History UsefulNotes / HeresiesAndHeretics

24th Sep '16 10:25:37 AM gemmabeta2
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** Iconoclasm ("icon smashing") first showed up in the 7th and 8th centuries, claiming it was sinful to make pictures or statues of Christ and the saints, despite [[Literature/TheBible God commanding]] the creation of religious statues (Ex. 25:1820; 1 Chr. 28:1819), including symbolic representations of Christ (cf. Num. 21:89 w/ John 3:14). It was originally inspired by the Muslim blanket ban on representational art and the Old Testament's emphasis against idolatry. Popular history associates this with Byzantine Emperor Leo III "The Isaurian", who had lived near the border with Muslim-ruled Syria, but although this has a grain of truth to it, iconoclasm as imperial--and therefore Eastern Orthodox--policy was rather exaggerated by the generation that killed it (with the assistance of the Pope in Rome--at that time, again, the Church in Rome had not yet split from the Church in Constantinople, so this fight was basically one within Catholicism--albeit a Catholicism with a focus on the East). Iconoclasm briefly reappeared in the initial stages of the Protestant Reformation mostly as a push back against the perceived decadence of the Catholics, but largely disappeared over the years, the only noticeable remnant being most Protestants' tendency to wear a bare cross instead of a Crucifix.

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** Iconoclasm ("icon smashing") first showed up in the 7th and 8th centuries, claiming it was sinful to make pictures or statues of Christ and the saints, despite [[Literature/TheBible God commanding]] the creation of religious statues (Ex. 25:1820; 1 Chr. 28:1819), including symbolic representations of Christ (cf. Num. 21:89 w/ John 3:14). It was originally inspired by the Muslim blanket ban on representational art and the Old Testament's emphasis against idolatry. Popular history associates this with Byzantine Emperor Leo III "The Isaurian", who had lived near the border with Muslim-ruled Syria, but although this has a grain of truth to it, iconoclasm as imperial--and therefore Eastern Orthodox--policy was rather exaggerated by the generation that killed it (with the assistance of the Pope in Rome--at that time, again, the Church in Rome had not yet split from the Church in Constantinople, so this fight was basically one within Catholicism--albeit a Catholicism with a focus on the East). Iconoclasm briefly reappeared in the initial stages of the Protestant Reformation mostly as a push back against the perceived decadence of the Catholics, but largely disappeared over the years, the only noticeable remnant being most Protestants' tendency to wear a bare cross instead of a Crucifix.Crucifix and building fairly austere and unadorned churches.
24th Sep '16 10:24:23 AM gemmabeta2
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Added DiffLines:

*** Catholics sometimes has a tendency of accusing or mocking low-church Protestants for being crypto-Nestorian because of their general discomfort at bringing up the issue of Mary.
18th Sep '16 7:18:25 PM karstovich2
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** Monophysitism was largely concurrent with Nestorianism, mainly because it was [[TheNewRockAndRoll a powerful reaction to and rejection of it]]. Horrified by the implications of two Christs running around, the monophysites basically leapfrogged themselves to the other end of the spectrum, claiming Jesus had only ''one'' nature[[note]]Greek: ''mono'' = one; ''physis'' = nature[[/note]], part divine and part human, something akin to a [[Myth/ClassicalMythology demigod]]. This was likewise rejected on the grounds that, if Jesus was not fully human, he could not fully participate in and thus represent humanity, and if he was not fully divine, he could not fully participate in and thus represent {{God}}; in short, since he was neither truly God or truly Man, he could not join the two, and thus he could not fix the problem of Original Sin (see above), and humanity was still basically screwed.[[note]]Yes, the Catholic Church's official position is that Christ is ''both'' completely God and completely Man. Yes, it understands the ramifications of nailing Him to a cross to die.[[/note]] The modern day Oriental Orthodox church still affirms Miaphysitism, a moderate form of Monophysitism (or something entirely different, according to them). This is largely a function of politics: the conflict between the Monophysites and the "Orthodox" (that is, the ones adopting the present Catholic--and Eastern Orthodox--Christology) was a hot religious and political issue during the early years of UsefulNotes/TheByzantineEmpire, with Monophysitism being dominant in the empire's eastern provinces (Egypt and Syria, mostly) and Orthodoxy being dominant in the west (in the Greek-speaking heartland of Anatolia and the Balkans/Greece), with different emperors backing different factions for political reasons, but when the Muslim Arabs abruptly conquered the eastern provinces, the conflict was basically frozen in the middle of the 7th century because the Caliph didn't care what these Christians believed about Jesus as long as they paid their taxes, and these politico-theological games ended with the result being that both groups exist as minorities in the mostly-Muslim Middle East while Orthodoxy stamped out the remaining Monophysites in the west as the political calculus changed.

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** Monophysitism was largely concurrent with Nestorianism, mainly because it was [[TheNewRockAndRoll a powerful reaction to and rejection of it]]. Horrified by the implications of two Christs running around, the monophysites basically leapfrogged themselves to the other end of the spectrum, claiming Jesus had only ''one'' nature[[note]]Greek: ''mono'' = one; ''physis'' = nature[[/note]], part divine and part human, something akin to a [[Myth/ClassicalMythology demigod]]. This was likewise rejected on the grounds that, if Jesus was not fully human, he could not fully participate in and thus represent humanity, and if he was not fully divine, he could not fully participate in and thus represent {{God}}; in short, since he was neither truly God or truly Man, he could not join the two, and thus he could not fix the problem of Original Sin (see above), and humanity was still basically screwed.[[note]]Yes, the Catholic Church's official position is that Christ is ''both'' completely God and completely Man. Yes, it understands the ramifications of nailing Him to a cross to die.[[/note]] The modern day Oriental Orthodox church still affirms Miaphysitism, a moderate form of Monophysitism (or something entirely different, according to them). This is largely a function of politics: the conflict between the Monophysites and the "Orthodox" (that is, the ones adopting the present Catholic--and Eastern Orthodox--Christology) was a hot religious and political issue during the early years of UsefulNotes/TheByzantineEmpire, with Monophysitism being dominant in the empire's eastern provinces (Egypt and Syria, mostly) and Orthodoxy being dominant in the west (in the Greek-speaking heartland of Anatolia and the Balkans/Greece), with different emperors backing different factions for political reasons, but reasons. However, when the Muslim Arabs abruptly conquered the eastern provinces, the conflict was basically frozen in the middle of the 7th century because the Caliph didn't care what these Christians believed about Jesus as long as they paid their taxes, and these the politico-theological games ended with the result being that both groups exist as minorities in the mostly-Muslim Middle East while Orthodoxy stamped out the remaining Monophysites in the west as the political calculus changed.changed (namely, the need to present a united Christian front against the expansionist Muslim Arab empire).
21st Aug '16 7:30:37 AM Doug86
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Below is a list of well-known heresies and heretics found within real life religions, [[IThoughtThatWas and NOT an outline of]] a {{TabletopGame/Warhammer40000}} variant.

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Below is a list of well-known heresies and heretics found within real life religions, [[IThoughtThatWas and NOT an outline of]] a {{TabletopGame/Warhammer40000}} ''TabletopGame/Warhammer40000'' variant.



** Catharism's vogue occurred in the 11th century. Technically a mixture of non-Christian religions reworked with Christian terminology, there were a few joining principles that connected the various sects under the name. ''Very'' similar to Gnosticism above, the Cathars held a fierce antipathy for the material universe, which they held was created by an [[GodOfEvil evil deity]] (hence, matter is evil), but there exists a [[GodOfGood Good Deity]] who should be worshiped instead (there's a resemblance to {{UsefulNotes/Zoroastrianism}} here).

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** Catharism's vogue occurred in the 11th century. Technically a mixture of non-Christian religions reworked with Christian terminology, there were a few joining principles that connected the various sects under the name. ''Very'' similar to Gnosticism above, the Cathars held a fierce antipathy for the material universe, which they held was created by an [[GodOfEvil evil deity]] (hence, matter is evil), but there exists a [[GodOfGood Good Deity]] who should be worshiped instead (there's a resemblance to {{UsefulNotes/Zoroastrianism}} UsefulNotes/{{Zoroastrianism}} here).
16th Aug '16 11:57:38 PM Kelothan
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!!Christianity

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!!Christianity
!!Examples
29th Jun '16 4:18:14 PM DoctorCooper
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** A ''very'' famous example was given to the world in the teachings of Arius, who effectively used orthodox language to teach that Jesus was not divine, but a creature made by God. When Constantine legalized Christianity, one of the first things done by the leaders of the Church was to define and formalize what the belief system of Christianity actually held-Arius, who famously was [[LoveItOrHateIt supported by many bishops and excommunicated by others]], gave an explanation of his beliefs to the Council of Nicaea in 325 and was solemnly condemned[[labelnote:*]]Legend has it that a certain [[SantaClaus St. Nicholas]] was [[SecretCharacter also present]] at the council, and became so [[BerserkButton angry at Arius' teaching]] that he ''punched the man out''. St. Nicholas is not included in the official registry of bishops present, but that only [[ConspiracyTheory adds to the fun]].[[/labelnote]]; the Council of Nicaea formally proclaimed the divinity of Jesus Christ. Arianism was also an issue at the First Council of Constantinople in 381, where the divinity of the Holy Spirit was also declared. Hints of Arianism, or less specifically, non-trinitarianism, is still extant with modern day Jehovah's Witnesses and Mormonism, among other sects.

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** A ''very'' famous example was given to the world in the teachings of Arius, who effectively used orthodox language to teach that Jesus was not divine, but a creature made by God. When Constantine legalized Christianity, one of the first things done by the leaders of the Church was to define and formalize what the belief system of Christianity actually held-Arius, who famously was [[LoveItOrHateIt supported by many bishops and excommunicated by others]], others, gave an explanation of his beliefs to the Council of Nicaea in 325 and was solemnly condemned[[labelnote:*]]Legend has it that a certain [[SantaClaus St. Nicholas]] was [[SecretCharacter also present]] at the council, and became so [[BerserkButton angry at Arius' teaching]] that he ''punched the man out''. St. Nicholas is not included in the official registry of bishops present, but that only [[ConspiracyTheory adds to the fun]].[[/labelnote]]; the Council of Nicaea formally proclaimed the divinity of Jesus Christ. Arianism was also an issue at the First Council of Constantinople in 381, where the divinity of the Holy Spirit was also declared. Hints of Arianism, or less specifically, non-trinitarianism, is still extant with modern day Jehovah's Witnesses and Mormonism, among other sects.
16th Dec '15 10:04:23 PM h27kim
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** Having publicly mocked the Pope, alienating the Jesuits to boot with attacks on two of their astronomers, Galileo's actions resulted in the famous trial. While he eventually recanted his teachings, he was not tortured (he was only threatened); he was actually merely placed under house arrest, at a fine mansion in the countryside belonging to a friend... and given a manservant. Galileo was not explicitly declared a heretic, though he was found to be "''vehemently suspect''" of it; the testimony from his trial (Galileo was tried before an ordinary tribunal) was brought before a group of ten cardinals. Three of them refused to sign his verdict, but his works were eventually condemned.

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** Having publicly mocked the Pope, alienating the Jesuits to boot with attacks on two of their astronomers, Galileo's actions resulted in the famous trial. In course of the trial, Galileo stayed in fine quarters at the Apostolic Palace while his meals were prepared by the best chef in town. While he eventually recanted his teachings, he was not tortured (he was only threatened); he was actually merely placed under house arrest, at a fine mansion in the countryside belonging to a friend... and given a manservant. Galileo was not explicitly declared a heretic, though he was found to be "''vehemently suspect''" of it; the testimony from his trial (Galileo was tried before an ordinary tribunal) was brought before a group of ten cardinals. Three of them refused to sign his verdict, but his works were eventually condemned.
16th Dec '15 9:54:31 PM h27kim
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*** Someone who believes in Church doctrine but does not recognize the authority of the Pope is ''schismatic''. The clearest example of this is the Eastern Orthodox church, who agree with Rome on virtually every doctrinal point but disagree on whether Papal authority is legitimate. The status of the "Patriotic" Catholic Church in China is murkier. The communist government of the People's Republic has required Chinese Catholics to disavow the authority of the Pope even as they are allowed to practice their religion while subscribing to more or less the same doctrine as Catholics elsewhere (subject to change under demands by the Chinese government, e.g. on abortion and contraception--that's what the whole "Patriotic" business is about, being willing to bend tenets of their religion to requirements of the government, regardless of what foreigners like the Pope have to say.). Some Catholics consider the Patriotic Catholic Church schismatic, but the Vatican refuses to acknowledge the renunciation and maintains that the Catholic Church in China remains fully Catholic--or, in full communion with Rome, to use Catholic lingo--even if under complicated political circumstances that make formal ties with Vatican difficult and dangerous.[[note]]This makes the life of non-Chinese Catholics in China much easier--every sacrament at a Chinese Catholic church is accepted as valid by the Vatican. The only problems arise when bishops are consecrated at the order of the Chinese government without Vatican recognition, but even then, informal arrangements are usually made nowadays so that they are not truly schismatic except in rare cases. In other words, most bishops in mainland China today are formally appointed by the Chinese state, but are unofficially recognized by the Vatican. By the same token, the only overt persecution of Catholics in China today are directed at the bishops who openly recognize the Pope while disavowing the religious authority of the Chinese government. [[/note]]

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*** Someone who believes in Church doctrine but does not recognize the authority of the Pope is ''schismatic''. The clearest example of this is the Eastern Orthodox church, who agree with Rome on virtually every doctrinal point but disagree on whether Papal authority is legitimate. The status of the "Patriotic" Catholic Church in China is murkier. The communist government of the People's Republic has required Chinese Catholics to disavow renounce the authority of the Pope even as they are allowed to practice their religion while subscribing to more or less the same doctrine as Catholics elsewhere (subject to change under demands by the Chinese government, e.g. on abortion and contraception--that's what the whole "Patriotic" business is about, being willing to bend tenets of their religion to requirements of the government, regardless of what foreigners like the Pope have to say.). Some Catholics consider the Patriotic Catholic Church schismatic, but the Vatican refuses to acknowledge the renunciation and maintains that the Catholic Church in China remains fully Catholic--or, in full communion with Rome, to use Catholic lingo--even if under complicated political circumstances that make formal ties with Vatican difficult and dangerous.[[note]]This makes the life of non-Chinese Catholics in China much easier--every sacrament at a Chinese Catholic church is accepted as valid by the Vatican. The only problems arise when bishops are consecrated at the order of the Chinese government without Vatican recognition, but even then, informal arrangements are usually made nowadays so that they are not truly schismatic except in rare cases. In other words, most bishops in mainland China today are formally appointed by the Chinese state, but are unofficially recognized by the Vatican. By the same token, the only overt persecution of Catholics in China today are directed at the bishops who openly recognize the Pope while disavowing the religious authority of the Chinese government. [[/note]]
16th Dec '15 9:52:58 PM h27kim
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*** Someone who believes in Church doctrine but does not recognize the authority of the Pope is ''schismatic''. The clearest example of this is the Eastern Orthodox church, who agree with Rome on virtually every doctrinal point but disagree on whether Papal authority is legitimate. The status of the "Patriotic" Catholic Church in China is murkier. The communist government of the People's Republic has required Chinese Catholics to renounce the authority of the Pope even as they are allowed to practice their religion while subscribing to more or less the same doctrine as Catholics elsewhere (subject to change under demands by the Chinese government, e.g. on abortion and contraception--that's what the whole "Patriotic" business is about, being willing to bend tenets of their religion to requirements of the government, regardless of what foreigners like the Pope have to say.). Some Catholics consider the Patriotic Catholic Church schismatic, but the Vatican refuses to acknowledge the renunciation and maintains that the Catholic Church in China remains fully Catholic--or, in full communion with Rome, to use Catholic lingo--even if under complicated political circumstances that make formal ties with Vatican difficult and dangerous.[[note]]This makes the life of non-Chinese Catholics in China much easier--every sacrament at a Chinese Catholic church is accepted as valid by the Vatican. The only problems arise when bishops are consecrated at the order of the Chinese government without Vatican recognition, but even then, informal arrangements are usually made nowadays so that they are not truly schismatic except in rare cases. In other words, most bishops in mainland China today are formally appointed by the Chinese state, but are unofficially recognized by the Vatican. By the same token, the only overt persecution of Catholics in China today are directed at the bishops who openly recognize the Pope while disavowing the religious authority of the Chinese government. [[/note]]

to:

*** Someone who believes in Church doctrine but does not recognize the authority of the Pope is ''schismatic''. The clearest example of this is the Eastern Orthodox church, who agree with Rome on virtually every doctrinal point but disagree on whether Papal authority is legitimate. The status of the "Patriotic" Catholic Church in China is murkier. The communist government of the People's Republic has required Chinese Catholics to renounce disavow the authority of the Pope even as they are allowed to practice their religion while subscribing to more or less the same doctrine as Catholics elsewhere (subject to change under demands by the Chinese government, e.g. on abortion and contraception--that's what the whole "Patriotic" business is about, being willing to bend tenets of their religion to requirements of the government, regardless of what foreigners like the Pope have to say.). Some Catholics consider the Patriotic Catholic Church schismatic, but the Vatican refuses to acknowledge the renunciation and maintains that the Catholic Church in China remains fully Catholic--or, in full communion with Rome, to use Catholic lingo--even if under complicated political circumstances that make formal ties with Vatican difficult and dangerous.[[note]]This makes the life of non-Chinese Catholics in China much easier--every sacrament at a Chinese Catholic church is accepted as valid by the Vatican. The only problems arise when bishops are consecrated at the order of the Chinese government without Vatican recognition, but even then, informal arrangements are usually made nowadays so that they are not truly schismatic except in rare cases. In other words, most bishops in mainland China today are formally appointed by the Chinese state, but are unofficially recognized by the Vatican. By the same token, the only overt persecution of Catholics in China today are directed at the bishops who openly recognize the Pope while disavowing the religious authority of the Chinese government. [[/note]]
16th Dec '15 9:52:03 PM h27kim
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*** Someone who believes in Church doctrine but does not recognize the authority of the Pope is ''schismatic''. The clearest example of this is the Eastern Orthodox church, who agree with Rome on virtually every doctrinal point but disagree on whether Papal authority is legitimate. The status of the "Patriotic" Catholic Church in China is murkier. The communist government of the People's Republic has required Chinese Catholics to renounce the authority of the Pope even as they are allowed to practice their religion while subscribing to more or less the same doctrine as Catholics elsewhere (subject to change under demands by the Chinese government, e.g. on abortion and contraception--that's what the whole "Patriotic" business is about, being willing to bend tenets of their religion to requirements of the government, regardless of what foreigners like the Pope have to say.). Some Catholics consider the Patriotic Catholic Church schismatic, but the Vatican refuses to acknowledge the renunciation and maintains that the Catholic Church in China remains fully Catholic--or, in full in communion with Rome, to use Catholic lingo--even if under complicated political circumstances that make formal ties with Vatican difficult and dangerous.[[note]]This makes the life of non-Chinese Catholics in China much easier--every sacrament at a Chinese Catholic church is accepted as valid by the Vatican. The only problems arise when bishops are consecrated at the order of the Chinese government without Vatican recognition, but even then, informal arrangements are usually made nowadays so that they are not truly schismatic except in rare cases. In other words, most bishops in mainland China today are formally appointed by the Chinese state, but are unofficially recognized by the Vatican. By the same token, the only overt persecution of Catholics in China today are directed at the bishops who openly recognize the Pope while disavowing the religious authority of the Chinese government. [[/note]]

to:

*** Someone who believes in Church doctrine but does not recognize the authority of the Pope is ''schismatic''. The clearest example of this is the Eastern Orthodox church, who agree with Rome on virtually every doctrinal point but disagree on whether Papal authority is legitimate. The status of the "Patriotic" Catholic Church in China is murkier. The communist government of the People's Republic has required Chinese Catholics to renounce the authority of the Pope even as they are allowed to practice their religion while subscribing to more or less the same doctrine as Catholics elsewhere (subject to change under demands by the Chinese government, e.g. on abortion and contraception--that's what the whole "Patriotic" business is about, being willing to bend tenets of their religion to requirements of the government, regardless of what foreigners like the Pope have to say.). Some Catholics consider the Patriotic Catholic Church schismatic, but the Vatican refuses to acknowledge the renunciation and maintains that the Catholic Church in China remains fully Catholic--or, in full in communion with Rome, to use Catholic lingo--even if under complicated political circumstances that make formal ties with Vatican difficult and dangerous.[[note]]This makes the life of non-Chinese Catholics in China much easier--every sacrament at a Chinese Catholic church is accepted as valid by the Vatican. The only problems arise when bishops are consecrated at the order of the Chinese government without Vatican recognition, but even then, informal arrangements are usually made nowadays so that they are not truly schismatic except in rare cases. In other words, most bishops in mainland China today are formally appointed by the Chinese state, but are unofficially recognized by the Vatican. By the same token, the only overt persecution of Catholics in China today are directed at the bishops who openly recognize the Pope while disavowing the religious authority of the Chinese government. [[/note]]
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