History UsefulNotes / LesGrandesEcoles

4th Sep '15 7:53:35 PM nombretomado
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* the '''École polytechnique''' (nicknamed ''l'X'') is an engineering school with a strong military tradition. Alumni are called ''polytechniciens''. Many French scientists and mathematicians from UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution and [[NapoleonBonaparte Napoleon]]'s First Empire like Laplace and Cauchy studied there and/or taught there. Many French people know them for being part of the Bastille Day military parade, marching in [[NapoleonBonaparte Napoleon]]-style [[NiceHat bicorn hats]].
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* the '''École polytechnique''' (nicknamed ''l'X'') is an engineering school with a strong military tradition. Alumni are called ''polytechniciens''. Many French scientists and mathematicians from UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution and [[NapoleonBonaparte [[UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte Napoleon]]'s First Empire like Laplace and Cauchy studied there and/or taught there. Many French people know them for being part of the Bastille Day military parade, marching in [[NapoleonBonaparte [[UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte Napoleon]]-style [[NiceHat bicorn hats]].
28th May '15 8:59:57 AM Morgenthaler
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* ''[[TheClass Entre les murs]]'' is a movie about a teacher in a ''collège'' near Paris.
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* ''[[TheClass Entre les murs]]'' ''Film/TheClass'' is a movie about a teacher in a ''collège'' near Paris.

* ''{{Tanguy}}'' is a ''normalien'' who does not want to finish his ''doctorat''. His dad is a ''polytechnicien''.
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* ''{{Tanguy}}'' ''Film/{{Tanguy}}'' is a ''normalien'' who does not want to finish his ''doctorat''. His dad is a ''polytechnicien''.
12th May '15 10:38:45 AM MarkLungo
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* '''École nationale d'administration''' (ENA) trains high level civil servants and politicians. Contrary to the others, students attend this school after obtaining a Master's from another ''grande école''. Alumni are called ''énarques''. Several [[FrenchPoliticalSystem Presidents and Prime Ministers]] are ENA alumni, including current President Hollande and former President Giscard d'Estaing. So are Hollande's [[TheCasanova ex-ex-partner]], former presidential candidate Ségolène Royal, SNCF executive officer Guillaume Pépy, and several senior members of every administration and every major political party. Enarques have usually previously studied in Sciences Po as well and because of this many politicians know each other personally, much in the same way as British public school alumni do. Unsurprisingly, populist parties across the board tend to dislike what they depict as cronyism.
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* '''École nationale d'administration''' (ENA) trains high level civil servants and politicians. Contrary to the others, students attend this school after obtaining a Master's from another ''grande école''. Alumni are called ''énarques''. Several [[FrenchPoliticalSystem [[UsefulNotes/ThePresidentsOfFrance Presidents and Prime Ministers]] are ENA alumni, including current President Hollande and former President Giscard d'Estaing. So are Hollande's [[TheCasanova ex-ex-partner]], former presidential candidate Ségolène Royal, SNCF executive officer Guillaume Pépy, and several senior members of every administration and every major political party. Enarques have usually previously studied in Sciences Po as well and because of this many politicians know each other personally, much in the same way as British public school alumni do. Unsurprisingly, populist parties across the board tend to dislike what they depict as cronyism.
28th Dec '14 2:52:32 PM Quag15
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* the '''École polytechnique''' (nicknamed ''l'X'') is an engineering school with a strong military tradition. Alumni are called ''polytechniciens''. Many French scientists and mathematicians from TheFrenchRevolution and [[NapoleonBonaparte Napoleon]]'s First Empire like Laplace and Cauchy studied there and/or taught there. Many French people know them for being part of the Bastille Day military parade, marching in [[NapoleonBonaparte Napoleon]]-style [[NiceHat bicorn hats]].
to:
* the '''École polytechnique''' (nicknamed ''l'X'') is an engineering school with a strong military tradition. Alumni are called ''polytechniciens''. Many French scientists and mathematicians from TheFrenchRevolution UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution and [[NapoleonBonaparte Napoleon]]'s First Empire like Laplace and Cauchy studied there and/or taught there. Many French people know them for being part of the Bastille Day military parade, marching in [[NapoleonBonaparte Napoleon]]-style [[NiceHat bicorn hats]].

The common factor of all of these schools is invariably a strong alumni network, comparable to that of British universities and public schools and almost inexistant in regular French universities. Their critics view them as the symbol of an entrenched, self-perpetuating caste of political and economic elites, while their supporters point out that few systems in France are so fundamentally meritocratic. The truth is, obviously, more complex than either of these assertions, especially when applied to several different institutions with sometimes very different histories. This comes from the fact that some of the most prestigious of the afore-mentioned ''grandes écoles'' have their roots in the aftermath of TheFrenchRevolution, when the nobility was either exiled or wiped out, and the now-centralised French republic took to creating a whole new caste of [[SelfMadeMan Self-Made Men]]. Today, one has far more chances of being encouraged towards ''grandes écoles'' if one is from a somewhat specific income bracket, so ''grandes écoles'' contain a disproportionately low number of students from a working-class background, even though they're largely all free of charge.
to:
The common factor of all of these schools is invariably a strong alumni network, comparable to that of British universities and public schools and almost inexistant in regular French universities. Their critics view them as the symbol of an entrenched, self-perpetuating caste of political and economic elites, while their supporters point out that few systems in France are so fundamentally meritocratic. The truth is, obviously, more complex than either of these assertions, especially when applied to several different institutions with sometimes very different histories. This comes from the fact that some of the most prestigious of the afore-mentioned ''grandes écoles'' have their roots in the aftermath of TheFrenchRevolution, UsefulNotes/TheFrenchRevolution, when the nobility was either exiled or wiped out, and the now-centralised French republic took to creating a whole new caste of [[SelfMadeMan Self-Made Men]]. Today, one has far more chances of being encouraged towards ''grandes écoles'' if one is from a somewhat specific income bracket, so ''grandes écoles'' contain a disproportionately low number of students from a working-class background, even though they're largely all free of charge.
25th Oct '14 10:07:30 AM Dame-Amaryllis
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There is no real selection to enter an university, and the tuition fees are extremely low. Consequently, the universities are often viewed in much the same way that [[UsefulNotes/AmericanEducationalSystem Americans view community colleges]] -- overcrowded and poor. There is a high failure rate during the first years, so the classes are overcrowded only during the ''licence'', equivalent to a Bachelor's degree (3 years). After one obtains one's ''licence'', one may stay on to obtain a ''master'', or Master's degree. Some continue beyond their ''master'' for 3 years or more to obtain a ''doctorat'' ([=PhD=]).
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There is no real selection to enter an university, and the tuition fees are extremely low. Consequently, the universities are often viewed in much the same way that [[UsefulNotes/AmericanEducationalSystem Americans view community colleges]] -- overcrowded and poor. There is a high failure rate during the first years, so the classes are overcrowded only during the ''licence'', equivalent to a Bachelor's degree (3 years). After one obtains one's ''licence'', one may stay on to obtain a ''master'', ''master'' (2 years), or Master's degree. Some continue beyond their ''master'' for 3 years or more to obtain a ''doctorat'' ([=PhD=]).
25th Oct '14 10:03:46 AM Dame-Amaryllis
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In theory, students are able to choose which ''lycée'' they will go to. In practice, there is an element of selection: students with the best grades tend to go to the ''lycées généraux'', those with average grades go to the ''lycées techniques'' and the ones wih the worst grades go to the ''lycées professionnels''.
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In theory, students are able to choose which ''lycée'' they will go to. In practice, there is an element of selection: students with the best best, or at least average, grades tend to go to the ''lycées généraux'', while those with average the worst grades go to the ''lycées techniques'' and the ones wih the worst grades go to or the ''lycées professionnels''.
25th Oct '14 10:00:53 AM Dame-Amaryllis
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* ''Lycée général'': provides general, more theoretical education that equips students for higher studies of a relatively longer duration in university or ''grande école''. It is three years long, and students take one of three types of ''baccalauréat'' depending on their specialisation: L (literary), S (scientific), or ES (economics-human sciences). [[note]]In this sense it's somewhat similar to the Italian system, although in the light of recent reforms with more electives and the controversial (for some) decision to withdraw History from the previously polyvalent Scientific bac, it seems to be going towards a somewhat more Anglo-Saxon style.[[/note]]
to:
* ''Lycée général'': provides general, more theoretical education that equips students for higher studies of a relatively longer duration in university or ''grande école''. It is three years long, and students take one of three types of ''baccalauréat'' depending on their specialisation: L (literary), S (scientific), or ES (economics-human sciences). [[note]]In this sense it's somewhat similar to the Italian system, although in the light of recent reforms with more electives and the controversial (for some) decision to withdraw History from the previously polyvalent Scientific bac, it seems to be going towards a somewhat more Anglo-Saxon style. * History was never completly withdraw from the Scientific bac, the class was simply considered achieved and therefore evaluated at the end of the second year of high school, but was reintroduced on the same level as in the two other bacs as of school year 2014-2015, meaning evaluated at the end of the third year.[[/note]]
25th Oct '14 9:53:49 AM Dame-Amaryllis
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Children begin attending this school from the age of 6, for a period of 5 years. The name of the classes are: CP (''cours préparatoire''), [=CE1=], [=CE2=] (''cours élémentaire'' 1 and 2) [=CM1=], and [=CM2=] (''cours moyen'' 1 and 2). The main goal of elementary school is to learn how to read, write, and perform basic arithmetic, while secondary goals include learning some basic notions of sciences, arts, and foreign languages. This is the last school where there is only one teacher per class. After that, there will be one teacher per subject (French, Maths, English, History/Geography, et cetera).
to:
Children begin attending this school from the age of 6, for a period of 5 years. The name of the classes are: CP (''cours préparatoire''), [=CE1=], [=CE2=] (''cours élémentaire'' 1 and 2) [=CM1=], and [=CM2=] (''cours moyen'' 1 and 2). The main goal of elementary school is to learn how to read, write, and perform basic arithmetic, while secondary goals include learning some basic notions of sciences, arts, history, and foreign languages. This is the last school where there is only one teacher per class. After that, there will be one teacher per subject (French, Maths, English, History/Geography, et cetera).
14th Aug '14 11:13:49 AM SilentHunterUK
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Added DiffLines:
!!!School conditions France's school year runs from early September to early July... so you get a two-month holiday. In addition, there are four two-week breaks, around All Saints Day, Christmas, in February and in mid April (the precise dates vary depending on which of three regions you are in). This means that French pupils only spend 144 days a year in school as opposed to the OECD average of 187... but those days are much longer (8am to 4.30pm) French pupils used to go to school on Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, Friday... and Saturday morning. The Wednesday (Thursday until 1972) was a result of the 1882 introduction of compulsory education where pupils got a day off for religious schooling... and did Saturday morning to make up for it. Recent introduction of Wednesday teaching under the Hollande administration has been controversial to put it mildly; Wednesday is now the day the French cinemas get new films - it's that entrenched.
9th Jul '14 3:10:41 PM Belphegor
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* the '''École polytechnique''' (nicknamed ''l'X'') is an engineering school with a strong military tradition. Alumni are called ''polytechniciens''. Many French scientists and mathematicians from TheFrenchRevolution and {{Napoleon}}'s First Empire like Laplace and Cauchy studied there and/or taught there. Many French people know them for being part of the Bastille Day military parade, marching in {{Napoleon}}-style [[NiceHat bicorn hats]].
to:
* the '''École polytechnique''' (nicknamed ''l'X'') is an engineering school with a strong military tradition. Alumni are called ''polytechniciens''. Many French scientists and mathematicians from TheFrenchRevolution and {{Napoleon}}'s [[NapoleonBonaparte Napoleon]]'s First Empire like Laplace and Cauchy studied there and/or taught there. Many French people know them for being part of the Bastille Day military parade, marching in {{Napoleon}}-style [[NapoleonBonaparte Napoleon]]-style [[NiceHat bicorn hats]].

The common factor of all of these schools is invariably a strong alumni network, comparable to that of British universities and public schools and almost inexistant in regular French universities. Their critics view them as the symbol of an entrenched, self-perpetuating caste of political and economic elites, while their supporters point out that few systems in France are so fundamentally meritocratic. The truth is, obviously, more complex than either of these assertions, especially when applied to several different institutions with sometimes very different histories. This comes from the fact that some of the most prestigious of the afore-mentioned ''grandes écoles'' have their roots in the aftermath of TheFrenchRevolution, when the nobility was either exiled or wiped out, and the now-centralised French republic took to creating a whole new caste of SelfMadeMen. Today, one has far more chances of being encouraged towards ''grandes écoles'' if one is from a somewhat specific income bracket, so ''grandes écoles'' contain a disproportionately low number of students from a working-class background, even though they're largely all free of charge.
to:
The common factor of all of these schools is invariably a strong alumni network, comparable to that of British universities and public schools and almost inexistant in regular French universities. Their critics view them as the symbol of an entrenched, self-perpetuating caste of political and economic elites, while their supporters point out that few systems in France are so fundamentally meritocratic. The truth is, obviously, more complex than either of these assertions, especially when applied to several different institutions with sometimes very different histories. This comes from the fact that some of the most prestigious of the afore-mentioned ''grandes écoles'' have their roots in the aftermath of TheFrenchRevolution, when the nobility was either exiled or wiped out, and the now-centralised French republic took to creating a whole new caste of SelfMadeMen.[[SelfMadeMan Self-Made Men]]. Today, one has far more chances of being encouraged towards ''grandes écoles'' if one is from a somewhat specific income bracket, so ''grandes écoles'' contain a disproportionately low number of students from a working-class background, even though they're largely all free of charge.
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