They are known by the traditional euphemism as ''wall-fruit'' and are still regularly eaten in places like Somerset and Norfolk [[/note]]; the European tradition of eating snails goes back at ''least'' to [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire the Romans]].

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Snails. They actually taste like mussels (not surprising, since they are near relatives, both being molluscs and all that). Considered a delicacy, and not eaten that often either (many Frenchmen are just as disgusted as Americans by the idea of eating them). While there is a specifically French recipe for them, them (calling for removing the snails from their shells, cooking them in garlic butter and/or stock and/or wine, pouring the resultant mixture back into the shells, and garnish with parsley, pine nuts, or just more garlic), snails are in fact occasionally eaten in most countries of southern Europe and North Africa (anyone who's ever been in a Moroccan bazaar can testify to the presence of carts full of gigantic dishes of stewed snails). Snails were also British peasant food until they went out of favour sometime in the late 1700's[[note]]They are known by the traditional euphemism as ''wall-fruit'' and are still regularly eaten in places like Somerset and Norfolk [[/note]]; the European tradition of eating snails goes back at ''least'' to [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire the Romans]].
7th Dec '16 4:08:18 PM karstovich2
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Much of what Julia Child (and her writing partners Simone Beck and Louisette Bertholle) wrote about fell into this category; Child's cuisine in particular was essentially middle-class home cooking of the 1930s through 1950s[[note]]More properly known as ''bourgeois'', i.e. middle class, or ''bonne femme'' or "good wife", basically home cooking for well-off working families.[[/note]], with some diversions into restaurant dishes, high-end patisserie (particularly elaborate cakes like her signature Queen of Sheba chocolate rum cake), and even occasionally street food; France, of course, had their own authors like Evelyn Ebrard (writing as "Mme. E. Saint-Ange", her maiden name) and Ginette Mathiot, and the UK had the classically trained Dione Lucas, one of the very first television chefs. Edouard de Pomiane (a radio chef!) wrote what may be one of the first convenience cookbooks in 1930, published as ''Cuisine en dix minutes''. This was the cuisine that broke the US out of its traditional mold of heavy, stodgy cooking and made the era of ''Series/MadMen'' and space shots much tastier and more daring.

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Much of what Julia Child (and her writing partners Simone Beck and Louisette Bertholle) wrote about fell into this category; Child's cuisine in particular was essentially middle-class home cooking of the 1930s through 1950s[[note]]More properly known as ''bourgeois'', i.e. middle class, or ''bonne femme'' or "good wife", basically home cooking for well-off working families.[[/note]], with some diversions into restaurant dishes, high-end patisserie (particularly elaborate cakes like her signature Queen of Sheba chocolate rum cake), and even occasionally street food; France, of course, had their own authors like Evelyn Ebrard (writing as "Mme. E. Saint-Ange", her maiden name) and Ginette Mathiot, and the UK had the classically trained Dione Lucas, one of the very first television chefs. Edouard de Pomiane (a radio chef!) wrote what may be one of the first convenience cookbooks in 1930, published as ''Cuisine en dix minutes''.minutes'' and featuring a quirky sense of humor and an interest in the scientific underpinnings of cooking recalling nobody so much as [[Series/GoodEats Alton Brown]]. This was the cuisine that broke the US out of its traditional mold of heavy, stodgy cooking and made the era of ''Series/MadMen'' and space shots much tastier and more daring.
6th Oct '16 5:09:04 PM karstovich2
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What pizza and Chinese-American food are to the US and curry is to the UK and Ireland, couscous and certain other North African dishes are to France -- cheap, tasty, convenient (usually takeout), not typical of what usually goes on the table, most often consumed by students and others who don't cook very much (particularly while drunk), and thoroughly naturalized despite eaters' perceptions of exoticness to the contrary. Couscous is a small, pebbly, quick-cooking pasta eaten from Morocco to Sicily and Libya, and cooked and served alongside meals like tagine (a Berber meat stew traditionally cooked in a clay pot with a characteristic conical lid) or vegetable stew; it's sometimes even used as a dessert, served with honey or sugar and spices.[[note]]Whether dessert couscous was a Libyan or an Egyptian idea is a part of the always-terrifying Middle Eastern culinary flame wars.[[/note]] Because of their origins in Islamic countries, these dishes are usually made with lamb/mutton or beef, never pork; a spicy beef or lamb/mutton sausage called merguez is fairly common as well. Kebabs (which refer both to the actual dish on a plate, its handy takeaway repackaging in bread of various types ''à la'' Döner, and the shop that sells them) are very, very common at least in large cities with substantial North African, Lebanese or Turkish communities. The shops are usually open until much later than any other source of food will be, making it the food of choice of drunk urban students. In Paris, more than anywhere else in France, the shops tend to be referred to generically as "grecs" [[note]]"on se fait un grec?" describes the shop more than the actual person running it, in which case the phrase would mean "shall we do a Greek guy?" with exactly the same DoubleEntendre as in English[[/note]], in north-eastern France "turcs", and when manned by Lebanese, "libanais", much in the same way that in Belgium, frites vendors [[note]]and often just that, whereas in France ''frites'' are viewed as a side dish to either kebabs or hamburgers[[/note]] are sometimes referred to in Flemish as "frietchinees". The French and the Belgians will argue over who invented the French fries (known here simply as "frites"), and there's even a gag to that effect in Asterix chez les Belges when Obelix mentions something about deep-frying actual apples (pommes frites) amid a running gag about waterzooie.

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What pizza and Chinese-American food are to the US and US, curry is to the UK and Ireland, and dönerkebab is to Germany, couscous and certain other North African dishes are to France -- cheap, tasty, convenient (usually takeout), not typical of what usually goes on the table, most often consumed by students and others who don't cook very much (particularly while drunk), and thoroughly naturalized despite eaters' perceptions of exoticness to the contrary. Couscous is a small, pebbly, quick-cooking pasta eaten from Morocco to Sicily and Libya, and cooked and served alongside meals like tagine (a Berber meat stew traditionally cooked in a clay pot with a characteristic conical lid) or vegetable stew; it's sometimes even used as a dessert, served with honey or sugar and spices.[[note]]Whether dessert couscous was a Libyan or an Egyptian idea is a part of the always-terrifying Middle Eastern culinary flame wars.[[/note]] Because of their origins in Islamic countries, these dishes are usually made with lamb/mutton or beef, never pork; a spicy beef or lamb/mutton sausage called merguez is fairly common as well. Kebabs (which refer both to the actual dish on a plate, its handy takeaway repackaging in bread of various types ''à la'' Döner, and the shop that sells them) are very, very common at least in large cities with substantial North African, Lebanese or Turkish communities. The shops are usually open until much later than any other source of food will be, making it the food of choice of drunk urban students. In Paris, more than anywhere else in France, the shops tend to be referred to generically as "grecs" [[note]]"on se fait un grec?" describes the shop more than the actual person running it, in which case the phrase would mean "shall we do a Greek guy?" with exactly the same DoubleEntendre as in English[[/note]], in north-eastern France "turcs", and when manned by Lebanese, "libanais", much in the same way that in Belgium, frites vendors [[note]]and often just that, whereas in France ''frites'' are viewed as a side dish to either kebabs or hamburgers[[/note]] are sometimes referred to in Flemish as "frietchinees". The French and the Belgians will argue over who invented the French fries (known here simply as "frites"), and there's even a gag to that effect in Asterix chez les Belges when Obelix mentions something about deep-frying actual apples (pommes frites) amid a running gag about waterzooie.
25th Sep '16 4:21:31 PM karstovich2
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Foie gras itself dates back to Roman times, but it first became popular in Europe thanks to Jewish dietary laws, which forbid lard outright and ban butter for cooking meat. Jewish people in the Mediterranean used olive oil, and in the Middle East used sesame oil, but neither were easy to get in the northern parts of Europe. European Jews thus tended to use poultry fat (''schmaltz'' in Yiddish), which naturally required a fat bird--typically a chicken, duck, or goose. To get the most fat out of each bird, the Jewish community began overfeeding the ducks and geese kept for the purpose, which had the side effect of enlarging the bird's liver. The liver, which grew bigger in part because of additional fat in it, was considered so tasty that Christians would buy it from Jewish shops, and so foie gras swept the continent--including France, where the Christians picked up the custom from visiting Germans (French Jews--for the periods that Jews were allowed in France[[note]]France had an annoying habit, like many other European realms, of kicking out its Jewish population, letting them settle in, only to kick them out again a couple of generations later, and then invite them back in because the Church still banned Christians from making loans and the King needed money.[[/note]]--used olive oil and had no more use for fattened poultry than the next Frenchman).

to:

Foie gras itself dates back to Roman times, but it first became popular in Europe thanks to Jewish dietary laws, which forbid lard outright and ban butter for cooking meat. Jewish people in the Mediterranean used olive oil, and in the Middle East used sesame oil, but neither were easy to get in the northern parts of Europe. European Jews thus tended to use poultry fat (''schmaltz'' in Yiddish), which naturally required a fat bird--typically a chicken, duck, or goose. To get the most fat out of each bird, the Jewish community began overfeeding the ducks and geese kept for the purpose, which had the side effect of enlarging the bird's liver. The liver, which grew bigger in part because of additional fat in it, was considered so tasty that Christians would buy it from Jewish shops, and so foie gras swept the continent--including France, where the Christians picked up the custom from visiting Germans (French Jews--for the periods that Jews were allowed in France[[note]]France had an annoying habit, like many other European realms, of kicking out its Jewish population, letting some Jews into the country, letting them settle in, only to kick them the Jewish population out again a couple of generations later, and then invite them back in again because the Church still banned Christians from making loans and the King needed money.[[/note]]--used olive oil and had no more use for fattened poultry than the next Frenchman).
7th Sep '16 7:09:25 PM karstovich2
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Foie gras itself dates back to Roman times, but it first became popular in Europe thanks to Jewish dietary laws, which forbid lard and butter for cooking. Jewish people in the Mediterranean used olive oil, and in the Middle East used sesame oil, but neither were easy to get in the northern parts of Europe. European Jews thus tended to use poultry fat (''schmaltz'' in Yiddish), which naturally required a fat bird--typically a chicken, duck, or goose. To get the most fat out of each bird, the Jewish community began overfeeding the ducks and geese kept for the purpose, which had the side effect of enlarging the bird's liver. The liver, which grew bigger in part because of additional fat in it, was considered so tasty that Christians would buy it from Jewish shops, and so foie gras swept the continent--including France, where the Christians picked up the custom from visiting Germans (French Jews--for the periods that Jews were allowed in France[[note]]France had an annoying habit, like many other European realms, of kicking out its Jewish population, letting them settle in, only to kick them out again a couple of generations later, and then invite them back in because the Church still banned Christians from making loans and the King needed money.[[/note]]--used olive oil and had no more use for fattened poultry than the next Frenchman).

to:

Foie gras itself dates back to Roman times, but it first became popular in Europe thanks to Jewish dietary laws, which forbid lard outright and ban butter for cooking.cooking meat. Jewish people in the Mediterranean used olive oil, and in the Middle East used sesame oil, but neither were easy to get in the northern parts of Europe. European Jews thus tended to use poultry fat (''schmaltz'' in Yiddish), which naturally required a fat bird--typically a chicken, duck, or goose. To get the most fat out of each bird, the Jewish community began overfeeding the ducks and geese kept for the purpose, which had the side effect of enlarging the bird's liver. The liver, which grew bigger in part because of additional fat in it, was considered so tasty that Christians would buy it from Jewish shops, and so foie gras swept the continent--including France, where the Christians picked up the custom from visiting Germans (French Jews--for the periods that Jews were allowed in France[[note]]France had an annoying habit, like many other European realms, of kicking out its Jewish population, letting them settle in, only to kick them out again a couple of generations later, and then invite them back in because the Church still banned Christians from making loans and the King needed money.[[/note]]--used olive oil and had no more use for fattened poultry than the next Frenchman).
5th Sep '16 8:35:00 PM karstovich2
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Literally "New Cuisine", Nouvelle Cuisine was a backlash against "Cuisine Classique" (Classic Cuisine; arguably Nouvelle Cuisine is a subset of Haute Cuisine and what is defined above is Cuisine Classique, but usually Haute Cuisine usually means Cuisine Classique) starting in the 1960s. It involved a lot of experimentation and bringing in techniques, ingredients, and preparations from other cuisines, most notably Chinese and Japanese. Gault and Millau came up with a "formula" for what Nouvelle cuisine typically entails: a rejection of excessive complication in cooking, reduced cooking times in order to preserve the flavors of fish, poultry, seafood, and vegetables, which led to a lot of steaming, using the freshest ingredients possible, shorter menus, abandonment of strong marinades for fish and game, replacing heavy sauce with lighter applications of fresh herbs, butter, lemon juice, and vinegar, regional dishes as inspiration, incorporating modern inventions, and inventiveness. Arguably this is no longer "New Cuisine"; the innovations of Nouvelle Cuisine were hugely influential around the world (if you cook some of the above, like the emphasis on fresh food cooked very lightly might seem familiar) but has long since been incorporated into high restaurant cuisine and home cooking; many chefs will now use techniques from both Haute Cuisine and Nouvelle Cuisine, and probably incorporate ideas from other cuisines as well. Still, understanding the difference is useful for understanding French Cuisine as a whole.

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Literally "New Cuisine", Nouvelle Cuisine was a backlash against "Cuisine Classique" (Classic Cuisine; arguably Nouvelle Cuisine is a subset of Haute Cuisine and what is defined above is Cuisine Classique, but usually Haute Cuisine usually means Cuisine Classique) starting in the 1960s. It involved a lot of experimentation and bringing in techniques, ingredients, and preparations from other cuisines, most notably Chinese and Japanese. Gault and Millau came up with a "formula" for what Nouvelle cuisine typically entails: a rejection of excessive complication in cooking, cooking; reduced cooking times in order to preserve the natural flavors of fish, poultry, seafood, and vegetables, which vegetables (which led to a lot of steaming, steaming); using the freshest ingredients possible, possible; shorter menus, menus; abandonment of strong marinades for fish and game, game; replacing heavy sauce sauces with lighter applications of fresh herbs, butter, lemon juice, and vinegar, vinegar; regional dishes as inspiration, incorporating inspiration; and using modern inventions, innovations and inventiveness.technologies to combine these elements in an inventive way. Arguably this is no longer "New Cuisine"; the innovations of Nouvelle Cuisine were hugely influential around the world (if you cook some of the above, like the emphasis on fresh food cooked very lightly might seem familiar) but has long since been incorporated into high restaurant cuisine and home cooking; many chefs will now use techniques from both Haute Cuisine and Nouvelle Cuisine, and probably incorporate ideas from other cuisines as well. Still, understanding the difference is useful for understanding French Cuisine as a whole.
3rd Sep '16 6:52:47 AM Morgenthaler
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Take a freshly made brown beef stock. Add piles and piles of carefully caramelized onions, then pour over a big chunk of toasted baguette, and brown some French or Swiss cheese (Gruyere is popular) over the top. Mediocre versions can be found everywhere (quick-and-dirty [[CuisinesInAmerica American]] versions are particularly common in UsefulNotes/NewJersey [[GreasySpoon diners]]), but it's authentic and a lot of fun to eat.

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Take a freshly made brown beef stock. Add piles and piles of carefully caramelized onions, then pour over a big chunk of toasted baguette, and brown some French or Swiss cheese (Gruyere is popular) over the top. Mediocre versions can be found everywhere (quick-and-dirty [[CuisinesInAmerica [[UsefulNotes/CuisinesInAmerica American]] versions are particularly common in UsefulNotes/NewJersey [[GreasySpoon diners]]), but it's authentic and a lot of fun to eat.
2nd Sep '16 2:04:52 PM Morgenthaler
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Each of these "mother" sauces will be modified in varying ways to create "daughter" or "small" sauces. The most famous of these is probably the demi-glace: add extra stock to an Espagnole, and simmer the whole thing together and repeatedly skim until well-reduced; the result is sort of like gravy with a [=PhD=]. Other notable "daughter" sauces include mornay (béchamel+grated cheese),[[note]]The historical baked macaroni and cheese invented by UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson--a great francophile--is essentially macaroni baked in a mornay sauce with cheddar serving as the cheese (and of course, extra stuff baked on top); the white sauce used for the Eastern Mediterranean [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pastitsio pastitsio]] is also a mornay.[[/note]] béarnaise (hollandaise but with white wine vinegar substituted for lemon juice+herbs like chevril, shallot, and tarragon--a traditional French accompaniment to ''entrecôte'', i.e. grilled steak, especially strip or Porterhouse), suprême (chicken-based velouté+mushroom-flavored reduction+cream, usually served over, erm, chicken and mushrooms), allemande (velouté+eggs+lemon juice+cream, intended to evoke rich German gravies), and africaine (Espagnole+Africanesque spices--since the late 19th century, the French have had an odd obsession with Africa). The "daughter" sauces can themselves have "daughters" (although they are never called "granddaughter" sauces), with demi-glace in particular having two quite famous "children" of her own: bordelaise (demi-glace+bone marrow+butter+shallots+dry red wine, preferably Bordeaux)[[note]]This one itself has a "daughter" in classic ''haute cuisine'': bordelase+puréed duck liver=rouennaise. This rich and expensive sauce was famous in Escoffier's time as what he served over his famous recipe for pressed duck. Ducklings served with rouennaise was also famously served at the notoriously extravagant "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Emperors_Dinner Three Emperors' Dinner]]" hosted by King Wilhelm I of Prussia (the future [[ImperialGermany Wilhelm I, German Emperor]]) for the Russian Emperor Alexander II, Alexander II's son (future Emperor Alexander III), and UsefulNotes/OttoVonBismarck at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1867. Note also that New Orleans has a sauce called "bordelaise" for a kind of sauce with garlic and butter; this has different roots and, while good, should not be confused with the French version.[[/note]] and chasseur ("hunter's") (demi-glace+mushrooms+shallots, often served over game or gamey meat and intended to evoke what a hunting party might make with its kill using fresh ingredients from in and around the woods; it can also be made directly with Espagnole, however). There's also a peculiar one in the form of ''buerre blanc''--literally "white butter"--which is essentially a béarnaise minus the tarragon and the ''eggs'' (which means that it breaks down immediately if it gets too hot or too cold, since the eggs emulsify the béarnaise); according to legend, it was invented when a chef was making a béarnaise for fish but forgot the two key ingredients.

to:

Each of these "mother" sauces will be modified in varying ways to create "daughter" or "small" sauces. The most famous of these is probably the demi-glace: add extra stock to an Espagnole, and simmer the whole thing together and repeatedly skim until well-reduced; the result is sort of like gravy with a [=PhD=]. Other notable "daughter" sauces include mornay (béchamel+grated cheese),[[note]]The historical baked macaroni and cheese invented by UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson--a great francophile--is essentially macaroni baked in a mornay sauce with cheddar serving as the cheese (and of course, extra stuff baked on top); the white sauce used for the Eastern Mediterranean [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pastitsio pastitsio]] is also a mornay.[[/note]] béarnaise (hollandaise but with white wine vinegar substituted for lemon juice+herbs like chevril, shallot, and tarragon--a traditional French accompaniment to ''entrecôte'', i.e. grilled steak, especially strip or Porterhouse), suprême (chicken-based velouté+mushroom-flavored reduction+cream, usually served over, erm, chicken and mushrooms), allemande (velouté+eggs+lemon juice+cream, intended to evoke rich German gravies), and africaine (Espagnole+Africanesque spices--since the late 19th century, the French have had an odd obsession with Africa). The "daughter" sauces can themselves have "daughters" (although they are never called "granddaughter" sauces), with demi-glace in particular having two quite famous "children" of her own: bordelaise (demi-glace+bone marrow+butter+shallots+dry red wine, preferably Bordeaux)[[note]]This one itself has a "daughter" in classic ''haute cuisine'': bordelase+puréed duck liver=rouennaise. This rich and expensive sauce was famous in Escoffier's time as what he served over his famous recipe for pressed duck. Ducklings served with rouennaise was also famously served at the notoriously extravagant "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Emperors_Dinner Three Emperors' Dinner]]" hosted by King Wilhelm I of Prussia (the future [[ImperialGermany [[UsefulNotes/ImperialGermany Wilhelm I, German Emperor]]) for the Russian Emperor Alexander II, Alexander II's son (future Emperor Alexander III), and UsefulNotes/OttoVonBismarck at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1867. Note also that New Orleans has a sauce called "bordelaise" for a kind of sauce with garlic and butter; this has different roots and, while good, should not be confused with the French version.[[/note]] and chasseur ("hunter's") (demi-glace+mushrooms+shallots, often served over game or gamey meat and intended to evoke what a hunting party might make with its kill using fresh ingredients from in and around the woods; it can also be made directly with Espagnole, however). There's also a peculiar one in the form of ''buerre blanc''--literally "white butter"--which is essentially a béarnaise minus the tarragon and the ''eggs'' (which means that it breaks down immediately if it gets too hot or too cold, since the eggs emulsify the béarnaise); according to legend, it was invented when a chef was making a béarnaise for fish but forgot the two key ingredients.
14th Aug '16 4:46:54 PM karstovich2
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France has ''many'' kinds of cheese, from very strong to very sweet, from very hard to very creamy. Most popular cheeses include Camembert (a creamy cheese from Normandy, made with cow milk, rather strong taste), Brie (a creamy cow's milk cheese from the Île-de-France and environs, ''very'' popular in Paris, similar to a Camembert but made in larger wheels and with a milder flavor--except for the aged ''brie noir'', which is stronger and popular in Île-de-France as a breakfast dish to dip into ''café au lait'') Roquefort (a very strong taste blue cheese, made with sheep milk, from the town of Roquefort), Comté (a hard cheese made from cow milk, originating in the region of Franche-Comté) and Crottin de Chavignol (soft and sweet goat cheese (though it becomes progressively harder and stronger if left to age more) made in the Loire valley). Note that Emmental and Gruyère are actually made in Switzerland (but are still very popular in France; Comté is so similar to Gruyère that the former sometimes goes by "French Gruyère" abroad, and within France only the blindest nationalists would object to substituting Gruyère for Comté for most purposes). The stinkiest cheeses are believed to be Munster and the Boulette d'Avesne, both from the North of the country. The diversity of cheeses is often used to highlight France's oft-forgotten (by outsiders) [[UsefulNotes/DepartementalIssues regional diversity]]: as [[UsefulNotes/ThePresidentsOfFrance president]] UsefulNotes/CharlesDeGaulle famously asked, "How can you govern a country which has two hundred and forty-six varieties of cheese?"

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France has ''many'' kinds of cheese, from very strong to very sweet, from very hard to very creamy. Most popular cheeses include Camembert (a creamy cheese from Normandy, made with cow milk, rather strong taste), Brie (a creamy cow's milk cheese from the Île-de-France and environs, ''very'' popular in Paris, similar to a Camembert but made in larger wheels and with a milder flavor--except for the aged ''brie noir'', which is stronger and popular in Île-de-France as a breakfast dish to dip into ''café au lait'') Roquefort (a very strong taste blue cheese, made with sheep milk, from the town of Roquefort), Roquefort in Occitania), Comté (a hard cheese made from cow milk, originating in the region of Franche-Comté) and Crottin de Chavignol (soft and sweet goat cheese (though cheese--though it becomes progressively harder and stronger if left to age more) made more--made in the Loire valley). Note that Emmental and Gruyère are actually made in Switzerland (but are still very popular in France; Comté is so similar to Gruyère that the former sometimes goes by "French Gruyère" abroad, and within France only the blindest nationalists would object to substituting Gruyère for Comté for most purposes). The stinkiest cheeses are believed to be Munster and the Boulette d'Avesne, both from the North of the country. The diversity of cheeses is often used to highlight France's oft-forgotten (by outsiders) [[UsefulNotes/DepartementalIssues regional diversity]]: as [[UsefulNotes/ThePresidentsOfFrance president]] UsefulNotes/CharlesDeGaulle famously asked, "How can you govern a country which has two hundred and forty-six varieties of cheese?"
14th Aug '16 4:39:59 PM karstovich2
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Literally "fat liver", made from the liver of a stuffed goose or duck. It can be either seared (and served hot), or candied and served cold on a toast. In both cases it is often a sweet and savoury dish as it is accompanied with fig (or some other fruit) chutney. Typically a celebration dish (popular for Christmas and New Year's Eve) it is also commonly served in ''brasseries''. Although in several places in the world this dish has been denounced as being particularly cruel (more so than most meat dishes) to the stuffed animal, this position is not very common in France.

Foie gras itself dates back to Roman times, but it first became popular in Europe thanks to Jewish dietary laws, which forbid lard and butter for cooking. Jewish people in the Mediterranean used olive oil, and in the Middle East used sesame oil, but neither were easy to get in the northern parts of Europe. European Jews thus tended to use poultry fat (''schmaltz'' in Yiddish), which naturally required a fat bird--typically a chicken, duck, or goose. The liver was considered so tasty that Christians would buy it from Jewish shops, and so foie gras swept the continent--including France, where the Christians picked up the custom from visiting Germans (French Jews--for the periods that Jews were allowed in France[[note]]France had an annoying habit, like many other European realms, of kicking out its Jewish population, letting them settle in, only to kick them out again a couple of generations later, and then invite them back in because the Church still banned Christians from making loans and the King needed money.[[/note]]--used olive oil and had no more use for fattened poultry than the next Frenchman).

to:

Literally "fat liver", made from the liver of a stuffed goose or duck.duck which has been specifically overfed (including force-feeding) to increase the size of its liver. It can be either seared (and served hot), or candied and served cold on a toast. In both cases it is often a sweet and savoury dish as it is accompanied with fig (or some other fruit) chutney. Typically a celebration dish (popular for Christmas and New Year's Eve) it is also commonly served in ''brasseries''. Although in several places in the world this dish has been denounced as being particularly cruel (more so than most meat dishes) to the stuffed animal, this position is not very common in France.

Foie gras itself dates back to Roman times, but it first became popular in Europe thanks to Jewish dietary laws, which forbid lard and butter for cooking. Jewish people in the Mediterranean used olive oil, and in the Middle East used sesame oil, but neither were easy to get in the northern parts of Europe. European Jews thus tended to use poultry fat (''schmaltz'' in Yiddish), which naturally required a fat bird--typically a chicken, duck, or goose. To get the most fat out of each bird, the Jewish community began overfeeding the ducks and geese kept for the purpose, which had the side effect of enlarging the bird's liver. The liver liver, which grew bigger in part because of additional fat in it, was considered so tasty that Christians would buy it from Jewish shops, and so foie gras swept the continent--including France, where the Christians picked up the custom from visiting Germans (French Jews--for the periods that Jews were allowed in France[[note]]France had an annoying habit, like many other European realms, of kicking out its Jewish population, letting them settle in, only to kick them out again a couple of generations later, and then invite them back in because the Church still banned Christians from making loans and the King needed money.[[/note]]--used olive oil and had no more use for fattened poultry than the next Frenchman).
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