History UsefulNotes / Algeria

13th May '16 1:26:37 PM TheOneWhoTropes
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Unlike TheVietnamWar the Algerian War proved impossible to ignore as the revenge-killings, extortion for funds, and bombings spread to Mainland France through the French Muslim community and eventually the Pied-Noir community as well. The war also exposed the deep divisions within French Society and evoked the worst aspects of the Vichy regime and Nazi occupation - French Resistance members who had been tortured were called upon to torture FLN revolutionaries in turn. Vichy-era authority figures like Maurice Papon were called upon to organise and execute the brutal repression of dissent in North Africa and even Metropolitan France itself[[note]] most notoriously in the 'Paris Massacre' of 1962 in which Papon's policemen beat several thousand anti-war protestors senseless and imprisoned them without trial, killing some two hundred extrajudicially and dumping their bodies into the Seine. Papon also probably had something to do with the mysterious murders and disappearances of several vocal FLN supporters and anti-war figures [[/note]].

to:

Unlike TheVietnamWar UsefulNotes/TheVietnamWar the Algerian War proved impossible to ignore as the revenge-killings, extortion for funds, and bombings spread to Mainland France through the French Muslim community and eventually the Pied-Noir community as well. The war also exposed the deep divisions within French Society and evoked the worst aspects of the Vichy regime and Nazi occupation - French Resistance members who had been tortured were called upon to torture FLN revolutionaries in turn. Vichy-era authority figures like Maurice Papon were called upon to organise and execute the brutal repression of dissent in North Africa and even Metropolitan France itself[[note]] most notoriously in the 'Paris Massacre' of 1962 in which Papon's policemen beat several thousand anti-war protestors senseless and imprisoned them without trial, killing some two hundred extrajudicially and dumping their bodies into the Seine. Papon also probably had something to do with the mysterious murders and disappearances of several vocal FLN supporters and anti-war figures [[/note]].



The independent Algerian government then used its contacts with paramilitary groups to spread the message that the Pied-Noirs had a choice: "Suitcase or Coffin". In the ensuing panic the Pied-Noirs left almost all of their property behind, intact, in their haste to leave the country before the government-sanctioned militias started butchering them in earnest (as opposed to 'intermittently', which had been going on for six years by that point). A million Pied-Noirs fled to metropolitan France and those who remained - including the overwhelming majority of all the ''Harkis'' who had ever served with the French Army - were slaughtered in numerous and often quite horrible ways[[note]] Interestingly, the fate of the ''Harkis'' may have persuaded the USA and Australia to take on far more South Vietnamese refugees than they might otherwise have done in the aftermath of their own failed anti-parisan campaigns in TheVietnamWar [[/note]]. As they left Algeria collapsed into civil violence that never ''quite'' became a proper Civil War because the whole country basically ''shattered'' once the Pied-Noirs and Harkis were gone. This changed when the country basically got its act together by the 1990s, only for a real Civil War to get going with the rise of the Islamic fundamentalist GIA (the military wing of the FIS). The Civil War ended (kind of) at the turn of the century when the military installed in Abdelaziz Bouteflika as President, a post he occupies to this day.

to:

The independent Algerian government then used its contacts with paramilitary groups to spread the message that the Pied-Noirs had a choice: "Suitcase or Coffin". In the ensuing panic the Pied-Noirs left almost all of their property behind, intact, in their haste to leave the country before the government-sanctioned militias started butchering them in earnest (as opposed to 'intermittently', which had been going on for six years by that point). A million Pied-Noirs fled to metropolitan France and those who remained - including the overwhelming majority of all the ''Harkis'' who had ever served with the French Army - were slaughtered in numerous and often quite horrible ways[[note]] Interestingly, the fate of the ''Harkis'' may have persuaded the USA and Australia to take on far more South Vietnamese refugees than they might otherwise have done in the aftermath of their own failed anti-parisan campaigns in TheVietnamWar UsefulNotes/TheVietnamWar [[/note]]. As they left Algeria collapsed into civil violence that never ''quite'' became a proper Civil War because the whole country basically ''shattered'' once the Pied-Noirs and Harkis were gone. This changed when the country basically got its act together by the 1990s, only for a real Civil War to get going with the rise of the Islamic fundamentalist GIA (the military wing of the FIS). The Civil War ended (kind of) at the turn of the century when the military installed in Abdelaziz Bouteflika as President, a post he occupies to this day.
4th Apr '16 2:14:40 AM The_Glorious_SOB
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The last 7 years of French Algeria, from 1955 to 1962, were marred by The Algerian War. This was was not a Colonial War, though it was been portrayed that way subsequently, but a Civil War and the greatest existential dilemma of France's twentieth century. France's fundamentally self-contradictory status as a Democratic Empire, controlling liberator, and selfish benefactor had never been so apparent - or its human cost so high.

to:

The last 7 years of French Algeria, from 1955 to 1962, were marred by The Algerian War. This was was not a Colonial War, though it was been portrayed that way subsequently, but a Civil War and the greatest existential dilemma of France's twentieth century. France's fundamentally self-contradictory status as a Democratic Empire, controlling liberator, and selfish benefactor had never been so apparent - or its human cost so high.
12th Sep '15 4:25:41 PM AllenbysEyes
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While the nation is mostly ignored in Anglophone media, it maintains a reasonable place in French media, partly because of the Algerian diaspora in France. One rare Anglophone exception is ''Literature/TheDayOfTheJackal'', where UsefulNotes/CharlesDeGaulle allowing Algeria to gain its independence is the impetus for the plot to assassinate him that takes up the story (which happened in real life).

to:

While the nation is mostly ignored in Anglophone media, it maintains a reasonable place in French media, partly because of the Algerian diaspora in France. One rare Anglophone exception is ''Literature/TheDayOfTheJackal'', where UsefulNotes/CharlesDeGaulle allowing Algeria to gain its independence is the impetus for the plot to assassinate him that takes up the story (which happened in real life).
life). The Italian film ''Film/TheBattleOfAlgiers'', produced in cooperation with the Algerian government, is probably the best-known film about this topic.
12th Dec '14 6:53:00 PM MAI742
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For 132 years, from 1830 to 1962, the area was governed as an integral part of France. Many ethnic Spaniards, Italians, and French settled along the coast and became known as the ''pied-noirs'' or 'black-feet'. Though the majority were not French by ethnicity, 'French' identity at the time was very much defined by cultural identity. This was reflected in the two tiers of citizenship in French North Africa: French, and French-Muslim.

to:

For 132 years, from 1830 to 1962, the area was governed as an integral part of France. Many ethnic Spaniards, Italians, and French settled along the coast and became known as the ''pied-noirs'' (pyeh-nwah) or 'black-feet'. Though the majority were not French by ethnicity, 'French' identity at the time was very much defined by cultural identity. This was reflected in the two tiers of citizenship in French North Africa: French, and French-Muslim.
12th Dec '14 6:52:16 PM MAI742
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For 132 years, from 1830 to 1962, the area was governed as an integral part of France. Many ethnic Spaniards, Italians, and French settled along the coast and became known as the ''pieds-noirs'' or 'black-feet'. Though the majority were not French by ethnicity, 'French' identity at the time was very much defined by cultural identity. This was reflected in the two tiers of citizenship in French North Africa: French, and French-Muslim.

to:

For 132 years, from 1830 to 1962, the area was governed as an integral part of France. Many ethnic Spaniards, Italians, and French settled along the coast and became known as the ''pieds-noirs'' ''pied-noirs'' or 'black-feet'. Though the majority were not French by ethnicity, 'French' identity at the time was very much defined by cultural identity. This was reflected in the two tiers of citizenship in French North Africa: French, and French-Muslim.
27th Oct '14 12:09:44 PM MAI742
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Ironically, it was this theoretically inclusive - and in practice, patronising and self-centred - mindset that caused France's left-wing to back heavy-handed repression of Algerian autonomy movements. It was ''unthinkable'' for France to just give up part of her country to secessionists, or so they said. Things quickly became rather violent, and the French military soon became involved in huge numbers. Half a million troops, many of them conscripts and with 150,000 French Muslim volunteers (Harkis) among them, were used for ''Quadrillage'' duty. Stationed in a series of garrisons right across the countryside they formed close ties with the locals and policed their districts. Some 2000 specialised military governors associated with the garrisons were given extraordinary powers to start and oversee programs contributing economic growth and public education, though in practice they were perpetually short of funds and their main duty was overseeing the deportation of the rural population from areas sympathetic to the insurgency into more secure areas. Some 2 million French Muslims - a fifth of the entire region's population - were forced out of their villages and into state-housing during the war. The other part of the French strategy was the use of mobile forces, including paratroops and fire-support (mostly artillery and airpower), for ''Search & Destroy'' duties. They would cordon off regions and use their superior numbers and firepower to kill all the rebels within. In areas where the insurgency sprang up again they get the garrisons to deport the rural population to deny the rebels shelter, supplies, and conscripts before sweeping the area again until it was truly cleared.

to:

Ironically, it was this theoretically inclusive - and in practice, patronising and self-centred - mindset that caused France's left-wing to back heavy-handed repression of Algerian autonomy movements. It was ''unthinkable'' for France to just give up part of her country to secessionists, or so they said. Things quickly became rather violent, and the French military soon became involved in huge numbers. Half a million troops, many of them conscripts and with 150,000 French Muslim volunteers (Harkis) among them, were used for ''Quadrillage'' duty. Stationed in a series of garrisons right across the countryside they formed close ties with the locals and policed their districts. Some 2000 specialised military governors associated with the garrisons were given extraordinary powers to start and oversee programs contributing economic growth and public education, though in practice they were perpetually short of funds and their main duty was overseeing the deportation of the rural population from areas sympathetic to the insurgency into more secure areas. Some 2 million French Muslims - a fifth of the entire region's population - were forced out of their villages and into state-housing during the war. The other part of the French strategy was the use of mobile forces, including paratroops and fire-support (mostly artillery and airpower), for ''Search & Destroy'' duties. They would cordon off regions and use their superior numbers and firepower to kill all the rebels within. In areas where the insurgency sprang up again they would get the garrisons to deport the rural population to deny the rebels shelter, supplies, and conscripts before sweeping the area again until it was truly cleared.



Unlike TheVietnamWar the Algerian War proved impossible to ignore as the revenge-killings, extortion for funds, and bombings spread to Mainland France through the French Muslim community and eventually the Pied-Noir community as well. The war also exposed the deep divisions within French Society and evoked the worst aspects of the Vichy regime and Nazi occupation - French Resistance members who had been tortured were called upon to torture FLN revolutionaries in turn. Vichy-era authority figures like Maurice Papon were called upon to organise and execute the brutal repression of dissent in North Africa and even Metropolitan France itself[[note]] most notoriously in the 'Paris Massacre' of 1962 in which Papon's policemen beat several thousand anti-war protestors senseless and imprisoned them without trial, killing some two hundred without trial [[/note]].

As their support for the war faded, the French right-wing turned on the country's moderates and left-wing for what it saw as their betrayal of France. Whereas the left-wing became increasingly disgusted with the cruelty and brutality it would need to use if it wanted to keep holding onto North Africa, the right continued to see it as being totally justified and argued that leaving North Africa would be a betrayal of the French People (and the Pied-Noirs in particular). Not only did Pied-Noirs paramilitary groups begin their own terrorist campaign in mainland France, but part of the military (operating out of North Africa) attempted the 'Four Generals' Coup' to turn France into a military dictatorship and 'win' the war in Algeria through the adoption of the most brutal methods possible. The coup was foiled, but it brought General De Gaulle into the political spotlight. He announced that there would be a referendum on the future of French North Africa and tried to arrange a ceasefire in the meantime. In the referendum the French Muslims overwhelmingly voted for independence and the Pied-Noirs for continued union with France, with a result of 90% of the electorate being in favour of independence. France bowed to the will of French North Africa and soon granted it its independence as the new country of 'Algeria'.

to:

Unlike TheVietnamWar the Algerian War proved impossible to ignore as the revenge-killings, extortion for funds, and bombings spread to Mainland France through the French Muslim community and eventually the Pied-Noir community as well. The war also exposed the deep divisions within French Society and evoked the worst aspects of the Vichy regime and Nazi occupation - French Resistance members who had been tortured were called upon to torture FLN revolutionaries in turn. Vichy-era authority figures like Maurice Papon were called upon to organise and execute the brutal repression of dissent in North Africa and even Metropolitan France itself[[note]] most notoriously in the 'Paris Massacre' of 1962 in which Papon's policemen beat several thousand anti-war protestors senseless and imprisoned them without trial, killing some two hundred without trial extrajudicially and dumping their bodies into the Seine. Papon also probably had something to do with the mysterious murders and disappearances of several vocal FLN supporters and anti-war figures [[/note]].

As their support for the war faded, the French right-wing turned on the country's moderates and left-wing for what it saw as their betrayal of France. Whereas the left-wing became increasingly disgusted with the cruelty and brutality it would need to use if it wanted to keep holding onto North Africa, the right continued to see it as being totally justified and argued that leaving North Africa would be a betrayal of the French People (and the Pied-Noirs in particular). Not only did Pied-Noirs Pied-Noir paramilitary groups begin their own terrorist campaign in mainland France, but part of the military (operating out of North Africa) attempted the 'Four Generals' Coup' to turn France into a military dictatorship and 'win' the war in Algeria through the adoption of the most brutal methods possible. The coup was foiled, but it brought General De Gaulle into the political spotlight. He announced that there would be a referendum on the future of French North Africa and tried to arrange a ceasefire in the meantime. In the referendum the French Muslims overwhelmingly voted for independence and the Pied-Noirs for continued union with France, with a result of 90% of the electorate being in favour of independence. France bowed to the will of French North Africa and soon granted it its independence as the new country of 'Algeria'.
20th Oct '14 3:02:05 PM MAI742
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The independent Algerian government then used its contacts with paramilitary groups to spread the message that the Pied-Noirs had a choice: "Suitcase or Coffin". In the ensuing panic the Pied-Noirs left almost all of their property behind, intact, in their haste to leave the country before the government-sanctioned militias started butchering them in earnest (as opposed to 'intermittently', which had been going on for six years by that point). A million Pied-Noirs fled to metropolitan France as Algeria collapsed into civil violence that never ''quite'' became a proper Civil War - for want of organisation, given that the country basically ''shattered'' as the common enemy of the Pied-Noirs left - until the rise of the Islamic fundamentalist GIA (military wing of the FIS) during the 1990s. It ended (kind of) at the turn of the century, with the military putting in Abdelaziz Bouteflika as President, where he remains as of today.

to:

The independent Algerian government then used its contacts with paramilitary groups to spread the message that the Pied-Noirs had a choice: "Suitcase or Coffin". In the ensuing panic the Pied-Noirs left almost all of their property behind, intact, in their haste to leave the country before the government-sanctioned militias started butchering them in earnest (as opposed to 'intermittently', which had been going on for six years by that point). A million Pied-Noirs fled to metropolitan France as and those who remained - including the overwhelming majority of all the ''Harkis'' who had ever served with the French Army - were slaughtered in numerous and often quite horrible ways[[note]] Interestingly, the fate of the ''Harkis'' may have persuaded the USA and Australia to take on far more South Vietnamese refugees than they might otherwise have done in the aftermath of their own failed anti-parisan campaigns in TheVietnamWar [[/note]]. As they left Algeria collapsed into civil violence that never ''quite'' became a proper Civil War - for want of organisation, given that because the whole country basically ''shattered'' as the common enemy of once the Pied-Noirs left - until and Harkis were gone. This changed when the country basically got its act together by the 1990s, only for a real Civil War to get going with the rise of the Islamic fundamentalist GIA (military (the military wing of the FIS) during the 1990s. It FIS). The Civil War ended (kind of) at the turn of the century, with century when the military putting installed in Abdelaziz Bouteflika as President, where a post he remains as of today.
occupies to this day.
20th Oct '14 2:54:03 PM MAI742
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Ironically, it was this theoretically inclusive - and in practice, patronising and self-centred - mindset that caused France's left-wing to back heavy-handed repression of Algerian autonomy movements. It was ''unthinkable'' for France to just give up part of her country to secessionists, or so they said. Things quickly became rather violent, and the French military soon became involved in huge numbers. Half a million troops, mainly conscripts, were used for ''Quadrillage'' duty. Stationed in a series of garrisons right across the countryside, they made use of some 150,000 French Muslim militiamen (i.e. a quarter of their total manpower) and acted as militarised policemen in their districts. Some 2000 specialised military governors attached to the garrisons were given extraordinary powers to start and oversee programs contributing economic growth and public education, though in practice they were perpetually short of funds and their main duty was to oversee the deportation and re-concentration of the rural population in areas sympathetic to the insurgency. Some 2 million French Muslims - a fifth of the entire region's population - was forced out of their villages and into state-housing during the war. The other part of the French strategy was the mobile forces, including paratroops and fire-support, used for ''Search & Destroy'' duties. They would sweep areas of insurgents through the use of superior numbers and firepower. Where the insurgency sprang up again they would deport and re-concentrate the rural population in new settlements along the coast to deny the rebels shelter, supplies, and conscripts.

to:

Ironically, it was this theoretically inclusive - and in practice, patronising and self-centred - mindset that caused France's left-wing to back heavy-handed repression of Algerian autonomy movements. It was ''unthinkable'' for France to just give up part of her country to secessionists, or so they said. Things quickly became rather violent, and the French military soon became involved in huge numbers. Half a million troops, mainly conscripts, many of them conscripts and with 150,000 French Muslim volunteers (Harkis) among them, were used for ''Quadrillage'' duty. Stationed in a series of garrisons right across the countryside, countryside they made use of some 150,000 French Muslim militiamen (i.e. a quarter of their total manpower) formed close ties with the locals and acted as militarised policemen in policed their districts. Some 2000 specialised military governors attached to associated with the garrisons were given extraordinary powers to start and oversee programs contributing economic growth and public education, though in practice they were perpetually short of funds and their main duty was to oversee overseeing the deportation and re-concentration of the rural population in from areas sympathetic to the insurgency. insurgency into more secure areas. Some 2 million French Muslims - a fifth of the entire region's population - was were forced out of their villages and into state-housing during the war. The other part of the French strategy was the use of mobile forces, including paratroops and fire-support, used fire-support (mostly artillery and airpower), for ''Search & Destroy'' duties. They would sweep areas of insurgents through the cordon off regions and use of their superior numbers and firepower. Where firepower to kill all the rebels within. In areas where the insurgency sprang up again they would get the garrisons to deport and re-concentrate the rural population in new settlements along the coast to deny the rebels shelter, supplies, and conscripts.
conscripts before sweeping the area again until it was truly cleared.
20th Oct '14 2:46:05 PM MAI742
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Ironically, it was this theoretically inclusive - and in practice, patronising and self-centred - mindset that caused France's left-wing to back repression of Algerian autonomy movements. It was literally unthinkable for France to just give up part of her own country to secessionists, or so they said. Things quickly became rather violent, and France's brutal repression in the coastal areas and full-scale Quadrillage + Search & Destroy strategy was quite thorough. It involved literally occupying the country with the use of garrisons, deporting and re-concentrating the rural population in new settlements to deny the rebels shelter, and sweeping the countryside for the rebels with the use of paratroopers and native militiamen. This worked, but at a price; the left-wing became increasingly disenchanted and eventually outright horrified with the actual conduct of the war, particularly the use of torture - which was supposedly only used at the 'transit camps' and in 'situations of urgent need' on people who they were sure had valuable knowledge, but in practice tended to be done on many if not most ordinary rebels, rebel sympathisers, suspected rebel sympathisers, and people who just happened to live in the same general area as the former three types ('let's pull all her nails out and drown her ''just in case'' she knows something important that we don't ''and'' feels like telling us', etcetc).

Unlike TheVietnamWar the Algerian War also proved impossible to ignore as the revenge-killings, extortion for funds, and bombings spread to Mainland France through the French Muslim community and eventually the Pied-Noirs community as well. The war also exposed the ''deep'' divisions within French Society and stirred up the worst memories of the Vichy regime and Nazi occupation - French Resistance members who had been tortured were called upon to torture FLN revolutionaries in turn. Vichy-era authority figures like Maurice Papon were called upon to organise and execute the brutal repression of dissent in North Africa and even Metropolitan France itself[[note]] most notoriously in the 'Paris Massacre' of 1962 in which Papon's policemen beat several thousand anti-war protestors senseless and imprisoned them without trial, killing some two hundred without trial [[/note]]. The Algerian War ''was not'' a Colonial War, thought it was been portrayed that way subsequently; it was a ''Civil War'' and the greatest existential dilemma of France's twentieth century. France's fundamentally self-contradictory status as a Democratic Empire, controlling liberator, and selfish benefactor had never been so apparent - or its human cost so high.

Funnily enough, the French right-wing actually turned on the country's moderates and left-wing due to what it saw as their betrayal of France. Whereas the left-wing became increasingly disgusted with the cruelty and brutality it would need to use if it wanted to keep holding onto North Africa, the right continued to see it as being totally justified and argued that leaving North Africa would be a betrayal of the French People (and the Pied-Noirs in particular). Not only did Pied-Noirs paramilitary groups begin their own terrorist campaign in mainland France, but part of the military (operating out of North Africa) attempted the 'Four Generals' Coup' to turn France into a military dictatorship and 'win' the war in Algeria through the adoption of the most brutal methods possible. The coup was foiled, but it brought General De Gaulle into the political spotlight. He announced that there would be a referendum on the future of French North Africa and tried to arrange a ceasefire in the meantime. In the referendum the French Muslims overwhelmingly voted for independence and the Pied-noirs for continued union with France, with a result of 90% of the electorate being in favour of independence. France bowed to the will of French North Africa and soon granted it its independence as the new country of 'Algeria'.

to:

The last 7 years of French Algeria, from 1955 to 1962, were marred by The Algerian War. This was was not a Colonial War, though it was been portrayed that way subsequently, but a Civil War and the greatest existential dilemma of France's twentieth century. France's fundamentally self-contradictory status as a Democratic Empire, controlling liberator, and selfish benefactor had never been so apparent - or its human cost so high.

Ironically, it was this theoretically inclusive - and in practice, patronising and self-centred - mindset that caused France's left-wing to back heavy-handed repression of Algerian autonomy movements. It was literally unthinkable ''unthinkable'' for France to just give up part of her own country to secessionists, or so they said. Things quickly became rather violent, and France's brutal repression in the coastal French military soon became involved in huge numbers. Half a million troops, mainly conscripts, were used for ''Quadrillage'' duty. Stationed in a series of garrisons right across the countryside, they made use of some 150,000 French Muslim militiamen (i.e. a quarter of their total manpower) and acted as militarised policemen in their districts. Some 2000 specialised military governors attached to the garrisons were given extraordinary powers to start and oversee programs contributing economic growth and public education, though in practice they were perpetually short of funds and their main duty was to oversee the deportation and re-concentration of the rural population in areas sympathetic to the insurgency. Some 2 million French Muslims - a fifth of the entire region's population - was forced out of their villages and full-scale Quadrillage + Search & Destroy into state-housing during the war. The other part of the French strategy was quite thorough. It involved literally occupying the country with mobile forces, including paratroops and fire-support, used for ''Search & Destroy'' duties. They would sweep areas of insurgents through the use of garrisons, deporting superior numbers and re-concentrating firepower. Where the insurgency sprang up again they would deport and re-concentrate the rural population in new settlements along the coast to deny the rebels shelter, supplies, and sweeping the countryside for the rebels with the use of paratroopers and native militiamen. This conscripts.

The French military strategy
worked, but at a price; the left-wing became increasingly disenchanted and eventually outright horrified with the actual conduct of the war, particularly the use of torture - which was supposedly only used at the 'transit camps' and in 'situations of urgent need' on people who they were sure had valuable knowledge, but in practice tended to be done on many if not most ordinary rebels, rebel sympathisers, suspected rebel sympathisers, and people who just happened to live in the same general area as the former three types ('let's pull all her nails out and drown her ''just in case'' she knows something important that we don't ''and'' feels like telling us', etcetc).and so on).

Unlike TheVietnamWar the Algerian War also proved impossible to ignore as the revenge-killings, extortion for funds, and bombings spread to Mainland France through the French Muslim community and eventually the Pied-Noirs Pied-Noir community as well. The war also exposed the ''deep'' deep divisions within French Society and stirred up evoked the worst memories aspects of the Vichy regime and Nazi occupation - French Resistance members who had been tortured were called upon to torture FLN revolutionaries in turn. Vichy-era authority figures like Maurice Papon were called upon to organise and execute the brutal repression of dissent in North Africa and even Metropolitan France itself[[note]] most notoriously in the 'Paris Massacre' of 1962 in which Papon's policemen beat several thousand anti-war protestors senseless and imprisoned them without trial, killing some two hundred without trial [[/note]]. The Algerian War ''was not'' a Colonial War, thought it was been portrayed that way subsequently; it was a ''Civil War'' and

As their support for
the greatest existential dilemma of France's twentieth century. France's fundamentally self-contradictory status as a Democratic Empire, controlling liberator, and selfish benefactor had never been so apparent - or its human cost so high.

Funnily enough,
war faded, the French right-wing actually turned on the country's moderates and left-wing due to for what it saw as their betrayal of France. Whereas the left-wing became increasingly disgusted with the cruelty and brutality it would need to use if it wanted to keep holding onto North Africa, the right continued to see it as being totally justified and argued that leaving North Africa would be a betrayal of the French People (and the Pied-Noirs in particular). Not only did Pied-Noirs paramilitary groups begin their own terrorist campaign in mainland France, but part of the military (operating out of North Africa) attempted the 'Four Generals' Coup' to turn France into a military dictatorship and 'win' the war in Algeria through the adoption of the most brutal methods possible. The coup was foiled, but it brought General De Gaulle into the political spotlight. He announced that there would be a referendum on the future of French North Africa and tried to arrange a ceasefire in the meantime. In the referendum the French Muslims overwhelmingly voted for independence and the Pied-noirs Pied-Noirs for continued union with France, with a result of 90% of the electorate being in favour of independence. France bowed to the will of French North Africa and soon granted it its independence as the new country of 'Algeria'.
18th Oct '14 11:39:49 PM MAI742
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The independent Algerian government then used its contacts with paramilitary groups to spread the message that the Pied-Noirs had a choice: 'Suitcase or Coffin'. In the ensuing panic the Pied-Noirs left almost all of their property behind, intact, in their haste to leave the country before the government-sanctioned militias started butchering them in earnest (as opposed to 'intermittently', which had been going on for six years by that point). A million Pied-Noirs fled to metropolitan France as Algeria collapsed into civil violence that never ''quite'' became a proper Civil War - for want of organisation, given that the country basically ''shattered'' as the common enemy of the Pied-Noirs left - until the rise of the Islamic fundamentalist GIA (military wing of the FIS) during the 1990s. It ended (kind of) at the turn of the century, with the military putting in Abdelaziz Bouteflika as President, where he remains as of today.

to:

The independent Algerian government then used its contacts with paramilitary groups to spread the message that the Pied-Noirs had a choice: 'Suitcase "Suitcase or Coffin'.Coffin". In the ensuing panic the Pied-Noirs left almost all of their property behind, intact, in their haste to leave the country before the government-sanctioned militias started butchering them in earnest (as opposed to 'intermittently', which had been going on for six years by that point). A million Pied-Noirs fled to metropolitan France as Algeria collapsed into civil violence that never ''quite'' became a proper Civil War - for want of organisation, given that the country basically ''shattered'' as the common enemy of the Pied-Noirs left - until the rise of the Islamic fundamentalist GIA (military wing of the FIS) during the 1990s. It ended (kind of) at the turn of the century, with the military putting in Abdelaziz Bouteflika as President, where he remains as of today.
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