History UsefulNotes / PoliticalSystemOfGermany

11th Jun '17 3:14:21 PM nombretomado
Is there an issue? Send a Message


** Edmund Stoiber (CSU): also a long-time Minister-President of Bavaria. The CDU/CSU nominated him in 2002, but the CDU/CSU, now allied with the FDP, again failed to reach the necessary majority. Once protesting against Brussels, he now heads an office there, which hunts down and kills unnecessary regulation--or at least is supposed to. At times it can look dismayingly like the [[YesMinister Department of Administrative Affairs]].

to:

** Edmund Stoiber (CSU): also a long-time Minister-President of Bavaria. The CDU/CSU nominated him in 2002, but the CDU/CSU, now allied with the FDP, again failed to reach the necessary majority. Once protesting against Brussels, he now heads an office there, which hunts down and kills unnecessary regulation--or at least is supposed to. At times it can look dismayingly like the [[YesMinister [[Series/YesMinister Department of Administrative Affairs]].
29th Jan '17 5:23:11 AM NuclearSheep
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* '''NPD''' (Brown): Had been a far-right party since its formation in the 1960s as a coalition of several smaller ultraconservative and nationalist parties and was elected very rarely. Around the last decade it became worse than other such parties by its apparent alliance with violent Neo-Nazis. An attempt to declare it anticonstitutional (which would lead to the dissolution of the party and prevention of attempts to restart it with another name) in 2003 failed because the Constitutional Court did not see it proven beyond reasonable doubt that the undercover agents and informers of the police were not responsible for the violence (but the party's reaction to the trial suggested that the informers worked for the party and fooled the police rather than the other way around). Another attempt to declare the party anticonstitutional is currently ongoing.

to:

* '''NPD''' (Brown): Had been a far-right party since its formation in the 1960s as a coalition of several smaller ultraconservative and nationalist parties and was elected very rarely. Around the last decade it became worse than other such parties by its apparent alliance with violent Neo-Nazis. An attempt to declare it anticonstitutional (which would lead to the dissolution of the party and prevention of attempts to restart it with another name) in 2003 failed because the Constitutional Court did not see it proven beyond reasonable doubt that the undercover agents and informers of the police were not responsible for the violence (but the party's reaction to the trial suggested that the informers worked for the party and fooled the police rather than the other way around). Another attempt to declare the party anticonstitutional is currently ongoing.in 2016/17 failed because the party was seen as too insignificant to be a threat.
10th Dec '16 7:34:02 PM Chytus
Is there an issue? Send a Message


Germany is a federal parliamentary democratic republic. It has 16 states, known as ''Bundesländer''. These are described in UsefulNotes/TheSixteenLandsOfDeutschland.

to:

Germany is a federal parliamentary democratic republic. It has 16 states, known as ''Bundesländer''. These are described in UsefulNotes/TheSixteenLandsOfDeutschland.



Most state parliaments are called ''Landtag'' (State Diet), and their government consists of ministers headed by a Minister-President. The exceptions to this rule are the three "city-states" UsefulNotes/{{Hamburg}}, Bremen and UsefulNotes/{{Berlin}}. There, the government is called ''Senat'', its members ''Senatoren'', and its head ''Bürgermeister'' (Mayor) in one form or another. In Hamburg and Bremen, the parliament is called ''Bürgerschaft'' (Citizenry), while in Berlin it's called ''Abgeordnetenhaus'' (House of Representatives).

The German ''Länder'' can be compared to US states, with their own electoral politics in them. As they are by and large the legal descendants of sovereign states, they can also act on their own internationally in some cases.

to:

Most state parliaments are called ''Landtag'' (State Diet), and their government consists of ministers headed by a Minister-President. The exceptions to this rule are the three "city-states" UsefulNotes/{{Hamburg}}, Bremen and UsefulNotes/{{Berlin}}. There, the government is called ''Senat'', its members ''Senatoren'', and its head ''Bürgermeister'' (Mayor) in one form or another. In Hamburg and Bremen, the parliament is called ''Bürgerschaft'' (Citizenry), while in Berlin it's called ''Abgeordnetenhaus'' (House of Representatives).

The German ''Länder'' can be compared to US states, with their own electoral politics in them. As they are by and large the legal descendants of sovereign states, they can also act on their own internationally in some cases.



The main political power lies in the hands of the [[TheChancellorsOfGermany Bundeskanzler ("Federal Chancellor")]].

to:

The main political power lies in the hands of the [[TheChancellorsOfGermany [[UsefulNotes/TheChancellorsOfGermany Bundeskanzler ("Federal Chancellor")]].



* The Bundesrat ("Federal Council", nothing to do with RodentsOfUnusualSize, Rodents Of Normal Size, or Rodents Of Any Size Whatsoever), the upper chamber, appointed by the state cabinets and usually composed of senior members of the same (the theory goes that ''states'' are represented in the Bundesrat in the way that countries are represented in the UsefulNotes/UnitedNations--the same theory, as it happens, that informed the [[AmericanPoliticalSystem United States Senate]] before it started to be directly-elected in 1914). Weaker than the former, but still is required to pass at least 60% of laws.

to:

* The Bundesrat ("Federal Council", nothing to do with RodentsOfUnusualSize, Rodents Of Normal Size, or Rodents Of Any Size Whatsoever), the upper chamber, appointed by the state cabinets and usually composed of senior members of the same (the theory goes that ''states'' are represented in the Bundesrat in the way that countries are represented in the UsefulNotes/UnitedNations--the same theory, as it happens, that informed the [[AmericanPoliticalSystem [[UsefulNotes/AmericanPoliticalSystem United States Senate]] before it started to be directly-elected in 1914). Weaker than the former, but still is required to pass at least 60% of laws.



There is a notable exceptions to PR, the '''Five Percent Threshold'''. In order to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. This has recently come under increased scrutiny by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, [=BVerfG=], in German), which basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal levels, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats. In the 2014 elections to the European parliament Germany did indeed send representatives of small parties, such as Martin Sonneborn of the PARTEI.

to:

There is a notable exceptions exception to PR, the '''Five Percent Threshold'''. In order to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. This has recently come under increased scrutiny by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, [=BVerfG=], in German), which basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal levels, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats. In the 2014 elections to the European parliament Germany did indeed send representatives of small parties, such as Martin Sonneborn of the PARTEI.



Bavaria came up with open lists on their own, while Baden-Württemberg uses a system without lists, with the remaining seats for a party being filled by those candidates who lost in their constituencies, but did better than the party's candidates in other constituencies.

to:

Bavaria came up with open lists on their own, while Baden-Württemberg uses a system without lists, with the remaining seats for a party being filled by those candidates who lost in their constituencies, but did better than the party's candidates in other constituencies.



Germany has five major political parties in the Bundestag, with their own traditional colours, and their most important politicians ([[TheChancellorsOfGermany Federal Chancellors]] and [[UsefulNotes/ThePresidentsOfGermany Federal Presidents]] are only named here):

to:

Germany has five major political parties in the Bundestag, with their own traditional colours, and their most important politicians ([[TheChancellorsOfGermany ([[UsefulNotes/TheChancellorsOfGermany Federal Chancellors]] and [[UsefulNotes/ThePresidentsOfGermany Federal Presidents]] are only named here):



** Six Federal Presidents: Heinrich Lübke 1959-69, Karl Carstens 1979-84, Richard von Weizsäcker 1984-94, Roman Herzog 1994-99, Horst Köhler 2004-2010 and Christian Wulff 2010-12 (all CDU)
** Franz Josef Strauß (CSU): had a long career both on federal level and in Bavaria, where he was a long-time Minister-President. The CDU/CSU nominated him in 1980 as candidate for Chancellor, but the CDU/CSU didn't reach the necessary majority.

to:

** Six Federal Presidents: Heinrich Lübke 1959-69, Karl Carstens 1979-84, Richard von Weizsäcker 1984-94, Roman Herzog 1994-99, Horst Köhler 2004-2010 and Christian Wulff 2010-12 (all CDU)
** Franz Josef Strauß (CSU): had a long career both on federal level and in Bavaria, where he was a long-time Minister-President. The CDU/CSU nominated him in 1980 as candidate for Chancellor, but the CDU/CSU didn't reach the necessary majority.



** Two Reichskanzler (Imperial Chancellors) in Weimar: Gustav Bauer (1919-1920), Herrmann Müller (1920) and (1928-1930)
** One Reichspräsident (Imperial President) in Weimar: Friedrich Ebert (1919-25)
** Three Bundeskanzler (Federal Chancellors) in the BRD: Willy Brandt 1969-74, Helmut Schmidt 1974-82 and Gerhard Schröder 1998-2005.
** Two Bundespräsidenten (Federal Presidents): Gustav Heinemann 1969-74 and Johannes Rau 1999-2004

to:

** Two Reichskanzler (Imperial Chancellors) in Weimar: Gustav Bauer (1919-1920), Herrmann Müller (1920) and (1928-1930)
** One Reichspräsident (Imperial President) in Weimar: Friedrich Ebert (1919-25)
** Three Bundeskanzler (Federal Chancellors) in the BRD: Willy Brandt 1969-74, Helmut Schmidt 1974-82 and Gerhard Schröder 1998-2005.
** Two Bundespräsidenten (Federal Presidents): Gustav Heinemann 1969-74 and Johannes Rau 1999-2004



** Philipp Rösler: Westerwelle's successor as party chief and Vice-Chancellor. Interesting for being adopted Vietnamese.

to:

** Philipp Rösler: Westerwelle's successor as party chief and Vice-Chancellor. Interesting for being adopted Vietnamese.



* '''Bündnis 90/Die Grünen''' (Green): A combination of the old West German Green Party and a collection of GDR civil rights activists (Alliance 90), it is the most successful such party in the world. Partnered with the SPD in the Schröder era, the German involvement in the 1999 war against Yugoslavia led to some resignations from the party. In 2011, the Greens "won" an election for the first time in traditionally-CDU Baden-Württemberg and now provide the Minister-President due to the seat distribution: Coalition 71 (Greens 36, SPD 35), Opposition 67 (CDU 60, FDP 7)

to:

* '''Bündnis 90/Die Grünen''' (Green): A combination of the old West German Green Party and a collection of GDR civil rights activists (Alliance 90), it is the most successful such party in the world. Partnered with the SPD in the Schröder era, the German involvement in the 1999 war against Yugoslavia led to some resignations from the party. In 2011, the Greens "won" an election for the first time in traditionally-CDU Baden-Württemberg and now provide the Minister-President due to the seat distribution: Coalition 71 (Greens 36, SPD 35), Opposition 67 (CDU 60, FDP 7)



** Joseph "Joschka" Fischer: evolved from brick-throwing Marxist in the 1960s to state environment minister in Hesse in the 1980s to foreign minister under Schröder. Famously told the Vice-President of the ''Bundestag'' in the 1980s, "''Mit Verlaub, Herr Präsident, Sie sind ein Arschloch''" ("[[SophisticatedAsHell With respect, Mr. President, you are an asshole]]"). Now still is one of the most popular and respected politicians, across party lines, occasionally tossed around as a possible presidential candidate.

to:

** Joseph "Joschka" Fischer: evolved from brick-throwing Marxist in the 1960s to state environment minister in Hesse in the 1980s to foreign minister under Schröder. Famously told the Vice-President of the ''Bundestag'' in the 1980s, "''Mit Verlaub, Herr Präsident, Sie sind ein Arschloch''" ("[[SophisticatedAsHell With respect, Mr. President, you are an asshole]]"). Now still is one of the most popular and respected politicians, across party lines, occasionally tossed around as a possible presidential candidate.



* '''Die Linke''' (Red, or Purple since the SPD already took Red): The Left Party is a recent merger of the relatively new '''WASG''' (founded by disgruntled Social Democrats; Wahlalternative Soziale Gerechtigkeit translates as Election alternative for social justice) and the '''PDS''' (Party of Democratic Socialism). The PDS in turn was once the Socialist Unity Party (''Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands'', SED)[[note]]Which was itself a forced merger of the SPD and the KPD (''Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands'', the Communist Party of Germany), mandated by the Soviet occupation authorities in 1946[[/note]] that ran EastGermany, but lost most of its old members when it lost power. With the merger, former SPD chairman Lafontaine joined in, resulting in the party becoming more popular. The Left Party is strongest in the Eastern states and Lafontaine's home state of Saarland.
** Gregor Gysi: straddled between system and opposition in EastGermany, then became chairman of the SED-PDS in the winter of 1989/1990 when the job basically meant seeing the party losing the rest of their power. Managed to turn the party into a regular democratic party with left-wing views.
** Oskar Lafontaine: had been the SPD Minister-President of Saarland in the 1980s and 90s and was SPD candidate for Chancellor 1990, then lost when reunification came. Later became SPD chairman, and minister for economy and finances when Schröder became Chancellor 1998. He resigned soon, giving as reason that Schröder wasn't left-wing enough, but he had enough time in the post to campaign vigorously for European integration and the Euro; for this reason Euroskeptics across the continent hated him, with ''[[BritishNewspapers The Sun]]'' calling him "the most dangerous man in Europe". Joined the Left Party when it was formed in the PDS-WASG merger, and became their chairman.

to:

* '''Die Linke''' (Red, or Purple since the SPD already took Red): The Left Party is a recent merger of the relatively new '''WASG''' (founded by disgruntled Social Democrats; Wahlalternative Soziale Gerechtigkeit translates as Election alternative for social justice) and the '''PDS''' (Party of Democratic Socialism). The PDS in turn was once the Socialist Unity Party (''Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands'', SED)[[note]]Which was itself a forced merger of the SPD and the KPD (''Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands'', the Communist Party of Germany), mandated by the Soviet occupation authorities in 1946[[/note]] that ran EastGermany, UsefulNotes/EastGermany, but lost most of its old members when it lost power. With the merger, former SPD chairman Lafontaine joined in, resulting in the party becoming more popular. The Left Party is strongest in the Eastern states and Lafontaine's home state of Saarland.
** Gregor Gysi: straddled between system and opposition in EastGermany, UsefulNotes/EastGermany, then became chairman of the SED-PDS in the winter of 1989/1990 when the job basically meant seeing the party losing the rest of their power. Managed to turn the party into a regular democratic party with left-wing views.
** Oskar Lafontaine: had been the SPD Minister-President of Saarland in the 1980s and 90s and was SPD candidate for Chancellor 1990, then lost when reunification came. Later became SPD chairman, and minister for economy and finances when Schröder became Chancellor 1998. He resigned soon, giving as reason that Schröder wasn't left-wing enough, but he had enough time in the post to campaign vigorously for European integration and the Euro; for this reason Euroskeptics reason, Eurosceptics across the continent hated him, with ''[[BritishNewspapers ''[[UsefulNotes/BritishNewspapers The Sun]]'' calling him "the most dangerous man in Europe". Joined the Left Party when it was formed in the PDS-WASG merger, and became their chairman.



* '''Freie Wähler''' (Blue, sometimes Orange): Free Voters are usually local independent centrist or center-right groups that formed to run for local elections. State or federal organisations used to be only for coordination, but 2008 they won 10% in Bavaria's state election and also ran in the EU Parliament elections 2009 (where they would have won 2 of Germany's 99 seats if the 5%-threshold had been struck down by then).

to:

* '''Freie Wähler''' (Blue, sometimes Orange): Free Voters are usually local independent centrist or center-right groups that formed to run for local elections. State or federal organisations used to be only for coordination, but 2008 they won 10% in Bavaria's state election and also ran in the EU Parliament elections 2009 (where they would have won 2 of Germany's 99 seats if the 5%-threshold had been struck down by then).



* '''Alternative für Deutschland''' (Blue and Red): A new center-right party, founded only in 2013, as a response to the ongoing Eurocrisis. They're generally considered a Eurosceptic party, though they'll remind you that they're not [[InsistentTerminology anti-EU, just anti-Euro]]. As can be guessed, they're pretty much a single-issue party: get rid of the Euro. In the 2013 election they received 4.7% of the vote, just under the 5% threshold required to get seats. They're supporters of the right-wing organisation PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes, "Patriotic Europeans against the Islamification of the Western World"). During the migrant crisis in 2015 they gained much support and entered four ''Landtage'' in 2016, even becoming the second-strongest party in Saxony-Anhalt and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. In the latter they even got more votes than the CDU. Their founder, Bernd Lucke, a professor of economics has been deposed and since left the party, resulting in it moving to the right and focusing more on immigration instead of economics. In 2016 they radically changed their course and became more of an anti-Islam party, even stating that "The Islam doesn't belong to Germany".

to:

* '''Alternative für Deutschland''' (Blue and Red): A new center-right party, founded only in 2013, as a response to the ongoing Eurocrisis. They're generally considered a Eurosceptic party, though they'll remind you that they're not [[InsistentTerminology anti-EU, just anti-Euro]]. As can be guessed, they're pretty much a single-issue party: get rid of the Euro. In the 2013 election they received 4.7% of the vote, just under the 5% threshold required to get seats. They're supporters of the right-wing organisation PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes, "Patriotic Europeans against the Islamification of the Western World"). During the migrant crisis in 2015 they gained much support and entered four ''Landtage'' in 2016, even becoming the second-strongest party in Saxony-Anhalt and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. In the latter they even got more votes than the CDU. Their founder, Bernd Lucke, a professor of economics has been deposed and since left the party, resulting in it moving to the right and focusing more on immigration instead of economics. In 2016 they radically changed their course and became more of an anti-Islam party, even stating that "The Islam doesn't belong to Germany".
8th Sep '16 10:47:26 AM NuclearSheep
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* '''Piraten''' (Orange): The Pirate Party is very young, its main demands are more personal liberties, transparency, democracy and social equality. Got 2% in federal and state elections until they reached 9% in Berlin in September 2011; now state and federal polls show them entering most parliaments if elections were held now. But it's not clear yet whether their current strength is the result of real support or just protest against the others.

to:

* '''Piraten''' (Orange): The Pirate Party is very young, its main demands are more personal liberties, transparency, democracy and social equality. Got 2% in federal and state elections until they reached 9% in Berlin in September 2011; now state 2011. Due to difficulties within the party they are currently seen as insignificant and federal polls show them entering most parliaments if elections were held now. But it doesn't look like it's not clear yet whether their current strength is the result of real support or just protest against the others.going to change.



* '''Alternative für Deutschland''' (Blue and Red): A new center-right party, founded only in 2013, as a response to the ongoing Eurocrisis. They're generally considered a Eurosceptic party, though they'll remind you that they're not [[InsistentTerminology anti-EU, just anti-Euro]]. As can be guessed, they're pretty much a single-issue party: get rid of the Euro. In the 2013 election they received 4.7% of the vote, just under the 5% threshold required to get seats. They're supporters of the right-wing organisation PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes, "Patriotic Europeans against the Islamification of the Western World"). During the migrant crisis in 2015 they gained much support and entered three ''Landtage'' in 2016, even becoming the second-strongest party in Saxony-Anhalt. Their founder, Bernd Lucke, a professor of economics has been deposed and since left the party, resulting in it moving to the right and focusing more on immigration instead of economics. In 2016 they radically changed their course and became more of an anti-Islam party, even stating that "The Islam doesn't belong to Germany".

to:

* '''Alternative für Deutschland''' (Blue and Red): A new center-right party, founded only in 2013, as a response to the ongoing Eurocrisis. They're generally considered a Eurosceptic party, though they'll remind you that they're not [[InsistentTerminology anti-EU, just anti-Euro]]. As can be guessed, they're pretty much a single-issue party: get rid of the Euro. In the 2013 election they received 4.7% of the vote, just under the 5% threshold required to get seats. They're supporters of the right-wing organisation PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes, "Patriotic Europeans against the Islamification of the Western World"). During the migrant crisis in 2015 they gained much support and entered three four ''Landtage'' in 2016, even becoming the second-strongest party in Saxony-Anhalt.Saxony-Anhalt and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. In the latter they even got more votes than the CDU. Their founder, Bernd Lucke, a professor of economics has been deposed and since left the party, resulting in it moving to the right and focusing more on immigration instead of economics. In 2016 they radically changed their course and became more of an anti-Islam party, even stating that "The Islam doesn't belong to Germany".
14th Aug '16 10:04:20 AM Jhonny
Is there an issue? Send a Message


There is a notable exceptions to PR, the '''Five Percent Threshold'''. In order to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. This has recently come under increased scrutiny by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, {=BVerfG=}, in German), which basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal levels, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats.

to:

There is a notable exceptions to PR, the '''Five Percent Threshold'''. In order to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. This has recently come under increased scrutiny by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, {=BVerfG=}, [=BVerfG=], in German), which basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal levels, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats.
seats. In the 2014 elections to the European parliament Germany did indeed send representatives of small parties, such as Martin Sonneborn of the PARTEI.
14th Aug '16 10:02:19 AM Jhonny
Is there an issue? Send a Message


** Sarah Wagenknecht: Daughter of an Iranian father and a (East-)German mother and associated with Kommunistische Plattform (communist platform) until 2010. Now the number two within the party and faction in the Bundestag and also married to Oscar Lafontaine (since 2014). One of the best known Linke politcians and also one of its leading intellectuals.


to:

** Sarah Wagenknecht: Daughter of an Iranian father and a (East-)German mother and associated with Kommunistische Plattform (communist platform) until 2010. Now the number two within the party and faction in the Bundestag and also married to Oscar Lafontaine (since 2014). One of the best known Linke politcians politicians and also one of its leading intellectuals.

intellectuals. Has a fondness to delve into rhetoric that would not sound off at an [=AfD=] rally every once in a while to the annoyance of many members of her party.

13th Aug '16 5:51:15 PM SmoCro
Is there an issue? Send a Message



to:

** Sarah Wagenknecht: Daughter of an Iranian father and a (East-)German mother and associated with Kommunistische Plattform (communist platform) until 2010. Now the number two within the party and faction in the Bundestag and also married to Oscar Lafontaine (since 2014). One of the best known Linke politcians and also one of its leading intellectuals.

13th Aug '16 5:43:41 PM SmoCro
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* '''Die Linke''' (Red, or Purple since the SPD already took Red): The Left Party is a recent merger of the relatively new '''WASG''' (founded by disgruntled Social Democrats) and the '''PDS''' (Party of Democratic Socialism). The PDS in turn was once the Socialist Unity Party (''Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands'', SED)[[note]]Which was itself a forced merger of the SPD and the KPD (''Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands'', the Communist Party of Germany), mandated by the Soviet occupation authorities in 1946[[/note]] that ran EastGermany, but lost most of its old members when it lost power. With the merger, former SPD chairman Lafontaine joined in, resulting in the party becoming more popular. The Left Party is strongest in the Eastern states and Lafontaine's home state of Saarland.

to:

* '''Die Linke''' (Red, or Purple since the SPD already took Red): The Left Party is a recent merger of the relatively new '''WASG''' (founded by disgruntled Social Democrats) Democrats; Wahlalternative Soziale Gerechtigkeit translates as Election alternative for social justice) and the '''PDS''' (Party of Democratic Socialism). The PDS in turn was once the Socialist Unity Party (''Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands'', SED)[[note]]Which was itself a forced merger of the SPD and the KPD (''Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands'', the Communist Party of Germany), mandated by the Soviet occupation authorities in 1946[[/note]] that ran EastGermany, but lost most of its old members when it lost power. With the merger, former SPD chairman Lafontaine joined in, resulting in the party becoming more popular. The Left Party is strongest in the Eastern states and Lafontaine's home state of Saarland.
3rd May '16 7:00:45 AM NuclearSheep
Is there an issue? Send a Message


* '''Alternative für Deutschland''' (Blue and Red): A new center-right party, founded only in 2013, as a response to the ongoing Eurocrisis. They're generally considered a Eurosceptic party, though they'll remind you that they're not [[InsistentTerminology anti-EU, just anti-Euro]]. As can be guessed, they're pretty much a single-issue party: get rid of the Euro. In the 2013 election they received 4.7% of the vote, just under the 5% threshold required to get seats. They're supporters of the right-wing organisation PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes, "Patriotic Europeans against the Islamification of the Western World"). During the migrant crisis in 2015 they gained much support and entered three ''Landtage'' in 2016, even becoming the second-strongest party in Saxony-Anhalt. Their founder, Bernd Lucke, a professor of economics has been deposed and since left the party, resulting in it moving to the right and focusing more on immigration instead of economics.

to:

* '''Alternative für Deutschland''' (Blue and Red): A new center-right party, founded only in 2013, as a response to the ongoing Eurocrisis. They're generally considered a Eurosceptic party, though they'll remind you that they're not [[InsistentTerminology anti-EU, just anti-Euro]]. As can be guessed, they're pretty much a single-issue party: get rid of the Euro. In the 2013 election they received 4.7% of the vote, just under the 5% threshold required to get seats. They're supporters of the right-wing organisation PEGIDA (Patriotische Europäer gegen die Islamisierung des Abendlandes, "Patriotic Europeans against the Islamification of the Western World"). During the migrant crisis in 2015 they gained much support and entered three ''Landtage'' in 2016, even becoming the second-strongest party in Saxony-Anhalt. Their founder, Bernd Lucke, a professor of economics has been deposed and since left the party, resulting in it moving to the right and focusing more on immigration instead of economics.
economics. In 2016 they radically changed their course and became more of an anti-Islam party, even stating that "The Islam doesn't belong to Germany".
9th Apr '16 5:37:56 PM Jhonny
Is there an issue? Send a Message


There is a notable exceptions to PR, the '''Five Percent Threshold'''. In order to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. This has recently come under increased scrutiny by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, '''{{=BVerfG=}}''', in German), which basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal levels, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats.

to:

There is a notable exceptions to PR, the '''Five Percent Threshold'''. In order to reach full representation under PR, a party has to get 5% of the vote, or win a number of constituencies (1 on state level, 3 on federal). Otherwise they get only seats for won constituencies. This has recently come under increased scrutiny by the Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht, '''{{=BVerfG=}}''', {=BVerfG=}, in German), which basically only tolerates the 5% threshold on state and federal levels, hoping it provides for stable governments, but struck it down for local and in 2011 for EU Parliament elections. If it had declared the 5% threshold void for the EP elections in 2009, small parties would have got 8 of Germany's 99 seats.
This list shows the last 10 events of 105. Show all.
http://tvtropes.org/pmwiki/article_history.php?article=UsefulNotes.PoliticalSystemOfGermany