History UsefulNotes / PoliticalSystemOfGermany

3rd May '16 7:00:45 AM NuclearSheep
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* '''Alternative für Deutschland''' (Blue and Red): A new center-right party, founded only in 2013, as a response to the ongoing Eurocrisis. They're generally considered a Eurosceptic party, though they'll remind you that they're not [[InsistentTerminology anti-EU, just anti-Euro]]. As can be guessed, they're pretty much a single-issue party: get rid of the Euro. In the 2013 election they received 4.7% of the vote, just under the 5% threshold required to get seats. They're supporters of the right-wing organisation PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes, "Patriotic Europeans against the Islamification of the Western World"). During the migrant crisis in 2015 they gained much support and entered three ''Landtage'' in 2016, even becoming the second-strongest party in Saxony-Anhalt. Their founder, Bernd Lucke, a professor of economics has been deposed and since left the party, resulting in it moving to the right and focusing more on immigration instead of economics.

to:

* '''Alternative für Deutschland''' (Blue and Red): A new center-right party, founded only in 2013, as a response to the ongoing Eurocrisis. They're generally considered a Eurosceptic party, though they'll remind you that they're not [[InsistentTerminology anti-EU, just anti-Euro]]. As can be guessed, they're pretty much a single-issue party: get rid of the Euro. In the 2013 election they received 4.7% of the vote, just under the 5% threshold required to get seats. They're supporters of the right-wing organisation PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes, "Patriotic Europeans against the Islamification of the Western World"). During the migrant crisis in 2015 they gained much support and entered three ''Landtage'' in 2016, even becoming the second-strongest party in Saxony-Anhalt. Their founder, Bernd Lucke, a professor of economics has been deposed and since left the party, resulting in it moving to the right and focusing more on immigration instead of economics.
economics. In 2016 they radically changed their course and became more of an anti-Islam party, even stating that "The Islam doesn't belong to Germany".
9th Apr '16 5:37:56 PM Jhonny
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There is a notable exceptions to PR, the '''Five Percent Threshold'''. In order to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. This has recently come under increased scrutiny by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, '''{{=BVerfG=}}''', in German), which basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal levels, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats.

to:

There is a notable exceptions to PR, the '''Five Percent Threshold'''. In order to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. This has recently come under increased scrutiny by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, '''{{=BVerfG=}}''', {=BVerfG=}, in German), which basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal levels, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats.
9th Apr '16 5:37:34 PM Jhonny
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There is a notable exceptions to PR, the '''Five Percent Threshold'''. In order to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. This has recently come under increased scrutiny by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, '''{=BVerfG=}''', in German), which basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal levels, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats.

to:

There is a notable exceptions to PR, the '''Five Percent Threshold'''. In order to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. This has recently come under increased scrutiny by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, '''{=BVerfG=}''', '''{{=BVerfG=}}''', in German), which basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal levels, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats.
9th Apr '16 5:37:10 PM Jhonny
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There is a notable exceptions to PR, the '''Five Percent Threshold'''. In order to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. This has recently come under increased scrutiny by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, {='''BVerfG'''=}, in German), which basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal levels, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats.

to:

There is a notable exceptions to PR, the '''Five Percent Threshold'''. In order to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. This has recently come under increased scrutiny by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, {='''BVerfG'''=}, '''{=BVerfG=}''', in German), which basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal levels, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats.
9th Apr '16 5:36:32 PM Jhonny
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There is a notable exceptions to PR, the '''Five Percent Threshold'''. In order to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. This has recently come under increased scrutiny by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, '''BVG''', in German), which basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal levels, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats.

to:

There is a notable exceptions to PR, the '''Five Percent Threshold'''. In order to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. This has recently come under increased scrutiny by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, '''BVG''', {='''BVerfG'''=}, in German), which basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal levels, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats.
9th Apr '16 5:35:46 PM Jhonny
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* '''Alternative für Deutschland''' (Blue and Red): A new center-right party, founded only in 2013, as a response to the ongoing Eurocrisis. They're generally considered a Eurosceptic party, though they'll remind you that they're not [[InsistentTerminology anti-EU, just anti-Euro]]. As can be guessed, they're pretty much a single-issue party: get rid of the Euro. In the 2013 election they received 4.7% of the vote, just under the 5% threshold required to get seats. They're supporters of the right-wing organisation PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes, "Patriotic Europeans againt the Islamification of the Western World"). During the migrant crisis in 2015 they gained much support and entered three ''Landtage'' in 2016, even becoming the second-strongest party in Saxony-Anhalt.

to:

* '''Alternative für Deutschland''' (Blue and Red): A new center-right party, founded only in 2013, as a response to the ongoing Eurocrisis. They're generally considered a Eurosceptic party, though they'll remind you that they're not [[InsistentTerminology anti-EU, just anti-Euro]]. As can be guessed, they're pretty much a single-issue party: get rid of the Euro. In the 2013 election they received 4.7% of the vote, just under the 5% threshold required to get seats. They're supporters of the right-wing organisation PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes, "Patriotic Europeans againt against the Islamification of the Western World"). During the migrant crisis in 2015 they gained much support and entered three ''Landtage'' in 2016, even becoming the second-strongest party in Saxony-Anhalt.
Saxony-Anhalt. Their founder, Bernd Lucke, a professor of economics has been deposed and since left the party, resulting in it moving to the right and focusing more on immigration instead of economics.
18th Mar '16 7:55:20 AM NuclearSheep
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** Guido Westerwelle: Leader of the party 2001-2011, Vice-Chancellor 2009-2011, and Foreign Minister 2009-2013, he attempted to follow Genscher's model. It didn't really work: he was blamed for the FDP's massive losses in the 2011 federal elections, and was forced to resign as Vice-Chancellor and party chief. His record as FM isn't much better, as he's been criticized by some in his own ministry for being too cautious and too inexperienced at foreign affairs. On the bright side, he's the highest-ranking openly gay man in German history.

to:

** Guido Westerwelle: Leader of the party 2001-2011, Vice-Chancellor 2009-2011, and Foreign Minister 2009-2013, he attempted to follow Genscher's model. It didn't really work: he was blamed for the FDP's massive losses in the 2011 federal elections, and was forced to resign as Vice-Chancellor and party chief. His record as FM isn't much better, as he's been criticized by some in his own ministry for being too cautious and too inexperienced at foreign affairs. On the bright side, he's he was the highest-ranking openly gay man in German history.history. Died of cancer in 2016.
13th Mar '16 10:33:21 AM NuclearSheep
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* '''Alternative für Deutschland''' (Blue and Red): A new center-right party, founded only in 2013, as a response to the ongoing Eurocrisis. They're generally considered a Eurosceptic party, though they'll remind you that they're not [[InsistentTerminology anti-EU, just anti-Euro]]. As can be guessed, they're pretty much a single-issue party: get rid of the Euro. In the 2013 election they received 4.7% of the vote, just under the 5% threshold required to get seats. They're supporters of the right-wing organisation PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes, "Patriotic Europeans againt the Islamification of the Western World"). During the migrant crisis in 2015 they gained much support, a survey from October 2015 shows they would enter the Bundestag with 6% of votes.

to:

* '''Alternative für Deutschland''' (Blue and Red): A new center-right party, founded only in 2013, as a response to the ongoing Eurocrisis. They're generally considered a Eurosceptic party, though they'll remind you that they're not [[InsistentTerminology anti-EU, just anti-Euro]]. As can be guessed, they're pretty much a single-issue party: get rid of the Euro. In the 2013 election they received 4.7% of the vote, just under the 5% threshold required to get seats. They're supporters of the right-wing organisation PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes, "Patriotic Europeans againt the Islamification of the Western World"). During the migrant crisis in 2015 they gained much support, a survey from October 2015 shows they would enter support and entered three ''Landtage'' in 2016, even becoming the Bundestag with 6% of votes.
second-strongest party in Saxony-Anhalt.
12th Mar '16 1:07:51 AM NuclearSheep
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* '''NPD''' (Brown): Had been a far-right party since its formation in the 1960s as a coalition of several smaller ultraconservative and nationalist parties and was elected very rarely. Around the last decade it became worse than other such parties by its apparent alliance with violent Neo-Nazis. An attempt to declare it anticonstitutional (which would lead to the dissolution of the party and prevention of attempts to restart it with another name) in 2003 failed because the Constitutional Court did not see it proven beyond reasonable doubt that the undercover agents and informers of the police were not responsible for the violence (but the party's reaction to the trial suggested that the informers worked for the party and fooled the police rather than the other way around).

to:

* '''NPD''' (Brown): Had been a far-right party since its formation in the 1960s as a coalition of several smaller ultraconservative and nationalist parties and was elected very rarely. Around the last decade it became worse than other such parties by its apparent alliance with violent Neo-Nazis. An attempt to declare it anticonstitutional (which would lead to the dissolution of the party and prevention of attempts to restart it with another name) in 2003 failed because the Constitutional Court did not see it proven beyond reasonable doubt that the undercover agents and informers of the police were not responsible for the violence (but the party's reaction to the trial suggested that the informers worked for the party and fooled the police rather than the other way around). Another attempt to declare the party anticonstitutional is currently ongoing.
1st Feb '16 6:48:56 AM Callid
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He also has the minor power to veto any law.

to:

He also has the minor power to veto withhold his signature from any law.
law he deems unconstitutional, which usually leads to the law being re-examined. This power is relatively rarely used, however.



There are two notable exceptions to PR, the Five Percent Threshold and Overhang Seats. Both are under increased scrutiny by the Constitutional Court ('''BVG''' in German).
* '''Five Percent Threshold''': to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. The BVG basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal level, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats.
* '''Overhang Seats''': these happen in a mixed-member proportional system (see below) if a party gets more seats from constituencies than it would receive overall. This happens more often in recent years. Current law is that these constituency winners keep their seat, so their party gets stronger than under PR. In Schleswig-Holstein, this changed the winner, so the state had to change their law and call early elections. The federal election law also had to be changed, but the recently changed law still doesn't solve the problem, so the BVG may decide to rewrite the election law for the 2013 federal election (it avoided this last time, and would only make the minimal changes it regards necessary if it would rewrite).

to:

There are two is a notable exceptions to PR, the Five Percent Threshold and Overhang Seats. Both are under increased scrutiny by the Constitutional Court ('''BVG''' in German).
*
'''Five Percent Threshold''': Threshold'''. In order to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. The BVG This has recently come under increased scrutiny by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, '''BVG''', in German), which basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal level, levels, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats.
* '''Overhang Seats''': these
seats.

There are also ''Overhang Seats'', which
happen in a mixed-member proportional system (see below) if a party gets more seats from constituencies than it would receive overall. This happens more often in recent years. Current law is that these constituency winners Formerly, those parties would simply keep their seat, so their party gets seats, which made them stronger than under PR. In Schleswig-Holstein, this changed the winner, so the state had they should be proportionally. Due to change their law and call early elections. The federal election law also had to be changed, but the recently changed law still doesn't solve the problem, so this, the BVG may decide to rewrite the election law for the decided in 2013 federal election (it avoided this last time, and would only make that the minimal changes it regards necessary if it would rewrite).
other parties must receive additional seats as well, until the proportional distribution is accurate.
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