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It occurs to me that a lot of these really are at odds with the description.
A lot of examples seem to be more a "dressing down for death" kind of thing (do we have a trope for that?), others where the shoe-removal seems relatively incidental. Certainly plenty that don't seem to be about Japanese customs, that's for sure.
I was wondering about that too. In one of the Literature/Deryni novels, a bishop who's also an heir to a rival royal bloodline has been helping his rebel kin, and when his side loses, he presents himself to the victorious king in a homespun monk's robe and barefoot. Later on, said king offers to let him live and this guy refuses so he cannot be used by future rebels (knowing this sort of thing has been happening periodically for a century and wanting to stop the conflict). The books are very Western Europe alternate history in setting, but the whole abasement and giving up on life aspect seems to be a thing. I hesitate to add write this up as an example.
Perhaps there's a missing supertrope of "dressing down for death" and this is a specific shoes-only subtrope?
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How well does it match the trope?