History UsefulNotes / HolyRomanEmpire

30th Mar '16 10:33:36 AM GreatWyrmGold
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* FantasyCounterpartCulture: The Empire in ''Warhammer''.
7th Feb '16 10:20:23 AM nombretomado
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The '''Holy Roman Empire [[UsefulNotes/{{Germany}} of the German Nation]]''' (Latin: ''Imperium Romanum Sacrum Nationis Germanicæ''; German: ''Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation'') was traditionally founded on Christmas Day of the year 800 A.D., when [[UsefulNotes/ThePope Pope]] Leo III placed the crown on the head of Charlemagne in St. Peter's, and the assembled multitudes shouted "''Carolo Augusto, a Deo coronato magno et pacifico imperatori, vita et victoria!''" -- "To Charles the Magnificent, crowned the great and peace-giving emperor by God, life and victory!" Strictly speaking, however, Charles's empire was neither Roman nor German, but Frankish -- or as we might say, a sort of French-German mix (for that matter, there was a perfectly valid [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irene_of_Athens Roman Emperor]] at the time in any case[[note]]Or to be precise, ''empress''. Charlemagne's supporters [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne#Imperial_diplomacy claimed that a woman couldn't rule the Roman Empire]]. The Byzantines promptly deposed Irene and installed Nikephoros I, who was certainly a man; they were possibly disappointed that Charlemagne saw no reason to abdicate.[[/note]]). The Empire was not officially described as "Holy" until the twelfth century, nor officially "German" before the sixteenth. Charlemagne's empire quickly fell to pieces among his squabbling successors, and the Holy Roman Emperors themselves tended to ignore any discontinuity between [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire pagan]] and Christian Rome -- Frederick I Barbarossa (1123-1190) going so far as to assert that one of his reasons for going on [[TheCrusades Crusade]] was to avenge the defeat of [[Film/{{Spartacus}} Crassus]] by the Parthians ([[TheRomanRepublic 53 B.C.]]).[[note]]Never mind that the Parthians were Zoroastrian Persians and the rulers of the Middle East of the time were primarily Turkish and to a lesser extent Arab Muslims...[[/note]]

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The '''Holy Roman Empire [[UsefulNotes/{{Germany}} of the German Nation]]''' (Latin: ''Imperium Romanum Sacrum Nationis Germanicæ''; German: ''Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation'') was traditionally founded on Christmas Day of the year 800 A.D., when [[UsefulNotes/ThePope Pope]] Leo III placed the crown on the head of Charlemagne in St. Peter's, and the assembled multitudes shouted "''Carolo Augusto, a Deo coronato magno et pacifico imperatori, vita et victoria!''" -- "To Charles the Magnificent, crowned the great and peace-giving emperor by God, life and victory!" Strictly speaking, however, Charles's empire was neither Roman nor German, but Frankish -- or as we might say, a sort of French-German mix (for that matter, there was a perfectly valid [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irene_of_Athens Roman Emperor]] at the time in any case[[note]]Or to be precise, ''empress''. Charlemagne's supporters [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne#Imperial_diplomacy claimed that a woman couldn't rule the Roman Empire]]. The Byzantines promptly deposed Irene and installed Nikephoros I, who was certainly a man; they were possibly disappointed that Charlemagne saw no reason to abdicate.[[/note]]). The Empire was not officially described as "Holy" until the twelfth century, nor officially "German" before the sixteenth. Charlemagne's empire quickly fell to pieces among his squabbling successors, and the Holy Roman Emperors themselves tended to ignore any discontinuity between [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire pagan]] and Christian Rome -- Frederick I Barbarossa (1123-1190) going so far as to assert that one of his reasons for going on [[TheCrusades [[UsefulNotes/TheCrusades Crusade]] was to avenge the defeat of [[Film/{{Spartacus}} Crassus]] by the Parthians ([[TheRomanRepublic 53 B.C.]]).[[note]]Never mind that the Parthians were Zoroastrian Persians and the rulers of the Middle East of the time were primarily Turkish and to a lesser extent Arab Muslims...[[/note]]
6th Jan '16 9:25:16 PM nombretomado
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* Siegfried Schtauffen, TheHero of the ''SoulSeries'', is from the Holy Roman Empire.

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* Siegfried Schtauffen, TheHero of the ''SoulSeries'', ''VideoGame/SoulSeries'', is from the Holy Roman Empire.
9th Nov '15 7:26:46 PM karstovich2
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* ArtifactTitle: The empire's name gradually became this as the Voltaire quote from the top of the page exemplifies. By the late 18th Century, the empire had gone through so many corruption scandals that calling itself "holy" was considered a joke and SnarkBait, it had lost most of its former Italian possessions (including Rome), and its authority over the states that it ''did'' still control had grown so weak that the "emperor" had become little more than an honorary title as respected the territory within the Empire. (The Emperor remained a very powerful figure, of course, but that was because--with one [[UsefulNotes/MariaTheresa notable exception]]--he was by that point always the head of the House of Habsburg and held vast territories, many outside the Empire's borders, by dynastic right; particularly significant were the titles Archduke of Austria and King of Hungary.)

to:

* ArtifactTitle: The empire's name gradually became this as the Voltaire quote from the top of the page exemplifies. By the late 18th Century, the empire had gone through so many corruption scandals that calling itself "holy" was considered a joke and SnarkBait, it had lost most of its former Italian possessions (including Rome), and its authority over the states that it ''did'' still control had grown so weak that the "emperor" had become little more than an honorary title as respected the territory within the Empire. (The Emperor remained a very powerful figure, of course, but that was because--with one [[UsefulNotes/MariaTheresa notable exception]]--he was by that point always the head of the House of Habsburg and held vast territories, many outside the Empire's borders, by dynastic right; particularly significant were the titles Archduke of Austria and King of Hungary.Bohemia--inside the Empire--and King of Hungary--which was outside it.)
9th Nov '15 7:21:47 PM karstovich2
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* ArtifactTitle: The empire's name gradually became this as the Voltaire quote from the top of the page exemplifies. By the late 18th Century, the empire had gone through so many corruption scandals that calling itself "holy" was considered a joke and SnarkBait, it had lost most of its former Italian possessions (including Rome), and its authority over the states that it ''did'' still control had grown so weak that the "emperor" had become little more than an honorary title.

to:

* ArtifactTitle: The empire's name gradually became this as the Voltaire quote from the top of the page exemplifies. By the late 18th Century, the empire had gone through so many corruption scandals that calling itself "holy" was considered a joke and SnarkBait, it had lost most of its former Italian possessions (including Rome), and its authority over the states that it ''did'' still control had grown so weak that the "emperor" had become little more than an honorary title.title as respected the territory within the Empire. (The Emperor remained a very powerful figure, of course, but that was because--with one [[UsefulNotes/MariaTheresa notable exception]]--he was by that point always the head of the House of Habsburg and held vast territories, many outside the Empire's borders, by dynastic right; particularly significant were the titles Archduke of Austria and King of Hungary.)
9th Nov '15 7:02:34 PM karstovich2
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Germany as a realm separate from the Frankish empire emerged with the Treaties of Verdun (843) and Mersen (870). Modern historians tend to distinguish between Charlemagne's Empire (usually referred to as the Frankish Kingdoms or the Carolingian Empire), and the proper Holy Roman Empire, which itself is exclusively descendent from the Eastern Frankish realm when the Carolingian Frankish Kingdom fractured. Thus, while Charlemagne was officially crowned "Roman Emperor" by the Pope, it is more common to refer to Otto I as the first Holy Roman Emperor. The title of "Roman Emperor" bounced around between various descendents of Louis the Pious, but the lands of the title holder varied, at first holding the entire Caroligian Empire (Charlemagne and Louis the Pious), then the Middle Frankish Kingdom (area of modern day Low Countries, Burgundy, and Northern Italy), then to just Northern Italy, and so on. The title fell out of use for 38 years, until Otto I was crowned Roman Emperor, where the title was once again in continuous use, and it became associated with the German lands. After the last of Charlemagne's line died in 911, the German nobles elected Henry the Fowler, Duke of Saxony, as King of the Germans. The coronation of his son Otto in 962 may be taken as the actual foundation of the Holy Roman Empire. The actual term "Holy Roman Empire" began to be used only during the reign of Friedrich Barbarossa two centuries and two dynasties later, reflecting Frederick Barbarossa's ambition to rule Italy and the Papacy. Prior to that, it had variously (and highly inconsistently) been referred to as "Imperium Romanum" ("Roman Empire"), "Imperium Teutonicorum" ("German Empire" or "Empire of the Germans"), and "Regnum Teutonicorum" ("Kingdom of Germany" or "Kingdom of the Germans"). Once again, readers should keep in mind that there was a ''still existing'' Roman Empire in the form of the UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire, and the Byzantines were deeply insulted when the Pope crowned "Roman Emperors," which massively contributed to the East-West schism in Christianity. Keep in mind that at the time, the Byzantines were still calling themselves the Roman Empire and Romans (the term Byzantine didn't even appear until the 16th century) so the Pope was giving just about the biggest snub possible to their rulers.

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Germany as a realm separate from the Frankish empire emerged with the Treaties of Verdun (843) and Mersen (870). Modern historians tend to distinguish between Charlemagne's Empire (usually referred to as the Frankish Kingdoms or the Carolingian Empire), and the proper Holy Roman Empire, which itself is exclusively descendent from the Eastern Frankish realm when the Carolingian Frankish Kingdom fractured. Thus, while Charlemagne was officially crowned "Roman Emperor" by the Pope, it is more common to refer to Otto I as the first Holy Roman Emperor. The title of "Roman Emperor" bounced around between various descendents of Louis the Pious, but the lands of the title holder varied, at first holding the entire Caroligian Empire (Charlemagne and Louis the Pious), then the Middle Frankish Kingdom (area of modern day Low Countries, Burgundy, and Northern Italy), then to just Northern Italy, and so on. The title fell out of use for 38 years, until Otto I was crowned Roman Emperor, where the title was once again in continuous use, and it became associated with the German lands. After the last of Charlemagne's line died in 911, the German nobles elected Henry the Fowler, Duke of Saxony, as King of the Germans. The coronation of his son Otto in 962 may be taken as the actual foundation of the Holy Roman Empire. The actual term "Holy Roman Empire" began to be used only during the reign of Friedrich Barbarossa two centuries and two dynasties later, reflecting Frederick Barbarossa's ambition to rule Italy and the Papacy. Prior to that, it had variously (and highly inconsistently) been referred to as "Imperium Romanum" ("Roman Empire"), "Imperium Teutonicorum" ("German Empire" or "Empire of the Germans"), and "Regnum Teutonicorum" ("Kingdom of Germany" or "Kingdom of the Germans"). Once again, readers should keep in mind that there was a ''still existing'' Roman Empire in the form of the UsefulNotes/ByzantineEmpire, and the Byzantines were deeply insulted when the Pope crowned "Roman Emperors," which massively contributed to the East-West schism in Christianity. Keep in mind that at the time, the Byzantines were still calling themselves the Roman Empire and Romans (the term Byzantine didn't even appear until the 16th century) century, well ''after'' their empire had fallen in 1453) so the Pope was giving just about the biggest snub possible to their rulers.
30th Oct '15 1:22:11 AM LordInsane
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** In the sequel, Crusader Kings 2, the HRE is a playable faction and one of the two full-fledged empires in existence when play begins; this can change during the course of the game, but generally the HRE tends to 'blob,' or accumulate vast quantities of territory all on its own.

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** In the sequel, Crusader Kings 2, the HRE is a playable faction and one of the two full-fledged empires in existence when play begins; this can change during the course of the game, but generally the HRE tends to 'blob,' or accumulate vast quantities of territory all on its own. DLC eventually pushed the starting date back to Charlemagne, necessitating mechanics to ''form'' the Holy Roman Empire.
** The ''Divergences'' mod for ''[[VideoGame/VictoriaAnEmpireUnderTheSun Victoria II]]'' has as part of its AlternateHistory that the equivalent of the French Revolutionary Wars didn't actually lead to the formal dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, the claim to which is still maintained (and in parts of Germany recognized) by the Kings of Bohemia. It is possible to reform the Empire into a viable, unified form (which effectively makes it into something of a Germany by another name - very useful for Bohemia, since they can't form the usual Germany, being the wrong culture), although it is deliberately made very hard to keep the AI from pulling it off more than in extremely rare cases.
19th Oct '15 8:00:56 AM JamesAustin
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->''This agglomeration which was called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor [[UsefulNotes/RomanEmpire Roman]], nor an empire.''

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->''This agglomeration which was called and which still calls itself the Holy Roman Empire was neither holy, nor [[UsefulNotes/RomanEmpire Roman]], UsefulNotes/{{Roman|Empire}}, nor an empire.''
17th Oct '15 6:04:35 PM nombretomado
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The '''Holy Roman Empire [[UsefulNotes/{{Germany}} of the German Nation]]''' (Latin: ''Imperium Romanum Sacrum Nationis Germanicæ''; German: ''Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation'') was traditionally founded on Christmas Day of the year 800 A.D., when [[ThePope Pope]] Leo III placed the crown on the head of Charlemagne in St. Peter's, and the assembled multitudes shouted "''Carolo Augusto, a Deo coronato magno et pacifico imperatori, vita et victoria!''" -- "To Charles the Magnificent, crowned the great and peace-giving emperor by God, life and victory!" Strictly speaking, however, Charles's empire was neither Roman nor German, but Frankish -- or as we might say, a sort of French-German mix (for that matter, there was a perfectly valid [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irene_of_Athens Roman Emperor]] at the time in any case[[note]]Or to be precise, ''empress''. Charlemagne's supporters [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne#Imperial_diplomacy claimed that a woman couldn't rule the Roman Empire]]. The Byzantines promptly deposed Irene and installed Nikephoros I, who was certainly a man; they were possibly disappointed that Charlemagne saw no reason to abdicate.[[/note]]). The Empire was not officially described as "Holy" until the twelfth century, nor officially "German" before the sixteenth. Charlemagne's empire quickly fell to pieces among his squabbling successors, and the Holy Roman Emperors themselves tended to ignore any discontinuity between [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire pagan]] and Christian Rome -- Frederick I Barbarossa (1123-1190) going so far as to assert that one of his reasons for going on [[TheCrusades Crusade]] was to avenge the defeat of [[Film/{{Spartacus}} Crassus]] by the Parthians ([[TheRomanRepublic 53 B.C.]]).[[note]]Never mind that the Parthians were Zoroastrian Persians and the rulers of the Middle East of the time were primarily Turkish and to a lesser extent Arab Muslims...[[/note]]

to:

The '''Holy Roman Empire [[UsefulNotes/{{Germany}} of the German Nation]]''' (Latin: ''Imperium Romanum Sacrum Nationis Germanicæ''; German: ''Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation'') was traditionally founded on Christmas Day of the year 800 A.D., when [[ThePope [[UsefulNotes/ThePope Pope]] Leo III placed the crown on the head of Charlemagne in St. Peter's, and the assembled multitudes shouted "''Carolo Augusto, a Deo coronato magno et pacifico imperatori, vita et victoria!''" -- "To Charles the Magnificent, crowned the great and peace-giving emperor by God, life and victory!" Strictly speaking, however, Charles's empire was neither Roman nor German, but Frankish -- or as we might say, a sort of French-German mix (for that matter, there was a perfectly valid [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irene_of_Athens Roman Emperor]] at the time in any case[[note]]Or to be precise, ''empress''. Charlemagne's supporters [[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlemagne#Imperial_diplomacy claimed that a woman couldn't rule the Roman Empire]]. The Byzantines promptly deposed Irene and installed Nikephoros I, who was certainly a man; they were possibly disappointed that Charlemagne saw no reason to abdicate.[[/note]]). The Empire was not officially described as "Holy" until the twelfth century, nor officially "German" before the sixteenth. Charlemagne's empire quickly fell to pieces among his squabbling successors, and the Holy Roman Emperors themselves tended to ignore any discontinuity between [[UsefulNotes/TheRomanEmpire pagan]] and Christian Rome -- Frederick I Barbarossa (1123-1190) going so far as to assert that one of his reasons for going on [[TheCrusades Crusade]] was to avenge the defeat of [[Film/{{Spartacus}} Crassus]] by the Parthians ([[TheRomanRepublic 53 B.C.]]).[[note]]Never mind that the Parthians were Zoroastrian Persians and the rulers of the Middle East of the time were primarily Turkish and to a lesser extent Arab Muslims...[[/note]]



The mediæval period of the Empire was dominated by a series of internal struggles with the powerful German nobility, by struggles with the Italian communes, and (above all) by the great struggle with [[ThePope the Papacy]]. Notable figures in that contest include Henry IV, whose famous submission to [[ThePope Pope]] Gregory VII (Hildebrand) at Canossa was subsequently reversed by Gregory's exile, and the aforementioned Frederick I, whose defeat at Legnano led to his submission to Alexander III. The important point here is that the Empire and the Papacy, both competing for secular and religious power over all Christiandom without the means to enforce it, essentially destroyed each others credibility. This was not helped by a fairly consistent policy of Emperors to neglect the basis of their power in Germany to grasp at its shadow in Italy - because in order for a German king to become an Emperor, he had to go to Italy and be crowned by the pope. This worked much to the advantage of the nationalistic monarchies of France (especially), England and Spain.

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The mediæval period of the Empire was dominated by a series of internal struggles with the powerful German nobility, by struggles with the Italian communes, and (above all) by the great struggle with [[ThePope [[UsefulNotes/ThePope the Papacy]]. Notable figures in that contest include Henry IV, whose famous submission to [[ThePope [[UsefulNotes/ThePope Pope]] Gregory VII (Hildebrand) at Canossa was subsequently reversed by Gregory's exile, and the aforementioned Frederick I, whose defeat at Legnano led to his submission to Alexander III. The important point here is that the Empire and the Papacy, both competing for secular and religious power over all Christiandom without the means to enforce it, essentially destroyed each others credibility. This was not helped by a fairly consistent policy of Emperors to neglect the basis of their power in Germany to grasp at its shadow in Italy - because in order for a German king to become an Emperor, he had to go to Italy and be crowned by the pope. This worked much to the advantage of the nationalistic monarchies of France (especially), England and Spain.



In TheRenaissance, despite a brief flourishing under Charles V (the last ruler actually crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the [[ThePope Pope]]), the Reformation and the subsequent Wars of Religion and UsefulNotes/ThirtyYearsWar effectively broke the Empire as a single political unit. Thereafter, the German states ruled themselves and were able to conclude international treaties as sovereign principalities, and the Habsburg emperors, though retaining the Imperial title, concentrated more and more to their Austrian dominions (which included Hungary, parts of Northern Italy and Southwest Germany, and, since the War of Spanish Succession, the Austrian Netherlands (most of what is now Belgium plus Luxembourg)). After the War of Austrian Succession, despite the flourishing of culture under rulers such as UsefulNotes/MariaTheresa of Austria, UsefulNotes/FrederickTheGreat of Prussia, and Augustus the Strong of Saxony, the empire was finished. When Emperor Francis II assumed the title of Emperor Francis I of Austria in 1804 and was forced by [[UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte Napoleon]] to abdicate as Holy Roman Emperor in 1806, the changed reality was recognized and the Empire came to an end. Although some German nationalists dreamed of recreating it following Napoleon's defeat, all they got was the loose German Federation (''Deutscher Bund'', 1815-1866).

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In TheRenaissance, despite a brief flourishing under Charles V (the last ruler actually crowned Holy Roman Emperor by the [[ThePope [[UsefulNotes/ThePope Pope]]), the Reformation and the subsequent Wars of Religion and UsefulNotes/ThirtyYearsWar effectively broke the Empire as a single political unit. Thereafter, the German states ruled themselves and were able to conclude international treaties as sovereign principalities, and the Habsburg emperors, though retaining the Imperial title, concentrated more and more to their Austrian dominions (which included Hungary, parts of Northern Italy and Southwest Germany, and, since the War of Spanish Succession, the Austrian Netherlands (most of what is now Belgium plus Luxembourg)). After the War of Austrian Succession, despite the flourishing of culture under rulers such as UsefulNotes/MariaTheresa of Austria, UsefulNotes/FrederickTheGreat of Prussia, and Augustus the Strong of Saxony, the empire was finished. When Emperor Francis II assumed the title of Emperor Francis I of Austria in 1804 and was forced by [[UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte Napoleon]] to abdicate as Holy Roman Emperor in 1806, the changed reality was recognized and the Empire came to an end. Although some German nationalists dreamed of recreating it following Napoleon's defeat, all they got was the loose German Federation (''Deutscher Bund'', 1815-1866).



** Despite the facility of Voltaire's canard, down to the end the Empire, even in its derivative Austro-Hungarian form, remained at least Holy, Roman (Catholic), and Imperial enough to be granted a say in the election of ThePope at Rome, as in 1903 when the Imperial veto against Cardinal Rampolla resulted in the election of Cardinal Sarto as Pope St. Pius X.

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** Despite the facility of Voltaire's canard, down to the end the Empire, even in its derivative Austro-Hungarian form, remained at least Holy, Roman (Catholic), and Imperial enough to be granted a say in the election of ThePope UsefulNotes/ThePope at Rome, as in 1903 when the Imperial veto against Cardinal Rampolla resulted in the election of Cardinal Sarto as Pope St. Pius X.
4th Sep '15 7:49:15 PM nombretomado
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* MercyKill: By the time NapoleonBonaparte had the HRE dissolved entirely, barely anything of it actually remained.

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* MercyKill: By the time NapoleonBonaparte UsefulNotes/NapoleonBonaparte had the HRE dissolved entirely, barely anything of it actually remained.
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