History UsefulNotes / HolyRomanEmpire

21st Feb '18 5:21:16 PM nombretomado
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* A frequent background for Creator/RichardWagner's operas:

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* A frequent background for Creator/RichardWagner's Music/RichardWagner's operas:
3rd Feb '18 2:49:39 PM Discar
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* TheKingdom: Bohemia within the Imperial domain.
1st Feb '18 6:55:50 PM Malady
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* PapalStates: The HRE both ensured their existence and quarreled with them over power. It did neither much credibility.
23rd Jan '18 4:56:34 PM karstovich2
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One of the effects of the fracturing of the Holy Roman Empire into dozens and then hundreds of sovereign states was that many princes and princesses from these states became eligible to marry into the ruling families of non-German nations, which in some cases led to branches of German dynasties to becoming the ruling houses elsewhere. One classic example is the House of Oldenburg, which split into several lines including the royal houses of Denmark (until today), Norway (until today), Sweden (1751-1818) and Greece (1863-1974), the ducal house of Oldenburg (until 1918), and the imperial house of Russia (from Peter III and Paul I to Nicholas II). Another is the House of Sachsen-Coburg and Gotha (a branch of the Ernestinian line of the House of Wettin), which since the 19th century supplied monarchs to Belgium, [[UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfWindsor the United Kingdom]], Portugal and Bulgaria.

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One of the effects of the fracturing of the Holy Roman Empire into dozens and then hundreds of sovereign states was that many princes and princesses from these states became eligible to marry into the ruling families of non-German nations, which in some cases led to branches of German dynasties to becoming the ruling houses elsewhere. One classic example is the House of Oldenburg, which split into several lines including the royal houses of Denmark (until today), Norway (until today), Sweden (1751-1818) and Greece (1863-1974), the ducal house of Oldenburg (until 1918), and the imperial house of Russia (from Peter III and Paul I to Nicholas II). Another is the House of Sachsen-Coburg and Gotha (a branch of the Ernestinian line of the House of Wettin), which since the 19th century supplied monarchs to Belgium, Belgium (until today), the United Kingdom (until today, albeit under [[UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfWindsor a different name]], and technically about to be replaced by a junior branch of the United Kingdom]], Greek line of Oldenburgs after UsefulNotes/HMTheQueen passes), Portugal (1853-1910) and Bulgaria.
Bulgaria (1887-1946[[note]]Interestingly, the last one, Tsar Simeon II, eventually retook power as the elected Prime Minister of republican Bulgaria 2001-2005, under the name "Simeon Sakskoburggotski."[[/note]]).
22nd Jan '18 8:47:56 PM karstovich2
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In UsefulNotes/TheRenaissance, despite a brief flourishing under Charles V (the last ruler actually crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the [[UsefulNotes/ThePope Pope]]), the Reformation and the subsequent Wars of Religion and UsefulNotes/ThirtyYearsWar effectively broke the Empire as a single political unit. Thereafter, the German states ruled themselves and were able to conclude international treaties as sovereign principalities, and the Habsburg emperors, though retaining the Imperial title, concentrated more and more to their Austrian dominions (which included Hungary, parts of Northern Italy and Southwest Germany, and, since the War of Spanish Succession, the Austrian Netherlands (most of what is now Belgium plus Luxembourg)). After the War of Austrian Succession, despite the flourishing of culture under rulers such as UsefulNotes/MariaTheresa of Austria, UsefulNotes/FrederickTheGreat of Prussia, and Augustus the Strong of Saxony, the empire was finished. When Emperor Francis II assumed the title of Emperor Francis I of Austria in 1804 and was forced by [[UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte Napoleon]] to abdicate as Holy Roman Emperor in 1806, the changed reality was recognized and the Empire came to an end. Although some German nationalists dreamed of recreating it following Napoleon's defeat, all they got was the loose German Federation (''Deutscher Bund'', 1815-1866).

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In the early UsefulNotes/TheRenaissance, despite a brief flourishing the Empire flourished briefly under Charles V (the V, the last ruler actually crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the [[UsefulNotes/ThePope Pope]]), Pope]], and the Emperor with the most extensive empire: not only did he have a firmer grasp on power within the Empire than any other Emperor for generations, he also ruled Spain and its vast New World empire directly (ruling the first "empire on which the Sun never sets"), and held substantial influence in the Italian states, Portugal, and the British Isles (all of which either consisted of Imperial client states or were so firmly opposed to France that they may as well have been client states). However, the Reformation and the subsequent Wars of Religion and UsefulNotes/ThirtyYearsWar effectively broke the Empire as a single political unit. Thereafter, the German states ruled themselves and were able to conclude international treaties as sovereign principalities, and the Habsburg emperors, though retaining the Imperial title, concentrated more and more to their Austrian dominions (which included Hungary, parts of Northern Italy and Southwest Germany, and, since the War of Spanish Succession, the Austrian Netherlands (most of what is now Belgium plus Luxembourg)). After the War of Austrian Succession, despite the flourishing of culture under rulers such as UsefulNotes/MariaTheresa of Austria, UsefulNotes/FrederickTheGreat of Prussia, and Augustus the Strong of Saxony, the empire was finished. When Emperor Francis II assumed the title of Emperor Francis I of Austria in 1804 and was forced by [[UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte Napoleon]] to abdicate as Holy Roman Emperor in 1806, the changed reality was recognized and the Empire came to an end. Although some German nationalists dreamed of recreating it following Napoleon's defeat, all they got was the loose German Federation (''Deutscher Bund'', 1815-1866).
29th Dec '17 5:03:03 PM nombretomado
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* GiuseppeVerdi's ''La Battaglia di Legnano'' -- Minnesinger. Barbarossa is the [[EvilOverlord Ulrich]].

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* GiuseppeVerdi's Music/GiuseppeVerdi's ''La Battaglia di Legnano'' -- Minnesinger. Barbarossa is the [[EvilOverlord Ulrich]].
30th Nov '17 7:14:04 AM Jhonny
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Despite its name, the empire had many traits of a confederation, with the German King (Emperor-elect) being elected by the most powerful regional lords, although it was only through the Golden Bull of 1356 that it was settled in a legally binding way who had the right to elect a king. From 1356 there were seven prince-electors: the archbishops of Mainz, Cologne and Trier, the King of Bohemia, the margraves of Brandenburg (eventually better known as the Kings of Prussia) and Meissen (later better known as the Dukes/Prince-Electors of Saxony), and the Count Palatine on the Rhine (''Pfalzgraf bei Rhein'').

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Despite its name, the empire had many traits of a confederation, with the German King (Emperor-elect) being elected by the most powerful regional lords, although it was only through the Golden Bull of 1356 that it was settled in a legally binding way who had the right to elect a king. From 1356 there were seven prince-electors: the archbishops of Mainz, Cologne and Trier, the King of Bohemia, the margraves of Brandenburg (eventually better known as the Kings of Prussia) and Meissen Meißen (later better known as the Dukes/Prince-Electors of Saxony), and the Count Palatine on the Rhine (''Pfalzgraf bei Rhein'').
29th Nov '17 4:33:03 PM karstovich2
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* FeudingFamilies: The Salian/Hohenstaufen-Welf feud is a particularly bad example. It started with simple power struggles then took on religious significance with the Investiture Controversy. Their feud was so intense that quickly engulfed Italy, leading to three centuries of strife. The vast majority of Christendom was drawn in as well to a degree, particularly France and England, who were happy to support whatever side had the most power at the time to support their own interests. Neither side really won: the Welfs were stripped off most of their power and the last two male Hohenstaufens both died at the hands of French and Italian Guelphs. The Welfs had remarkable staying power, however, and ended up as the kings of Great Britain in the 18th century.

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* FeudingFamilies: The Salian/Hohenstaufen-Welf Welf vs. Salian/Hohenstaufen feud is a particularly bad example. It started with simple power struggles then took on religious significance with the Investiture Controversy. Their feud was so intense that it quickly engulfed Italy, Italy (where the parties were known as the "Guelphs" and the "Ghibellines"), leading to three centuries of strife. The vast majority of Christendom was drawn in as well to a degree, particularly France and England, who were happy to support whatever side had the most power at the time to support their own interests. Neither side really won: the Welfs were stripped off most of their power and the last two male Hohenstaufens both died at the hands of French and Italian Guelphs. The Welfs had remarkable staying power, however, and (as the House of Hanover) ended up as the kings of Great Britain in the 18th century.century (this is why you occasionally run into mentions of "Guelph" this or "Guelphic" that in random places across Britain and the former British Empire, like [[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Guelph a city in Ontario]]).
27th Nov '17 8:37:20 PM karstovich2
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Despite its name, the empire had many traits of a confederation, with the German King (Emperor-elect) being elected by the most powerful regional lords, although it was only through the Golden Bull of 1356 that it was settled in a legally binding way who had the right to elect a king. From 1356 there were seven prince electors: the archbishops of Mainz, Cologne and Trier, the King of Bohemia, the margraves of Brandenburg and Meissen (Saxony), and the Count Palatine on the Rhine (''Pfalzgraf bei Rhein''). This more or less set the tone, but there were several changes over the centuries. For one, the Duke of Bavaria would sometimes conspire with the Count Palatine to get Bavaria in by excluding Bohemia on the grounds that he wasn't German--but only when the duke and the Count Palatine weren't squabbling about some family issue (both were Wittelsbachs). During the UsefulNotes/ThirtyYearsWar, the Bavarian Wittelsbachs got ahold of the Palatinate vote because the Bavarian line were Catholics and their Palatinate cousins were not; after the war concluded, the Palatinate branch got a shiny new Electorate to maintain balance between Protestants and Catholics among the electors. However, this new electorate passed to a third, Catholic branch of the Wittelsbachs, leading to the appointment of a new Protestant elector, the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (whose territory became known as the Electorate of Hannover from its capital city; members of this line would [[UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfHanover find greater success elsewhere]]). As luck would have it, the original Catholic Wittelsbach line of Bavaria petered out shortly thereafter, leaving the Catholic Palatinate Wittelsbachs to inherit Bavaria, as well, making the whole charade a moot point (although Hannover got to keep his electorate, nobody wishing to rock the boat). Finally, Regensburg, Salzburg, Würzburg, Württemberg, Baden, and Hesse-Kassel were all given electorates in the final years of the Holy Roman Empire to add to their stature (and in part to replace the four electorates that had been conquered by the French - Mainz, Trier, Cologne, and the Palatinate) however, this proved to be a moot point, as the Empire was dissolved a few years later.

to:

Despite its name, the empire had many traits of a confederation, with the German King (Emperor-elect) being elected by the most powerful regional lords, although it was only through the Golden Bull of 1356 that it was settled in a legally binding way who had the right to elect a king. From 1356 there were seven prince electors: prince-electors: the archbishops of Mainz, Cologne and Trier, the King of Bohemia, the margraves of Brandenburg (eventually better known as the Kings of Prussia) and Meissen (Saxony), (later better known as the Dukes/Prince-Electors of Saxony), and the Count Palatine on the Rhine (''Pfalzgraf bei Rhein''). Rhein'').

This more or less set the tone, but there were several changes over the centuries. centuries, most of which had to do with the [[WeAreStrugglingTogether interminable family conflicts]] of the [[BigScrewedUpFamily House of Wittelsbach]]. For one, the Duke of Bavaria would sometimes conspire with the Count Palatine to get Bavaria in by excluding Bohemia on the grounds that he wasn't German--but only when the duke and the Count Palatine weren't squabbling about some family issue (both duke and Count were Wittelsbachs). During the UsefulNotes/ThirtyYearsWar, the Bavarian Wittelsbachs got ahold of the Palatinate vote because the Bavarian line were Catholics and their Palatinate cousins were not; after the war concluded, the Palatinate branch got a shiny new Electorate to maintain balance between Protestants and Catholics among the electors. electors.

However, this new electorate passed to a third, Catholic branch of the Wittelsbachs, leading to the appointment of a new Protestant elector, the Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (whose territory became known as the Electorate of Hannover from its capital city; members of this line would [[UsefulNotes/TheHouseOfHanover find greater success elsewhere]]). As luck would have it, the original Catholic Wittelsbach line of Bavaria petered out shortly thereafter, leaving the Catholic Palatinate Wittelsbachs to inherit Bavaria, as well, making the whole charade a moot point (although Hannover got to keep his electorate, nobody wishing to rock the boat). Finally, Regensburg, Salzburg, Würzburg, Württemberg, Baden, and Hesse-Kassel were all given electorates in the final years of the Holy Roman Empire to add to their stature (and in part to replace the four electorates that had been conquered by the French - Mainz, Trier, Cologne, and the Palatinate) however, this proved to be a moot point, as the Empire was dissolved a few years later.
24th Nov '17 9:18:41 AM MarqFJA
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The mediæval period of the Empire was dominated by a series of internal struggles with the powerful German nobility, by struggles with the Italian communes, and (above all) by the great struggle with [[UsefulNotes/ThePope the Papacy]]. Notable figures in that contest include Henry IV, whose famous submission to [[UsefulNotes/ThePope Pope]] Gregory VII (Hildebrand) at Canossa was subsequently reversed by Gregory's exile, and the aforementioned Frederick I, whose defeat at Legnano led to his submission to Alexander III. The important point here is that the Empire and the Papacy, both competing for secular and religious power over all Christiandom without the means to enforce it, essentially destroyed each others credibility. This was not helped by a fairly consistent policy of Emperors to neglect the basis of their power in Germany to grasp at its shadow in Italy - because in order for a German king to become an Emperor, he had to go to Italy and be crowned by the pope. This worked much to the advantage of the nationalistic monarchies of France (especially), England and Spain.

The climax was reached with the reign of Friedrich II (1215-1250), Barbarossa's grandson, who while being an individual of singular gifts nonetheless attempted to run an Italian-German Empire from Sicily, but had come to the throne against his rival Otto IV largely as a consequence of the victory of King Philip II of France against the armies of King John of England and Otto at Bouvines. His reign had some impressive successes (he managed to get excommunicated for leading a crusade which restored the "holy places" to christian pilgrims without anyone getting killed), but failed to establish a secure power base and got his line targeted by both the French and the Papacy, insofar as the difference mattered at that point. After his death and those of his sons, the name of Holy Roman Emperor was an empty title sought and won by adventurers. After this period, the Interregnum, or in the words of a German poet, ''"die kaiserlose, die schreckliche Zeit"'' ("the emperor-less, terrible time"), the Empire recovered somewhat and for a time its greats allotted the crown to the Houses of Habsburg, Luxemburg and Wittelsbach by rota.

to:

The mediæval period of the Empire was dominated by a series of internal struggles with the powerful German nobility, by struggles with the Italian communes, and (above all) by the great struggle with [[UsefulNotes/ThePope the Papacy]]. Notable figures in that contest include Henry IV, whose famous submission to [[UsefulNotes/ThePope Pope]] Gregory VII (Hildebrand) at Canossa was subsequently reversed by Gregory's exile, and the aforementioned Frederick I, whose defeat at Legnano led to his submission to Alexander III. The important point here is that the Empire and the Papacy, both competing for secular and religious power over all Christiandom without the means to enforce it, essentially destroyed each others other's credibility. This was not helped by a fairly consistent policy of Emperors to neglect the basis of their power in Germany to grasp at its shadow in Italy - because in order for a German king to become an Emperor, he had to go to Italy and be crowned by the pope. This worked much to the advantage of the nationalistic monarchies of France (especially), England and Spain.

The climax was reached with the reign of Friedrich II (1215-1250), Barbarossa's grandson, who while being an individual of singular gifts nonetheless attempted to run an Italian-German Empire from Sicily, but had come to the throne against his rival Otto IV largely as a consequence of the victory of King Philip II of France against the armies of King John of England and Otto at Bouvines. His reign had some impressive successes (he managed to get excommunicated for leading a crusade which restored the "holy places" to christian Christian pilgrims without anyone getting killed), but failed to establish a secure power base and got his line targeted by both the French and the Papacy, insofar as the difference mattered at that point. After his death and those of his sons, the name of Holy Roman Emperor was an empty title sought and won by adventurers. After this period, the Interregnum, or in the words of a German poet, ''"die kaiserlose, die schreckliche Zeit"'' ("the emperor-less, terrible time"), the Empire recovered somewhat and for a time its greats allotted the crown to the Houses of Habsburg, Luxemburg and Wittelsbach by rota.
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