History UsefulNotes / SnailsAndSoOn

26th Jun '16 8:49:24 PM karstovich2
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Each of these "mother" sauces will be modified in varying ways to create "daughter" or "small" sauces. The most famous of these is probably the demi-glace: add extra stock to an Espagnole, and simmer the whole thing together and repeatedly skim until well-reduced; the result is sort of like gravy with a [=PhD=]. Other notable "daughter" sauces include mornay (béchamel+grated cheese),[[note]]The historical baked macaroni and cheese invented by UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson--a great francophile--is essentially macaroni baked in a mornay sauce with cheddar serving as the cheese (and of course, extra stuff baked on top); the white sauce used for the Eastern Mediterranean [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pastitsio pastitsio]] is also a mornay.[[/note]] béarnaise (hollandaise but with white wine vinegar substituted for lemon juice+herbs like chevril, shallot, and tarragon--a traditional French accompaniment to ''entrecôte'', i.e. grilled steak, especially strip or Porterhouse), suprême (chicken-based velouté+mushroom-flavored reduction+cream, usually served over, erm, chicken and mushrooms), allemande (velouté+eggs+lemon juice+cream, intended to evoke rich German gravies), and africaine (Espagnole+Africanesque spices--since the late 19th century, the French have had an odd obsession with Africa). The "daughter" sauces can themselves have "daughters" (although they are never called "granddaughter" sauces), with demi-glace in particular having two quite famous "children" of her own: bordelaise (demi-glace+bone marrow+butter+shallots+dry red wine, preferably Bordeaux)[[note]]This one itself has a "daughter" in classic ''haute cuisine'': bordelase+puréed duck liver=rouennaise. This rich and expensive sauce was famous in Escoffier's time as what he served over his famous recipe for pressed duck. Ducklings served with rouennaise was also famously served at the notoriously extravagant "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Emperors_Dinner Three Emperors' Dinner]]" hosted by King Wilhelm I of Prussia (the future [[ImperialGermany Wilhelm I, German Emperor]]) for the Russian Emperor Alexander II, Alexander II's son (future Emperor Alexander III), and UsefulNotes/OttoVonBismarck at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1867.[[/note]] and chasseur ("hunter's") (demi-glace+mushrooms+shallots, often served over game or gamey meat and intended to evoke what a hunting party might make with its kill using fresh ingredients from in and around the woods; it can also be made directly with Espagnole, however). There's also a peculiar one in the form of ''buerre blanc''--literally "white butter"--which is essentially a béarnaise minus the tarragon and the ''eggs'' (which means that it breaks down immediately if it gets too hot or too cold, since the eggs emulsify the béarnaise); according to legend, it was invented when a chef was making a béarnaise for fish but forgot the two key ingredients.

to:

Each of these "mother" sauces will be modified in varying ways to create "daughter" or "small" sauces. The most famous of these is probably the demi-glace: add extra stock to an Espagnole, and simmer the whole thing together and repeatedly skim until well-reduced; the result is sort of like gravy with a [=PhD=]. Other notable "daughter" sauces include mornay (béchamel+grated cheese),[[note]]The historical baked macaroni and cheese invented by UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson--a great francophile--is essentially macaroni baked in a mornay sauce with cheddar serving as the cheese (and of course, extra stuff baked on top); the white sauce used for the Eastern Mediterranean [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pastitsio pastitsio]] is also a mornay.[[/note]] béarnaise (hollandaise but with white wine vinegar substituted for lemon juice+herbs like chevril, shallot, and tarragon--a traditional French accompaniment to ''entrecôte'', i.e. grilled steak, especially strip or Porterhouse), suprême (chicken-based velouté+mushroom-flavored reduction+cream, usually served over, erm, chicken and mushrooms), allemande (velouté+eggs+lemon juice+cream, intended to evoke rich German gravies), and africaine (Espagnole+Africanesque spices--since the late 19th century, the French have had an odd obsession with Africa). The "daughter" sauces can themselves have "daughters" (although they are never called "granddaughter" sauces), with demi-glace in particular having two quite famous "children" of her own: bordelaise (demi-glace+bone marrow+butter+shallots+dry red wine, preferably Bordeaux)[[note]]This one itself has a "daughter" in classic ''haute cuisine'': bordelase+puréed duck liver=rouennaise. This rich and expensive sauce was famous in Escoffier's time as what he served over his famous recipe for pressed duck. Ducklings served with rouennaise was also famously served at the notoriously extravagant "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Emperors_Dinner Three Emperors' Dinner]]" hosted by King Wilhelm I of Prussia (the future [[ImperialGermany Wilhelm I, German Emperor]]) for the Russian Emperor Alexander II, Alexander II's son (future Emperor Alexander III), and UsefulNotes/OttoVonBismarck at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1867. Note also that New Orleans has a sauce called "bordelaise" for a kind of sauce with garlic and butter; this has different roots and, while good, should not be confused with the French version.[[/note]] and chasseur ("hunter's") (demi-glace+mushrooms+shallots, often served over game or gamey meat and intended to evoke what a hunting party might make with its kill using fresh ingredients from in and around the woods; it can also be made directly with Espagnole, however). There's also a peculiar one in the form of ''buerre blanc''--literally "white butter"--which is essentially a béarnaise minus the tarragon and the ''eggs'' (which means that it breaks down immediately if it gets too hot or too cold, since the eggs emulsify the béarnaise); according to legend, it was invented when a chef was making a béarnaise for fish but forgot the two key ingredients.
26th Jun '16 8:46:33 PM karstovich2
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Each of these "mother" sauces will be modified in varying ways to create "daughter" or "small" sauces. The most famous of these is probably the demi-glace: add extra stock to an Espagnole, and simmer the whole thing together and repeatedly skim until well-reduced; the result is sort of like gravy with a [=PhD=]. Other notable "daughter" sauces include mornay (béchamel+grated cheese),[[note]]The historical baked macaroni and cheese invented by UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson--a great francophile--is essentially macaroni baked in a mornay sauce with cheddar serving as the cheese (and of course, extra stuff baked on top); the white sauce used for the Eastern Mediterranean [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pastitsio pastitsio]] is also a mornay.[[/note]] béarnaise (hollandaise but with white wine vinegar substituted for lemon juice+herbs like chevril, shallot, and tarragon), suprême (chicken-based velouté+mushroom-flavored reduction+cream), allemande (velouté+eggs+lemon juice+cream, intended to evoke rich German gravies), and africaine (Espagnole+Africanesque spices--since the late 19th century, the French have had an odd obsession with Africa). The "daughter" sauces can themselves have "daughters" (although they are never called "granddaughter" sauces), with demi-glace in particular having two quite famous "children" of her own: bordelaise (demi-glace+bone marrow+butter+shallots+dry red wine, preferably Bordeaux)[[note]]This one itself has a "daughter" in classic ''haute cuisine'': bordelase+puréed duck liver=rouennaise. This rich and expensive sauce was famous in Escoffier's time as what he served over his famous recipe for pressed duck. Ducklings served with rouennaise was also famously served at the notoriously extravagant "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Emperors_Dinner Three Emperors' Dinner]]" hosted by King Wilhelm I of Prussia (the future [[ImperialGermany Wilhelm I, German Emperor]]) for the Russian Emperor Alexander II, Alexander II's son (future Emperor Alexander III), and UsefulNotes/OttoVonBismarck at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1867.[[/note]] and chasseur ("hunter's") (demi-glace+mushrooms+shallots, often served over game or gamey meat and intended to evoke what a hunting party might make with its kill using fresh ingredients from in and around the woods; it can also be made directly with Espagnole, however). There's also a peculiar one in the form of ''buerre blanc''--literally "white butter"--which is essentially a béarnaise minus the tarragon and the ''eggs'' (which means that it breaks down immediately if it gets too hot or too cold, since the eggs emulsify the béarnaise); according to legend, it was invented when a chef was making a béarnaise for fish but forgot the two key ingredients.

to:

Each of these "mother" sauces will be modified in varying ways to create "daughter" or "small" sauces. The most famous of these is probably the demi-glace: add extra stock to an Espagnole, and simmer the whole thing together and repeatedly skim until well-reduced; the result is sort of like gravy with a [=PhD=]. Other notable "daughter" sauces include mornay (béchamel+grated cheese),[[note]]The historical baked macaroni and cheese invented by UsefulNotes/ThomasJefferson--a great francophile--is essentially macaroni baked in a mornay sauce with cheddar serving as the cheese (and of course, extra stuff baked on top); the white sauce used for the Eastern Mediterranean [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pastitsio pastitsio]] is also a mornay.[[/note]] béarnaise (hollandaise but with white wine vinegar substituted for lemon juice+herbs like chevril, shallot, and tarragon), tarragon--a traditional French accompaniment to ''entrecôte'', i.e. grilled steak, especially strip or Porterhouse), suprême (chicken-based velouté+mushroom-flavored reduction+cream), reduction+cream, usually served over, erm, chicken and mushrooms), allemande (velouté+eggs+lemon juice+cream, intended to evoke rich German gravies), and africaine (Espagnole+Africanesque spices--since the late 19th century, the French have had an odd obsession with Africa). The "daughter" sauces can themselves have "daughters" (although they are never called "granddaughter" sauces), with demi-glace in particular having two quite famous "children" of her own: bordelaise (demi-glace+bone marrow+butter+shallots+dry red wine, preferably Bordeaux)[[note]]This one itself has a "daughter" in classic ''haute cuisine'': bordelase+puréed duck liver=rouennaise. This rich and expensive sauce was famous in Escoffier's time as what he served over his famous recipe for pressed duck. Ducklings served with rouennaise was also famously served at the notoriously extravagant "[[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Emperors_Dinner Three Emperors' Dinner]]" hosted by King Wilhelm I of Prussia (the future [[ImperialGermany Wilhelm I, German Emperor]]) for the Russian Emperor Alexander II, Alexander II's son (future Emperor Alexander III), and UsefulNotes/OttoVonBismarck at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1867.[[/note]] and chasseur ("hunter's") (demi-glace+mushrooms+shallots, often served over game or gamey meat and intended to evoke what a hunting party might make with its kill using fresh ingredients from in and around the woods; it can also be made directly with Espagnole, however). There's also a peculiar one in the form of ''buerre blanc''--literally "white butter"--which is essentially a béarnaise minus the tarragon and the ''eggs'' (which means that it breaks down immediately if it gets too hot or too cold, since the eggs emulsify the béarnaise); according to legend, it was invented when a chef was making a béarnaise for fish but forgot the two key ingredients.
24th Jun '16 3:24:18 PM Saveelich
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20th Jun '16 11:32:13 PM AirofMystery
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Foie gras itself dates back to Roman times, but it first became popular in Europe thanks to Jewish dietary laws, which forbid lard and butter for cooking. Jewish people in the Mediterranean used olive oil, and in the Middle East used sesame oil, but neither were easy to get in Europe. European Jews thus tended to use poultry fat, which naturally required a fat goose. The liver was considered so tasty that Christians would buy it from Jewish shops, and so foie gras swept the continent.
26th May '16 4:02:26 PM Chytus
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What pizza and Chinese-American food are to the US and curry is to the UK and Ireland, couscous and certain other North African dishes are to France -- cheap, tasty, convenient (usually takeout), not typical of what usually goes on the table, most often consumed by students and others who don't cook very much (particularly while drunk), and thoroughly naturalized despite eaters' perceptions of exoticness to the contrary. Couscous is a small, pebbly, quick-cooking pasta eaten from Morocco to Sicily and Libya, and cooked and served alongside meals like tagine (a Berber meat stew traditionally cooked in a clay pot with a characteristic conical lid) or vegetable stew; it's sometimes even used as a dessert, served with honey or sugar and spices.[[note]]Whether dessert couscous was a Libyan or an Egyptian idea is a part of the always-terrifying Middle Eastern culinary flame wars.[[/note]] Because of their origins in Islamic countries, these dishes are usually made with lamb/mutton or beef, never pork; a spicy beef or lamb/mutton sausage called merguez is fairly common as well. Kebabs (which refer both to the actual dish on a plate, its handy takeaway repackaging in bread of various types ''à la'' Döner, and the shop that sells them) are very, very common at least in large cities with substantial North African, Lebanese or Turkish communities. The shops are usually open until much later than any other source of food will be, making it the food of choice of drunk urban students like. In Paris, more than anywhere else in France, the shops tend to be referred to generically as "grecs" [[note]]"on se fait un grec?" describes the shop more than the actual person running it, in which case the phrase would mean "shall we do a Greek guy?" with exactly the same DoubleEntendre as in English[[/note]], in north-eastern France "turcs", and when manned by Lebanese, "libanais", much in the same way that in Belgium, frites vendors [[note]]and often just that, whereas in France ''frites'' are viewed as a side dish to either kebabs or hamburgers[[/note]] are sometimes referred to in Flemish as "frietchinees". The French and the Belgians will argue over who invented the French fries (known here simply as "frites"), and there's even a gag to that effect in Asterix chez les Belges when Obelix mentions something about deep-frying actual apples (pommes frites) amid a running gag about waterzooie.

to:

What pizza and Chinese-American food are to the US and curry is to the UK and Ireland, couscous and certain other North African dishes are to France -- cheap, tasty, convenient (usually takeout), not typical of what usually goes on the table, most often consumed by students and others who don't cook very much (particularly while drunk), and thoroughly naturalized despite eaters' perceptions of exoticness to the contrary. Couscous is a small, pebbly, quick-cooking pasta eaten from Morocco to Sicily and Libya, and cooked and served alongside meals like tagine (a Berber meat stew traditionally cooked in a clay pot with a characteristic conical lid) or vegetable stew; it's sometimes even used as a dessert, served with honey or sugar and spices.[[note]]Whether dessert couscous was a Libyan or an Egyptian idea is a part of the always-terrifying Middle Eastern culinary flame wars.[[/note]] Because of their origins in Islamic countries, these dishes are usually made with lamb/mutton or beef, never pork; a spicy beef or lamb/mutton sausage called merguez is fairly common as well. Kebabs (which refer both to the actual dish on a plate, its handy takeaway repackaging in bread of various types ''à la'' Döner, and the shop that sells them) are very, very common at least in large cities with substantial North African, Lebanese or Turkish communities. The shops are usually open until much later than any other source of food will be, making it the food of choice of drunk urban students like.students. In Paris, more than anywhere else in France, the shops tend to be referred to generically as "grecs" [[note]]"on se fait un grec?" describes the shop more than the actual person running it, in which case the phrase would mean "shall we do a Greek guy?" with exactly the same DoubleEntendre as in English[[/note]], in north-eastern France "turcs", and when manned by Lebanese, "libanais", much in the same way that in Belgium, frites vendors [[note]]and often just that, whereas in France ''frites'' are viewed as a side dish to either kebabs or hamburgers[[/note]] are sometimes referred to in Flemish as "frietchinees". The French and the Belgians will argue over who invented the French fries (known here simply as "frites"), and there's even a gag to that effect in Asterix chez les Belges when Obelix mentions something about deep-frying actual apples (pommes frites) amid a running gag about waterzooie.
26th May '16 4:01:47 PM Chytus
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What pizza and Chinese-American food are to the US and curry is to the UK and Ireland, couscous and certain other North African dishes are to France -- cheap, tasty, convenient (usually takeout), not typical of what usually goes on the table, most often consumed by students and others who don't cook very much (particularly while drunk), and thoroughly naturalized despite eaters' perceptions of exoticness to the contrary. Couscous is a small, pebbly, quick-cooking pasta eaten from Morocco to Sicily and Libya, and cooked and served alongside meals like tagine (a Berber meat stew traditionally cooked in a clay pot with a characteristic conical lid) or vegetable stew; it's sometimes even used as a dessert, served with honey or sugar and spices.[[note]]Whether dessert couscous was a Libyan or an Egyptian idea is a part of the always-terrifying Middle Eastern culinary flame wars.[[/note]] Because of their origins in Islamic countries, these dishes are usually made with lamb/mutton or beef, never pork; a spicy beef or lamb/mutton sausage called merguez is fairly common as well. Kebabs (which refer both to the actual dish on a plate, its handy takeaway repackaging in bread of various types ''à la'' Döner, and the shop that sells them) are very, very common at least in large cities with substantial North African, Lebanese or Turkish communities. The shops are usually open until much later than any other source of food will be, making it the food of choice of drunk urban students like this troper. In Paris, more than anywhere else in France, the shops tend to be referred to generically as "grecs" [[note]]"on se fait un grec?" describes the shop more than the actual person running it, in which case the phrase would mean "shall we do a Greek guy?" with exactly the same DoubleEntendre as in English[[/note]], in north-eastern France "turcs", and when manned by Lebanese, "libanais", much in the same way that in Belgium, frites vendors [[note]]and often just that, whereas in France ''frites'' are viewed as a side dish to either kebabs or hamburgers[[/note]] are sometimes referred to in Flemish as "frietchinees". The French and the Belgians will argue over who invented the French fries (known here simply as "frites"), and there's even a gag to that effect in Asterix chez les Belges when Obelix mentions something about deep-frying actual apples (pommes frites) amid a running gag about waterzooie.

to:

What pizza and Chinese-American food are to the US and curry is to the UK and Ireland, couscous and certain other North African dishes are to France -- cheap, tasty, convenient (usually takeout), not typical of what usually goes on the table, most often consumed by students and others who don't cook very much (particularly while drunk), and thoroughly naturalized despite eaters' perceptions of exoticness to the contrary. Couscous is a small, pebbly, quick-cooking pasta eaten from Morocco to Sicily and Libya, and cooked and served alongside meals like tagine (a Berber meat stew traditionally cooked in a clay pot with a characteristic conical lid) or vegetable stew; it's sometimes even used as a dessert, served with honey or sugar and spices.[[note]]Whether dessert couscous was a Libyan or an Egyptian idea is a part of the always-terrifying Middle Eastern culinary flame wars.[[/note]] Because of their origins in Islamic countries, these dishes are usually made with lamb/mutton or beef, never pork; a spicy beef or lamb/mutton sausage called merguez is fairly common as well. Kebabs (which refer both to the actual dish on a plate, its handy takeaway repackaging in bread of various types ''à la'' Döner, and the shop that sells them) are very, very common at least in large cities with substantial North African, Lebanese or Turkish communities. The shops are usually open until much later than any other source of food will be, making it the food of choice of drunk urban students like this troper.like. In Paris, more than anywhere else in France, the shops tend to be referred to generically as "grecs" [[note]]"on se fait un grec?" describes the shop more than the actual person running it, in which case the phrase would mean "shall we do a Greek guy?" with exactly the same DoubleEntendre as in English[[/note]], in north-eastern France "turcs", and when manned by Lebanese, "libanais", much in the same way that in Belgium, frites vendors [[note]]and often just that, whereas in France ''frites'' are viewed as a side dish to either kebabs or hamburgers[[/note]] are sometimes referred to in Flemish as "frietchinees". The French and the Belgians will argue over who invented the French fries (known here simply as "frites"), and there's even a gag to that effect in Asterix chez les Belges when Obelix mentions something about deep-frying actual apples (pommes frites) amid a running gag about waterzooie.



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27th Feb '16 4:06:28 PM Subbak
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'''Foie gras'''

Literally "fat liver", made from the liver of a stuffed goose or duck. It can be either seared (and served hot), or candied and served cold on a toast. In both cases it is often a sweet and savoury dish as it is accompanied with fig (or some other fruit) chutney. Typically a celebration dish (popular for Christmas and New Year's Eve) it is also commonly served in ''brasseries''. Although in several places in the world this dish has been denounced as being particularly cruel (more so than most meat dishes) to the stuffed animal, this position is not very common in France.
24th Jan '16 3:46:31 PM karstovich2
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* Espagnole ("Spanish"), aka brown sauce: Similar to velouté, but with a long-cooked brown roux, added herbs and tomatoes, and typically using veal stock (though beef stock and water can be used in a pinch). The traditional form is (again) called Sauce Espagnole; although no one knows exactly why it's called that, the association of Spain with tomatoes seems to be the reason. The flavor is sufficiently strong that it's rarely used on its own (although it works well with ''frites''[[note]]That's French fries for Americans, chips for Brits[[/note]] as what amounts to a more savory and complex replacement for ketchup); it's more typically seen as the base of a "daughter" sauce (see below).

to:

* Espagnole ("Spanish"), aka brown sauce: Similar to velouté, but with a long-cooked brown roux, added herbs and tomatoes, and typically using veal stock (though beef stock and or even water can be used in a pinch). The traditional form is (again) called Sauce Espagnole; although no one knows exactly why it's called that, the association of Spain with tomatoes seems to be the reason. The flavor is sufficiently strong that it's rarely used on its own (although it works well with ''frites''[[note]]That's French fries for Americans, chips for Brits[[/note]] as what amounts to a more savory and complex replacement for ketchup); it's more typically seen as the base of a "daughter" sauce (see below).
24th Jan '16 3:45:50 PM karstovich2
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* Espagnole ("Spanish"), aka brown sauce: Similar to velouté, but with a long-cooked brown roux and the addition of herbs and tomatoes. The traditional form is (again) called Sauce Espagnole; although no one knows exactly why it's called that, the association of Spain with tomatoes seems to be the reason. The flavor is sufficiently strong that it's rarely used on its own (although it works well with ''frites''[[note]]That's French fries for Americans, chips for Brits[[/note]] as what amounts to a more savory and complex replacement for ketchup); it's more typically seen as the base of a "daughter" sauce (see below).

to:

* Espagnole ("Spanish"), aka brown sauce: Similar to velouté, but with a long-cooked brown roux and the addition of roux, added herbs and tomatoes.tomatoes, and typically using veal stock (though beef stock and water can be used in a pinch). The traditional form is (again) called Sauce Espagnole; although no one knows exactly why it's called that, the association of Spain with tomatoes seems to be the reason. The flavor is sufficiently strong that it's rarely used on its own (although it works well with ''frites''[[note]]That's French fries for Americans, chips for Brits[[/note]] as what amounts to a more savory and complex replacement for ketchup); it's more typically seen as the base of a "daughter" sauce (see below).
24th Jan '16 3:44:13 PM karstovich2
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Incidentally, while we're talking about the US, French regional cuisine is the direct ancestor of the famous [[UsefulNotes/CuisinesInAmerica Cajun and Creole cuisines of Louisiana]]; many traditional Louisiana dishes are French ones, adapted to use New World ingredients (e.g. bell peppers instead of carrots) and with Spanish, African, Native American, and American Southern influences added on top. These styles are very popular and are generally considered one of the greatest achievements of the American kitchen (world-class New Orleans-style restaurants have appeared even outside the US)...so touché, French food snobs.

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Incidentally, while we're talking about the US, French regional cuisine is the direct ancestor of the famous [[UsefulNotes/CuisinesInAmerica Cajun and Creole cuisines of Louisiana]]; many traditional Louisiana dishes are French regional ones, adapted to use New World ingredients (e.g. bell peppers instead of carrots) and with Spanish, African, Native American, and American British/American Southern influences added on top. These styles In general, Cajun cuisine hewed closer to old-style French peasant cooking, while Creole cuisine was both more receptive to foreign influences and--being derived from the cooking of more urban colonists--also paid more attention to developments in continental French cooking. However, today, these cuisines, although still distinct, have also taken a lot of influence from each other, are very popular outside Louisiana and are generally considered one of the greatest achievements of the American kitchen (world-class New Orleans-style restaurants have appeared even outside the US)...so touché, French food snobs.
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