History UsefulNotes / PoliticalSystemOfGermany

1st Feb '16 6:48:56 AM Callid
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He also has the minor power to veto any law.
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He also has the minor power to veto withhold his signature from any law. law he deems unconstitutional, which usually leads to the law being re-examined. This power is relatively rarely used, however.

There are two notable exceptions to PR, the Five Percent Threshold and Overhang Seats. Both are under increased scrutiny by the Constitutional Court ('''BVG''' in German). * '''Five Percent Threshold''': to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. The BVG basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal level, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats. * '''Overhang Seats''': these happen in a mixed-member proportional system (see below) if a party gets more seats from constituencies than it would receive overall. This happens more often in recent years. Current law is that these constituency winners keep their seat, so their party gets stronger than under PR. In Schleswig-Holstein, this changed the winner, so the state had to change their law and call early elections. The federal election law also had to be changed, but the recently changed law still doesn't solve the problem, so the BVG may decide to rewrite the election law for the 2013 federal election (it avoided this last time, and would only make the minimal changes it regards necessary if it would rewrite).
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There are two is a notable exceptions to PR, the Five Percent Threshold and Overhang Seats. Both are under increased scrutiny by the Constitutional Court ('''BVG''' in German). * '''Five Percent Threshold''': Threshold'''. In order to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. The BVG This has recently come under increased scrutiny by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, '''BVG''', in German), which basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal level, levels, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats. * '''Overhang Seats''': these seats. There are also ''Overhang Seats'', which happen in a mixed-member proportional system (see below) if a party gets more seats from constituencies than it would receive overall. This happens more often in recent years. Current law is that these constituency winners Formerly, those parties would simply keep their seat, so their party gets seats, which made them stronger than under PR. In Schleswig-Holstein, this changed the winner, so the state had they should be proportionally. Due to change their law and call early elections. The federal election law also had to be changed, but the recently changed law still doesn't solve the problem, so this, the BVG may decide to rewrite the election law for the decided in 2013 federal election (it avoided this last time, and would only make that the minimal changes it regards necessary if it would rewrite). other parties must receive additional seats as well, until the proportional distribution is accurate.
2nd Jan '16 1:47:41 PM NuclearSheep
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* '''Alternativ für Deutschland''' (Blue and Red): A new center-right party, founded only in 2013, as a response to the ongoing Eurocrisis. They're generally considered a Eurosceptic party, though they'll remind you that they're not [[InsistentTerminology anti-EU, just anti-Euro]]. As can be guessed, they're pretty much a single-issue party: get rid of the Euro. In the 2013 election they received 4.7% of the vote, just under the 5% threshold required to get seats. They're supporters of the right-wing organisation PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes, "Patriotic Europeans againt the Islamification of the Western World"). During the migrant crisis in 2015 they gained much support, a survey from October 2015 shows they would enter the Bundestag with 6% of votes.
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* '''Alternativ '''Alternative für Deutschland''' (Blue and Red): A new center-right party, founded only in 2013, as a response to the ongoing Eurocrisis. They're generally considered a Eurosceptic party, though they'll remind you that they're not [[InsistentTerminology anti-EU, just anti-Euro]]. As can be guessed, they're pretty much a single-issue party: get rid of the Euro. In the 2013 election they received 4.7% of the vote, just under the 5% threshold required to get seats. They're supporters of the right-wing organisation PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes, "Patriotic Europeans againt the Islamification of the Western World"). During the migrant crisis in 2015 they gained much support, a survey from October 2015 shows they would enter the Bundestag with 6% of votes.
7th Oct '15 10:22:24 AM NuclearSheep
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* '''Alternativ für Deutschland''' (Blue and Red): A new center-right party, founded only in 2013, as a response to the ongoing Eurocrisis. They're generally considered a Eurosceptic party, though they'll remind you that they're not [[InsistentTerminology anti-EU, just anti-Euro]]. As can be guessed, they're pretty much a single-issue party: get rid of the Euro. In the 2013 election they received 4.7% of the vote, just under the 5% threshold required to get seats. Time will tell whether [=AfD=] can become a lasting party or if they'll fizzle out once the Eurocrisis starts to die down.
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* '''Alternativ für Deutschland''' (Blue and Red): A new center-right party, founded only in 2013, as a response to the ongoing Eurocrisis. They're generally considered a Eurosceptic party, though they'll remind you that they're not [[InsistentTerminology anti-EU, just anti-Euro]]. As can be guessed, they're pretty much a single-issue party: get rid of the Euro. In the 2013 election they received 4.7% of the vote, just under the 5% threshold required to get seats. Time will tell whether [=AfD=] can become a lasting party or if they'll fizzle out once They're supporters of the Eurocrisis starts to right-wing organisation PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die down. Islamisierung des Abendlandes, "Patriotic Europeans againt the Islamification of the Western World"). During the migrant crisis in 2015 they gained much support, a survey from October 2015 shows they would enter the Bundestag with 6% of votes.
8th Jun '15 2:54:50 PM maxmasters360
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* '''Die Linke''' (Red, or Pink since the SPD already took Red): The Left Party is a recent merger of the relatively new '''WASG''' (founded by disgruntled Social Democrats) and the '''PDS''' (Party of Democratic Socialism). The PDS in turn was once the Socialist Unity Party (''Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands'', SED)[[note]]Which was itself a forced merger of the SPD and the KPD (''Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands'', the Communist Party of Germany), mandated by the Soviet occupation authorities in 1946[[/note]] that ran EastGermany, but lost most of its old members when it lost power. With the merger, former SPD chairman Lafontaine joined in, resulting in the party becoming more popular. The Left Party is strongest in the Eastern states and Lafontaine's home state of Saarland.
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* '''Die Linke''' (Red, or Pink Purple since the SPD already took Red): The Left Party is a recent merger of the relatively new '''WASG''' (founded by disgruntled Social Democrats) and the '''PDS''' (Party of Democratic Socialism). The PDS in turn was once the Socialist Unity Party (''Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands'', SED)[[note]]Which was itself a forced merger of the SPD and the KPD (''Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands'', the Communist Party of Germany), mandated by the Soviet occupation authorities in 1946[[/note]] that ran EastGermany, but lost most of its old members when it lost power. With the merger, former SPD chairman Lafontaine joined in, resulting in the party becoming more popular. The Left Party is strongest in the Eastern states and Lafontaine's home state of Saarland.
21st Oct '14 8:24:36 AM karstovich2
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* '''Die Linke''' (Red, or Pink since the SPD already took Red): The Left Party is a recent merger of the relatively new '''WASG''' (founded by disgruntled Social Democrats) and the '''PDS''' (Party of Democratic Socialism). The PDS in turn was once the Socialist Unity Party (SED) that ran EastGermany, but lost most of its old members when it lost power. With the merger, former SPD chairman Lafontaine joined in, resulting in the party becoming more popular. The Left Party is strongest in the Eastern states and Lafontaine's home state of Saarland.
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* '''Die Linke''' (Red, or Pink since the SPD already took Red): The Left Party is a recent merger of the relatively new '''WASG''' (founded by disgruntled Social Democrats) and the '''PDS''' (Party of Democratic Socialism). The PDS in turn was once the Socialist Unity Party (SED) (''Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands'', SED)[[note]]Which was itself a forced merger of the SPD and the KPD (''Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands'', the Communist Party of Germany), mandated by the Soviet occupation authorities in 1946[[/note]] that ran EastGermany, but lost most of its old members when it lost power. With the merger, former SPD chairman Lafontaine joined in, resulting in the party becoming more popular. The Left Party is strongest in the Eastern states and Lafontaine's home state of Saarland.
21st Sep '14 11:50:50 AM jeez
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* '''NPD''' (Brown): Had been a far-right party since its formation in the 1960s as a coalition of several smaller ultraconservative and nationalist parties and was elected very rarely. Around the last decade it became worse than other such parties by its apparent alliance with violent Neo-Nazis. An attempt to declare it anticonstitutional (which would lead to the dissolution of the party and prevention of attempts to restart it with another name) in 2003 failed because the Constitutional Court did not see it proven beyond reasonable doubt that the undercover agents used by the police were not responsible for the violence (but the party's reaction to the trial suggested that the undercover agents worked for the party and fooled the police rather than the other way around).
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* '''NPD''' (Brown): Had been a far-right party since its formation in the 1960s as a coalition of several smaller ultraconservative and nationalist parties and was elected very rarely. Around the last decade it became worse than other such parties by its apparent alliance with violent Neo-Nazis. An attempt to declare it anticonstitutional (which would lead to the dissolution of the party and prevention of attempts to restart it with another name) in 2003 failed because the Constitutional Court did not see it proven beyond reasonable doubt that the undercover agents used by and informers of the police were not responsible for the violence (but the party's reaction to the trial suggested that the undercover agents informers worked for the party and fooled the police rather than the other way around).
5th Aug '14 3:28:28 PM MarkLungo
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Four years after WorldWarII, delegates from West German counties worked out the ''Grundgesetz'' ("Basic Law") as a temporary constitution for WestGermany, which was quickly adopted by all these states. After reunification, Germans liked it so much they made only minor revisions. Germany is a federal parliamentary democratic republic. It has 16 states, known as ''Bundesländer''. These are described in TheSixteenLandsOfDeutschland.
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Four years after WorldWarII, UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, delegates from West German counties worked out the ''Grundgesetz'' ("Basic Law") as a temporary constitution for WestGermany, UsefulNotes/WestGermany, which was quickly adopted by all these states. After reunification, Germans liked it so much they made only minor revisions. Germany is a federal parliamentary democratic republic. It has 16 states, known as ''Bundesländer''. These are described in TheSixteenLandsOfDeutschland. UsefulNotes/TheSixteenLandsOfDeutschland.

Most state parliaments are called ''Landtag'' (State Diet), and their government consists of ministers headed by a Minister-President. The exceptions to this rule are the three "city-states" UsefulNotes/{{Hamburg}}, Bremen and {{Berlin}}. There, the government is called ''Senat'', its members ''Senatoren'', and its head ''Bürgermeister'' (Mayor) in one form or another. In Hamburg and Bremen, the parliament is called ''Bürgerschaft'' (Citizenry), while in Berlin it's called ''Abgeordnetenhaus'' (House of Representatives).
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Most state parliaments are called ''Landtag'' (State Diet), and their government consists of ministers headed by a Minister-President. The exceptions to this rule are the three "city-states" UsefulNotes/{{Hamburg}}, Bremen and {{Berlin}}.UsefulNotes/{{Berlin}}. There, the government is called ''Senat'', its members ''Senatoren'', and its head ''Bürgermeister'' (Mayor) in one form or another. In Hamburg and Bremen, the parliament is called ''Bürgerschaft'' (Citizenry), while in Berlin it's called ''Abgeordnetenhaus'' (House of Representatives).

For a more detailed look at the party systems in Germany after WorldWarTwo, see UsefulNotes/GermanPoliticalPartiesAfterWorldWarII
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For a more detailed look at the party systems in Germany after WorldWarTwo, UsefulNotes/WorldWarII, see UsefulNotes/GermanPoliticalPartiesAfterWorldWarII UsefulNotes/GermanPoliticalPartiesAfterWorldWarII.
17th Jul '14 3:23:53 AM TheOneWhoTropes
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Germany has five major political parties in the Bundestag, with their own traditional colours, and their most important politicians ([[TheChancellorsOfGermany Federal Chancellors]] and [[ThePresidentsOfGermany Federal Presidents]] are only named here):
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Germany has five major political parties in the Bundestag, with their own traditional colours, and their most important politicians ([[TheChancellorsOfGermany Federal Chancellors]] and [[ThePresidentsOfGermany [[UsefulNotes/ThePresidentsOfGermany Federal Presidents]] are only named here):
17th Jul '14 3:20:05 AM TheOneWhoTropes
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[[ThePresidentsOfGermany Germany's President]], elected via a special convention, is mostly a ceremonial figure and usually can safely be ignored.
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[[ThePresidentsOfGermany [[UsefulNotes/ThePresidentsOfGermany Germany's President]], elected via a special convention, is mostly a ceremonial figure and usually can safely be ignored.
9th Jun '14 2:21:43 PM Scoutstr295
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Added DiffLines:
[[quoteright:159:http://static.tvtropes.org/pmwiki/pub/images/159px-freie_demokratische_partei_deutschland_logo_-_2005_svg_1917.png]]
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