The Hunchback of Notre Dame is the 34th entry in the Disney Animated Canon, released in 1996. It's inspired by Victor Hugo's novel of the same name, but has more in common with the 1939 film. The film is known for being one of the Darker and Edgier Disney animated films, although still being considered family-friendly.
In 15th century France, the corrupt and sinister Judge Claude Frollo once uncovered several Roma trying to enter Paris with an unidentified and bundled object. One of them attempted to escape with it and Frollo ran her down, indirectly causing her death. It is then that Frollo realized that the woman was carrying a baby, and, disgusted by the infant's deformity, nearly drowned the child in a well when he is stopped by the Archdeacon. He warned Frollo that his sin of spilling innocent blood must be atoned for and has Frollo care for the child as his own. Frollo reluctantly agrees to do so, with the stipulation that the child - whom he names Quasimodo (meaning "half-formed") — reside in the bell tower of the cathedral, never to be seen by public eyes.
Twenty years pass, and the kindhearted but isolated Quasimodo strongly desires to have one day of freedom beyond the walls of Notre Dame to see the Feast of Fools festival and decides to act on his decision after receiving encouragement from his animate stone gargoyle friends Victor, Hugo, and Laverne. However, when Quasimodo's identity is revealed, he is publicly scorned and humiliated by the townspeople until he is rescued by the beautiful and strong-willed Romani Esmeralda, who has no tolerance for Frollo's ill-treatment of Quasimodo and her people. This encounter results in an unlikely friendship between Quasimodo and Esmeralda (as well as a one-sided love from Quasimodo to Esmeralda) and an unsettling lust in Frollo, whose inner conflict over his piety to God versus his growing sexual lust for Esmeralda drives him to hunt the Romani girl down with the intention of having her for himself or not letting anyone have her at all. With Esmeralda and the other Romas's lives in danger, and the whole city of Paris in the grip of Frollo's corruption, Quasimodo must team up with Esmeralda's love interest Captain Phoebus in order to stop Frollo and rescue Esmeralda.
In 1999, the film was translated into German for a stage musical, Der Glöckner von Notre Dame. A second, English-language stage adaptation of the film, with a book by Peter Parnell rather than the one James Lapine wrote for the German production, debuted at San Diego's La Jolla Playhouse in 2014. This was restaged at New Jersey's Paper Mill Playhouse the following year, though plans for a Broadway transfer were cancelled (although a cast recording has been made.) In 2017 Peter Parnell's version was translated into German and was brought to Berlin, before going on tour. Both musicals backtracked from Disney's take towards the original novel, and are thus Darker and Edgier, Parnell's version more so than Lapine's. Tropes for these stage productions can be found here.
This film provides the following tropes:
- 0% Approval Rating: The only love Frollo receives in Paris is from his own Mooks. Everywhere else, just about everyone despises him, but it's not until he attempts to burn Esmeralda at the stake, and subsequently attacks Notre Dame to retrieve her from Quasimodo, that the citizens finally rebel against him.
- 2D Visuals, 3D Effects: The crowd in the ending zoom-out.
- Abled in the Adaptation: Quasimodo is certainly not deaf in this version. The change was presumably made to ease communication between him and the other characters.
- Absurdly Sharp Blade: Near the climax, Frollo pursues Quasimodo and Esmeralda on the balcony of Notre Dame, all the while cleanly slicing through stone gargoyles attempting to slash at them.
- Acting Unnatural: When Quasimodo is entertaining Frollo, all the while desperately hoping he doesn't notice the wounded Phoebus hidden under the table, Frollo suspiciously points out that Quasimodo hasn't eaten any of his dinner. Quasi nervously shoves a handful of grapes into his mouth and almost chokes on them.
- Action Girl: Esmeralda openly insults Frollo and his guards, can outrun and outwit many soldiers (even if they are rather stupid), and is shown to have better-than-average combat skills when she fights Phoebus. While at the stake facing certain death, she spits onto Frollo's face and gives him a Kubrick Stare when he says, "Choose me or the fire."
- Actor Allusion:
- Adaptational Alternate Ending: Disney's version heavily changes the ending of the story - in the original Victor Hugo novel, both Esmeralda and Quasimodo die; in the Disney version, they both survive, Esmeralda marries Phoebus and Quasimodo gets accepted by the society. Interestingly, the Screen-to-Stage Adaptation of the Disney movie brings back the Downer Ending.
- Adaptational Attractiveness: It is difficult to know exactly how Victor Hugo pictured Quasimodo as we have only his words, but his monstrous description invites the reader to think of him as being as ugly and scary as they possibly can and then add some. In Animated Adaptations Quasimodo is portrayed as more Ugly Cute. This is downplayed though, as Quasi is still shown as ugly to a degree.
- Adaptational Context Change: Here, Quasimodo's pillory scene occurs during the Feast of Fools, a result of the fickle mob suddenly turning against him. In the original novel, this scene took place the next day, and it was Quasimodo's punishment for having attempted to kidnap Esmeralda on Frollo's orders.
- Adaptational Heroism:
- In the book, Phoebus is a womanizing Jerkass who gets no comeuppance. Here, he's pushed from being a loyal soldier into a revolutionary, who opposes Frollo whenever he can.
- The films makes the Romani more sympathetic than in the book, omitting the reveal that a group of them kidnapped Esmeralda as a baby from her French birth mother.
- Frollo's lie that Quasimodo's mother abandoned him as a child was actually the case in the book. Here, in her only scene, Quasimodo's mother flees when Frollo tries to take her baby and begs for sanctuary in Notre Dame.
- Adaptational Nice Guy:
- While still a heroic character, book Quasimodo was much more asocial and inclined to violence, displaying a softer side only toward Frollo and Esmeralda due to them being the only human beings to treat him somewhat decently. This incarnation pretty much is a Nice Guy with no resent or animosity toward anyone.
- Also in the novel, Clopin is an extremely violent and roguish cad who is an Anti-Hero at his best. Here, he's a colorful, over-the-top jester (outside of the Court of Miracles, at least).
- Adapted Out: Gringoire, Jehan Frollo, Fleur-de-Lys, Sister Gudule, and King Louis XI are all absent from this version. Gringoire's role in the plot has been mostly given to Phoebus, so he's not really necessary. The King is said to be away fighting in the wars, so this allows Frollo to have full control of the city.
- Added Alliterative Appeal: "Why her smoldering eyes still scorch my soul?"
- Adult Fear: There's a taste of this in the introduction. Claude Frollo tries to take Quasimodo away from his mother, and assumes that the bundle is stolen goods when the mother refuses to give up the swaddled infant. She then has to evade Frollo through the streets of Paris in order to protect her baby. She's running, he's on horseback.
- Aerith and Bob: Victor, Hugo, and... Laverne. The first two double as Shout-Out Theme Naming, to Victor Hugo obviously.
- An Aesop: There is a difference between laughing with a crowd and being laughed at by a crowd. While Quasimodo is initially being celebrated by the crowd during "Topsy Turvy", the lyrics of the song are a Stealth Insult, saying "once a year the ugliest will wear a crown". It takes only one thrown tomato to turn the crowd to acts of sadism.
"And we wish we could leave you a moral/Like a trinket you hold in your palm."
- Averted in the stage show:
- Don't judge people based on appearances, as even people who appear "normal" have the capacity to do horrific things.
- All-Loving Hero:
- The Archdeacon extends the same compassion to the despised and the deformed as he does to everyone else.
- Esmeralda. If her singing of "God Help the Outcasts" doesn't fit the bill, her treatment of Quasimodo does.
- All Your Base Are Belong to Us: Frollo and his men invade the Court of Miracles after he tricks Quasimodo into revealing its location.
- Amazon Chaser: Watching Esmeralda single-handedly trounce Frollo's guards makes Phoebus exclaim "What a woman!" despite nearly being decapitated.
- Ambiguously Brown: Due to her literary counterpart having been an example of Ambiguously Brown, it is uncertain if this portrayal of Esmeralda is truly a Race Lift or still an example of Roma by adoption with her backstory having been cut.
- Angry Mob Song: "The Court of Miracles" is sung primarily by Clopin, but it includes all the people in the court, and they're all angry at Frollo.
- Animal Metaphor: The scene where Frollo squashes an entire ant colony with a stone slab is a metaphor for his genocidal plans to kill the gypsies. He's been killing Gypsies one-by-one over the years, but has been unsuccessful in finding the Court of Miracles.
- Annoying Arrows: Averted. It only takes one shot to down the armoured Phoebus. Though not long after being downed by the arrow (approximately a couple hours in movie-time), he's fine. The wound was cleaned, stitched and still hurts him, but he's using the affected muscles to catch falling hunchbacks with no difficulty.
- Anti-Hero: Esmeralda is a Knight in Sour Armor (jaded but still acts heroically) while Clopin is an Unscrupulous Hero (happy to kill perceived enemies).
- Any Last Words?: Clopin, while preparing to hang Quasi and Phoebus in a parody of Frollo's court. When they can't say anything due to being gagged, he quips, "That's what they all say."
- Apologetic Attacker:
- Phoebus tries one on Esmeralda, while she has him pinned to the floor with his own sword at his throat, and it works!
- Victor goes so far as to cover his eyes as he drops a single brick on a soldier from atop the cathedral. After it impacts, he peeks over the edge of the cathedral and calls down an apology.
- Arc Words:
- "Who is the monster, and who is the man?"
- "Kyrie eleison, kyrie eleison..."
- Armor-Piercing Response: When Phoebus is told by Frollo to burn down an innocent family's house with them inside.Phoebus: With all due respect, sir, I was not trained to murder the innocent.Frollo: But you were trained to follow orders!
- Artistic License History: The depiction of the medieval Paris is full of inconsistencies, most of which would only be picked up by historians (e.g. a bridge represented next to Notre-Dame built decades after the action of the film takes place).
- The real Notre Dame de Paris never had steps leading up to the front doors; the entrance has always been at ground level. Presumably the film makers added them for dramatic effect (and so it would be easier for Frollo to 'accidentally' kill Quasimodo's mother when she falls and breaks her neck.)
- Tomatoes and tobacco pipes (two products from South America) are present in France ten years before discovery of the New World.
- Ascended Extra: Quasimodo, the titular Hunchback of Notre Dame, is much more important to the plot than in the original.
- As the Good Book Says...: Averted; Frollo's Famous Last Words sound like a verse from The Bible, but aren't. However, it does bear resemblance to Isaiah 11:4 ("[A]nd he shall smite the earth with the rod of his mouth, and with the breath of his lips shall he slay the wicked").
- Barefoot Poverty: Esmeralda, as a poor Romani woman. At the end of the film, she falls in love with the clearly wealthy-looking Captain of the Guard, Phoebus, and in the sequel she inexplicably gains shoes.
- Batman Gambit: How Frollo finds the Court of Miracles. He knows that Quasimodo is in league with the Roma and so likely has a means of communicating or meeting with them. Thus, he tells him that his men have found the court and that he plans to advance upon it in the near future. This is a lie, as Frollo has no idea where the court is. Quasi buys it, though, and heads off to warn the Roma. Frollo covertly follows him and ends up discovering the court.
- Because You Were Nice to Me: Esmeralda's act of kindness of defending Quasimodo during the Feast of Fools is what makes Quasimodo fall for her.
- Be Careful What You Wish For : Especialy if you like to interpret Frollo's fate as Divine Intervention. He yells for God to smite the wicked and throw them into fires of hell. You can almost hear a voice from the heavens going "Okay", as it's literally what happens to him a second later.
- Been There, Shaped History: The Notre Dame cathedral in Paris, France has two pillars on its balcony missing, one of its gargoyles broken off, and the doorknob smashed off one of its doors. According to the climax of the movie, Quasimodo broke off those two pillars which Frollo chained him to, to save Esmeralda from being burned at the stake. During the final battle, Frollo smashes off the doorknob on one of the cathedral doors to enter the cathedral, and the damaged gargoyle was the one that dispatched Frollo in the end.
- Beware the Nice Ones: Quasimodo is sweet and kind, almost to a fault, but if you cross him, look out; he can break steel chains.
- Beware the Silly Ones: Clopin acts like a silly jester on the streets, but underground, in his own territory, he is a terrifying authority figure.
- Big Damn Heroes:
- The Archdeacon steps in to save Baby!Quasimodo from drowning.
- Esmeralda is the only one who stands up to not only Frollo, but to the entire crowd when they torture and bully Quasimodo during the Festival of Fools.
- Esmeralda stops her people from hanging Phoebus and Quasimodo.
- Quasimodo rescues Esmeralda in the climax.
- Phoebus for that family in the burning building and also when he rescues Quasimodo from falling.
- Big Good: The Archdeacon opposes Frollo and keeps him to a certain degree of civility.
- Big "NO!": Happens four times times in the climax. Played completely straight, given the horrific circumstances behind it. The first time is by Quasimodo when Frollo lights the stake to burn Esmeralda alive, the second by the people of Paris when they rebel against Frollo, the third when Frollo falls to his well-deserved death, and the fourth when Esmeralda loses grip on Quasimodo's arm and he only escapes falling to his death thanks to Phoebus.
- Bigot with a Crush: Throughout the whole of the film, Judge Claude Frollo expresses nothing but distaste for the Romani population of Paris, hunting them down for the flimsiest of reasons and eventually planning to kill them all. This doesn't stop him from lusting after Esmeralda. He's honestly conflicted by his feelings, but eventually decides to just burn her at the stake if she won't be with him.
- Big "SHUT UP!":
- Frollo yelling "Silence!" towards Esmeralda for calling him out for his cruelty. She counters this with "Justice!"
- He also delivers one to the Archdeacon who protests to his storming of Notre Dame.
- Big Word Shout: "STOP!" cried the Archdeacon!
- Bilingual Bonus:
Judex ergo cum sedebit (Therefore, when the Judge will take his seat)
- During the "Hellfire" sequence, the Ominous Latin Chanting in the background is the Confiteor, a prayer Catholics recite during the Mass that is an admission of guilt and wrongdoing. Most awesomely, when Frollo is proclaiming that it's not his fault, what the red hoods of doom chant back at him is "mea culpa" and "mea maxima culpa", Latin for "through my fault" and "through my most grievous fault" respectively. As if that isn't enough, the portion of the Confiteor that actually asks for forgiveness is omitted.
- During "Hellfire", when Frollo says "God have mercy on her / God have mercy on me", you can hear the "kyrie eleison", Greek for "Lord, have mercy", being chanted in the background.
- The Latin lyrics to the piece that plays as Frollo hunts Quasimodo and Esmeralda is "dies irae" or "Day of Wrath", which is about how the wicked shall be punished in eternal fire. It gets even better when you realize that the same lyrics were used in the score much earlier while Frollo was chasing down Quasimodo's mother, as in both cases, he is using his religious fundamentalism to justify hunting down an innocent who is trying to protect someone who cannot defend themselves.
- On top of that, the only lines sung when Frollo chases Quasimodo's mother, right after we're informed he's a judge, are:Dies irae! Dies illa (The day of wrath, that day)
Solvet saeclum in favilla (Will dissolve the world in ashes)
Quantus tremor est futurus (How much tremor there will be)
Quando iudex est venturus (When the judge will come)
- On top of that, the only lines sung when Frollo chases Quasimodo's mother, right after we're informed he's a judge, are:
- 'Notre Dame' is not the name of the cathedral. The full name is Cathédrale Notre-Dame de Paris - often translated as "The Cathedral of Our Lady of Paris" or simply "Notre Dame Cathedral,". 'Notre Dame' directly translates to 'Our Lady' but is used specifically to refer to the Virgin Mother, Mary. This means that the Archdeacon's line about 'the very eyes of Notre Dame' just as much refers to the 'eyes of Our Lady', the Virgin Mary, as he does the Genius Loci of the cathedral. The statue of Mary is featured prominently in the accompanying animation sequence. This is brought up again and made even more brilliant with Phoebus' line "and now [Frollo] has declared war on [Our Lady] herself!" Frollo, in his quest to murder innocent people and purge entire races, has now began an attack on the epitome of all innocence; the Mother of Christ herself. note
- The lyrics of the choir in Sanctuary, the score that plays while Quasimodo saves Esmeralda from being burned at the stake, match up perfectly with the animation when translated - such as "Libera me Domine de morte aeterna" ("Free me, Lord, from everlasting death") while Quasimodo is breaking from the chains holding him; "Sit sempiterna gloria" ("May You always be praised") as he climbs Notre Dame while carrying her; and "Sanctus, sanctus in excelsis" ("Holy, holy, in the highest") as he claims sanctuary. The entire set of verses as he's freeing Esmeralda is a prayer for strength and salvation:O, salutaris hostia ("Oh saving victim")
Quae caeli pandis ostium ("Who expand the door of heaven")
Bella premunt hostilia ("Hostile wars press us")
Da robur, fer auxilium ("Give us strength, bring us aid")
O saving Victim, open wide
- "O Salutaris Hostia" has the verse rendered in English as
The gate of heav'n to us below,
Our foes press on from ev'ry side;
Your aid supply, your strength bestow.
- And then when Frollo moves to attack the cathedral:
Nil inultum remanebit (Nothing shall remain unpunished)
Quem patronum rogaturus (To what protector shall I appeal)
- And when Phoebus rushes to the rescue:
Cum vix justus sit securus? (When scarcely the just man shall be secure?)
- Birds of a Feather: Played with. Esmeralda and Quasimodo bond over their mutually restricted freedom, and while Esmeralda and Phoebus are both sarcastic and rebellious to do what is right, Phoebus doesn't rebel against Frollo until Frollo attempts to burn down a house with an innocent family still inside.
- Black Comedy: A visual example during "A Guy Like You". When Hugo sings the lines "Those other guys that she could dangle...", we see three little ragdolls getting hanged.
- Blade on a Stick: During the climax, Phoebus takes a spear from a guard and uses that as his weapon until hes able to get his hands on a sword.
- Blatant Lies:
Esmeralda: What are you doing?
- "Besides, knights in shining armour aren't her type", and the entire song following that line.
- Many of Frollo's lies are quite blatant to the audience, but some of them are blatant to Esmeralda as well. Consider the scene where he sniffs her hair.
Frollo: I was just imagining a rope around that beautiful neck.
Esmeralda: I know what you're imagining.
Frollo: ... Such a clever witch. So typical of your kind to twist the truth, to cloud the mind with unholy thoughts.
- Bloodless Carnage: When Frollo kicks Quasimodo's mother, she falls to the steps unmarked.
- Bloodstained Glass Windows: No bloodier than you'd expect for a Disney animated film, but Phoebus lampshades it in his fight with Esmeralda inside the cathedral's sanctuary: "Candlelight, privacy, music! Can't think of a better place for hand-to-hand combat!" It's done much more seriously in the climax, as Frollo and Quasimodo fight on the parapets of the bell tower.
- Body Horror: Victor drops a brick on a guard's head during the climax. The results aren't pretty.
- Bookends: "Bells of Notre Dame" is played at the beginning of the film, and its reprise plays at the end of the film.
- Bothering by the Book: Frollo warns Phoebus to not disappoint him as the previous captain did. When Phoebus is ordered to arrest Esmeralda, he orders his men to surround her in the Festival, but obviously to discourage escape rather than beat down on her. After she escapes, he gives orders to search for her but not harm her and capture her alive. Then when he follows her into the cathedral, and they spar, he lies to Frollo that she claimed sanctuary and thus he cannot touch her. While Phoebus agrees with Esmeralda that what happened to Quasimodo was wrong, he still has to obey Frollo. He just doesn't want to be a dick about it. He finally outright defies Frollo when asked to burn down the miller and his family alive.
- On the Disney Sing-Along Songs video released to promote this movie, the title track is an edited version of "Topsy Turvy". Not only did they cut out Esmeralda's dance, but they also rewrote the lyrics so that Clopin wouldn't mention religious concepts (as well as beer). See for yourself here. However, in non-English versions of the sing-along (most notably the French version), the lyrics appear to be uncensored.
- The film straddles the line in between playing this straight and averting this. On one hand, Phoebus is a good guy, the gargoyles are comic relief, Esmeralda is old enough to make Phoebus' attraction to her natural, and there's a happy ending. On the other, Roma are portrayed as both entertainers and cutthroats, genocide is implied, and Frollo's sexual desires conflicting with his religious beliefs is only downplayed enough to make it as a family film.
- Played straight with the racial politics of the film. The Roma of the novel are mostly dangerous & violent, though Clopin is protrayed sympathetically, and the Sack Woman does not hate Roma for taking Esmeralda away from her after they reunite. This film, on the other hand, is explicitly anti-racist.
- Also, while Quasimodo's humiliation occurred in the book, there it was semi-justified as he had tried to kidnap Esmeralda and not because the crowd was just sadistic. Also, he was actually whipped as punishment, and Esmeralda's kindness involved giving him water after he begged for it.
- Finally, Claude Frollo is rewritten to be a judge rather than the archdeacon, out of concern that religious groups would protest.
- Brick Joke: "I'm free! I'm free! ... Dang it."
- Broomstick Quarterstaff: Esmeralda uses a long candlestick as a Simple Staff during her brief fight with Phoebus.
- Butt-Monkey: The old man, who is imprisoned in first a cage, then a pillory, then a sewer:[The cage breaks]Old Man: I'm free! I'm free![He stumbles into a pillory and gets locked back up again]Old Man: Dang it![Later the pillory breaks]Old Man: I'm free! I'm free![He stumbles into an open sewer grate]Old Man: Dang it!
- Calling the Old Man Out: During the film's climax in the cathedral, Quasi says to Frollo, "All my life you've told me that the world is a dark, cruel place, but now I see the only thing dark and cruel about it is people like YOU!"
- Can't Kill You, Still Need You: Frollo spares Quasimodo, though the main reason Frollo can't kill Quasimodo as a baby is that the Archdeacon caught him trying and used his fear of God to get him to adopt Quasimodo. He does, however, state that he's going to find a use for the "foul creature".
- Catch a Falling Star: Phoebus manages to catch Quasimodo as he falls off of Notre Dame and haul him inside. It's an especially egregious example of snatching someone out of midair since he'd gotten shot through the shoulder the day before.
- Celebrating the Heroes: While Phoebus and Esmeralda get to hold hands, Quasimodo gets carried on the shoulders of joyful Parisians, proud of the recluse of the belltowers that defeated the haywire Judge Frollo.
- Central Theme: The central theme of the film is that one's actions define their worth, not their appearance or their backgrounds. The contrast between Quasimodo, deformed reclusive bellringer but kind and helpful person, and Frollo, a pristine public official but ruthless and cruel bigot, emphasizes the theme.
- Cerebus Callback: During "A Guy Like You", a borderline Disney Acid Sequence, the gargoyles give Quasimodo the Ace of Hearts card while they're trying to convince him that Esmeralda would love him. Shortly after this when he sees Esmeralda kissing Phoebus, he pulls out the card and rips it up.
- Chase-Scene Obstacle Course: A Romani mother is fleeing from the vicious Judge Frollo down a Parisian street. She's running on foot and carrying an infant, while Frollo is riding his fearsome black stallion. The only reason Frollo can't overtake her is that various shop signs hanging from overhead brackets impede his progress, at times nearly knocking him off his horse.
- Chekhov's Gun:
- The amulet that Quasimodo receives from Esmeralda. It is a perfect map of Paris with the Ile de la Cite (the island in the River Seine where Notre Dame stands) as the reference point. Phoebus and Quasimodo uses it to locate the Court of Miracles in Cimetière du Père-Lachaise (the still-standing graveyard in Paris' 20th district).
- That gargoyle head that breaks under Frollo's feet during the climax? He sliced halfway through it a few moments earlier.
- Children Are Innocent: The little girl who hugs Quasimodo at the end, plus infant Quasimodo.
- Chivalrous Pervert: Phoebus. He's obviously very excited by Esmeralda's dancing (and much less ashamed of his excitement than Frollo is), but is able to look beyond just that to her kindness and spirit.
- Chromatic Arrangement: It's subtle, but Laverne is slightly reddish, Victor is slightly bluish, and Hugo is slightly greenish.
- Climbing Climax: The Final Battle takes place on Notre Dame, from the main hall all the way to the top of the tower.
- Cold-Blooded Torture: During Phoebus' introduction, Frollo explains to him that the previous captain of the guard was "a disappointment." Cue a whip crack in the background as a man screams in agony as Phoebus looks disturbed and Frollo just smirks.
- Color-Coded Eyes: Esmeralda has green eyes. Her name even means emerald.
- Color-Coded for Your Convenience:
- Frollo's black is punctuated by purple, signifying his high station.
- Frollo's soldiers are all in black armour.
- Phoebus, a gallant war hero, has gold-coloured armour as in the circumstances he is The Ace.
- The Roma wear brighter and more vivid colours.
- Quasimodo wears earthy greens and browns.
- At the end, Phoebus and Esmeralda are both wearing white, which stands for purity and is the customary color to get married in.
- Comically Missing the Point: The gargoyles ward off the soldiers with the help of a catapult. Instead of shooting projectiles with it, they throw the entire thing at the enemy. It misses the soldiers, falling face down.Victor: Are you sure that's how it works?
(the catapult deploys, flipping over and hitting the guards; smashing them like a mousetrap)
Hugo: Works for me!
- Companion Cube:
- A minor example, but the bells are this to Quasimodo. He has names for all of them, and refers to them in terms of gender. note
- Assuming that the gargoyles are truly in Quasimodo's imagination, then they'd be these too.
- Composite Character:
- Phoebus, who gains his good traits from Pierre Gringoire, an Author Avatar character who appeared in the book. Clopin also absorbs some of Gringoire's traits.
- Due to the film more resembling the 1939 film than the book the character of Claude Frollo is a judge, which his brother Jehan (Called "John" in that film) was in the 1939 film, rather than the archdeacon that the character was in both the book and the 1939 film.
- Compressed Adaptation: The film compresses a really big book into an animated film not much longer than an hour in length, and several characters—Gringoire, Jehan Frollo, Fleur-de-Lys, Sister Gudule, and the King of France are all Adapted Out.
- Conspicuously Light Patch:
- The ant-infested tile Frollo picks up.
- Played with in that the gargoyles, when they aren't "alive", appear as matte paintings, but then look like this when they come to life.
- Convection Schmonvection: During the climax, Quasimodo pours a ton of molten lead down onto the guards besieging the cathedral. Frollo is trapped behind the fall of molten metal, barely an arm's length away, and is absolutely fine.
- Cool Horse:
- "Achilles! Heel!" According to the DVD commentary, when asked "What's the horse's name?", someone finally answered "Achilles!" just for this joke.
- Frollo's horse. When Phoebus steals it, he tells the guards to avoid hurting the horse in the process of taking down Phoebus.
- Cope by Pretending: Quasimodo spends practically his entire life in the belltower because his "adoptive father" Judge Frollo refuses to let the world see how ugly he truly is, and is really only caring for Quasi to atone for murdering his mother. Judge Frollo and the three gargoyles are Quasimodo's only company, so he spends most of his time fantasizing that he is a normal person interacting with the people of Paris.
- "Could Have Avoided This!" Plot: Frollo attempts to remedy this in the film's climax but ultimately failed.Frollo: Now I'm going to do what I should have done twenty years ago!
- Covering for the Noise: Quasimodo is hiding a wounded Phoebus under his table when Frollo comes to visit. As Quasimodo starts eating the grapes Frollo brought, Phoebus moans, and Quasi tries to cover it up by going "Mmmm!". When Phoebus keeps moaning, Quasimodo kicks him under the table and pretends to be choking on seeds.
- Creator Cameo: Gary Trousdale, the director, voices the prisoner who is freed from one prison before landing in another.
- Crowd Song: "Topsy Turvy" is the official song of the Festival of Fools and so is sung by many people there.
- The first few verses of God Help the Outcasts are sung by the regular congregants-selfish prayers for things "I can posess," to contrast Esmerelda's prayer for succour for the homeless.
- Curse Cut Short:Esmeralda: You sneaky son of a...
Phoebus: Ah ah ah, watch it. We're in a church.
- Darker and Edgier:
- This film is much darker than the standard Disney Animated Canon fare. It opens with the villain sentencing a group of refugees to torture and execution, chasing down and killing an innocent woman on the steps of a cathedral, and being stopped in the act of drowning her baby. Later, said villain sings about lusting after a woman and burning her alive if he cannot have her.
- The villain's a genocidal racist (as demonstrated when he crushes ants beneath a stone block while talking to Phoebus to show what he will do when he finds the Roma) and telling the Roma people he's just rounded up, "There'll be a little bonfire in the square tomorrow, and you're all invited to attend."
- Strangely, despite the movie's Disneyfication, it's actually darker than the novel in a few respects; Roma genocide isn't on the agenda at all in the book, nor is Paris burned. Also, Disney changed Quasimodo's public humiliation from simple corporal punishment (and he had in fact committed the crime he was accused of) to the whim of a sadistic crowd. Not to mention Disney's Frollo completely lacks any of his literary counterpart's Anti-Villainous traits.
- Dark Is Not Evil: Unless you're Frollo.
- Dark Reprise: Inverted by multiple melodies simply by switching between major and minor keys:
- The opening fanfare is in a minor key, as is "Hellfire", but the endings of "The Bells of Notre Dame" and "Heaven's Light" are in parallel and relative major keys respectively.
- The melody of the verses of "Out There" is repeated throughout the score in a minor key. (See Leitmotif for a list of instances.)
- Whether or not this is an inversion, or if the trope is played straight here, could be debated, as the minor key is heard on the soundtrack twice before the actual song.
- Dead Man's Chest: Quasimodo hides the wounded and unconscious Phoebus under the table when Frollo comes to visit unexpectedly.
- Death by Cameo: In one of the shots of the streets of Paris during the song "Out There", Pumbaa from The Lion King (1994) is being carried off on a pole, presumably to be roasted.
- Death by Irony: "And He shall smite the wicked and plunge them into a fiery pit!" Ask and ye shall receive...
- Death by Racism: In a Disney Film, of all places. Frollo attempts to kill Esmeralda, believing that she's guilty of witchcraft because of her Romani roots, and ultimately dies in the process.
- Death Glare:
Archdeacon: But you never can run from nor hide what you've done from the eyes! (Points up at Notre Dame) The very eyes of Notre Dame!
- The statues that adorn Notre Dame Cathedral give one to Frollo during the "Bells of Notre Dame."
- Frollo does this twice to Quasimodo after he disobeyed his orders to stay in the Notre Dame bell-tower and was humiliated by the crowd (due to Frollo's guards starting a riot). Much later in the last third of the film, he then gives Quasi another one before ordering his guards to take him back to the bell-tower after discovering the Court of Miracles.
- Quasimodo does one when he sees Frollo lighting the stake that he tied Esmeralda to, showing that Quasi is not going to stand for this any longer.
- Deconstructed Character Archetype: The movie has a few:
- Esmeralda deconstructs the Dude Magnet. While all the men, including Quasimodo, are attracted to her, she also draws the unwanted attention of the Big Bad, Frollo. The different types of attraction run the gamut in the film to aid in the Deconstruction: the crowd in Paris find her attractive; Frollo is driven absolutely insane over his lust for her and is convinced that she's some kind of hellish temptress; and Quasimodo sees her as a perfect "angel" (his love for her doesn't appear in the least bit sexual) because she was the first person in his life to show him kindness. Only Phoebus is willing to both acknowledge her beauty and recognize her as a human being, flaws and all; that's probably why she ends up with him in the end.
- Phoebus deconstructs the Knight in Shining Armor. While he is a noble knight (who literally wears golden armor), he is still a soldier first and foremost, and serves the authority even when the authority orders him to arrest innocent people or let other suffer for things that aren't their fault. Reconstructed, however, when Frollo orders him to burn down a house with an innocent family inside, which Phoebus refuses to do. After escaping from Frollo's wrath, he joins the heroes and helps the people that he once aided in oppressing.
- The Knight Templar and The Fundamentalist tropes are deconstructed through Judge Claude Frollo.
- For The Fundamentalist: As far as he's concerned, Frollo thinks he's Holier Than Thou than others, and so, anything he does, no matter how horrible it is, is justified by default. On top of this, he'll repeatedly use Psychological Projection to blame others for all of his issues. Ironically, he's not the pious Christian he thinks he is, and repeated attention is drawn to his hypocrisy. Plus, add some creepy lust for Esmeralda and things really go downhill.
- For Knight Templar: He believes that All Crimes Are Equal, the punishment for every single one is death, and assumes the gypsies are an Always Chaotic Evil race who cloud people's minds with "unholy" thoughts. While the gypsies have committed crimes, they have not done anything to bring this kind of punishment down on them. He even torches a barn, even though its inhabitants didn't even know about the gypsies. It causes Phoebus to turn against him, and Frollo to try to kill him in return. Frollo demonstrates why a Knight Templar, logically and realistically, would be a horrible person, especially if they're an authority figure.
- Defiant Captive: When Esmeralda is captured and about to be burnt at the stake, she spits at Frollo. She's Defiant to the End.
- Deliberate Values Dissonance: Given that the film is set in Medieval Europe, this film has quite a bit of it.
- All of the characters refer to the Roma people as "gypsies", which is how they were called back in that time period — and in fact, at the time of the movie's making — instead of the Romani people.
- Quasimodo being mocked for being ugly was the norm for people born with birth defects.
- Phoebus is immediately sentenced to death when he rebels against Frollo. In the medieval era, soldiers were supposed to carry out any orders without hesitation, even if they were appalling.
- To a modern audience, Frollo's obsession with Esmeralda and terror of her having bewitched him comes across as self-rationalizing at best, if not downright delusional. And sentencing her to burn looks not merely disproportionate, but monstrous. But in medieval times, even a high-ranking public official and highly educated doctor of law would not be considered in any way unreasonable for believing that witchcraft and the Devil are very real things. Especially since he has seen her performing "magic" (smoke-and-mirrors tricks, to be sure, but he can't know that), and indeed the movie outright shows that demons really exist in this setting. By the standards of his own culture, fearing that a witch is using some sort of More Than Mind Control on him is not paranoid; back then, respected scholars literally wrote graduate theses on the techniques witches ostensibly used for such things. In such cases, the only way to save the victim was said to be to kill the witch, and/or burn the body and scatter the ashes (much as it often still is with vampires in modern fiction)—which is what the increasingly disturbed and desperate Frollo eventually tries to do.
Subverted, however, in that he also tries to use the sentence for a Scarpia Ultimatum. That would be as unacceptable to medieval people as it would today, and indeed an indictable offense, then as now. Although his contemporaries might also excuse it as a symptom of the witch's (ostensible) mind control; that would then work as a plea of duress, or possibly a sort of temporary insanity defense, much as the Templar court handles the similar case of Brian de Bois-Guilbert and Rebecca in Ivanhoe. Either way, it would in any case most certainly disqualify him from presiding over her trial in a proper court of the time.
- Demoted to Extra: Downplayed in the case of Esmeralda. While she is still plays a pivotal role in the story, the movie clearly gives Quasimodo more focus than her, even dropping Esmeralda's subplot of finding her mother.
- Descent into Darkness Song: Frollo's "Hellfire" song counts as a Dark Reprise of "Heaven's Light", but it also counts alone as this trope. A sacred chant leads into the song, With composure, Frollo sings to the Virgin Mary, "You know I am a righteous man..." and then the song gets darker as he sings of how desire for Esmeralda tempts him. The accompanying chants turn ominous, and Frollo pictures himself condemned. He concludes: "She will be mine or she will burn!"
- Deus ex Machina: A literal case: Frollo spends the movie on a reign of terror that he proclaims to be for a higher cause, sings a Villain Song that's an inverted confession of sins, and assaults a cathedral. When he's swinging a sword and raving about how He shall cast down the wicked, the gargoyle under his feet roars at him and breaks off.
- Did Not Get the Girl: Quasimodo. He's not bitter about it. In fact, he's encouraging Esmeralda and Phoebus at the end.
- Disappeared Dad: The debate rages to this day as to whether the purple hatted Romani man who at several points embraces Quasimodo's mother is his father or just someone his mother was close to. In any case, he's never seen again after Frollo captures the group.
- Disguised in Drag: Hugo briefly during the "A Guy Like You" song.
- Disney Death:
- Esmeralda is briefly unconscious due to smoke inhalation, not dead.
- In the stage version, it's not so Disney. She revives long enough to look at him and weakly say, "I... think you are a good friend", then dies, probably from carbon monoxide poisoning. All in all, the chain-yanking makes it worse than in Hugo's novel.
- Disneyfication: You wouldn't think Victor Hugo's original novel would be suitable fare for a children's movie. Despite being one of Disney's darkest movies, they still made it much nicer than the book Esmeralda was nicer, Phoebus was nicer, Quasimodo was nicer, there was a clearer line between good and evil, and the good guys didn't all die or kill themselves at the end. Even more strangely, the Disney movie is actually darker than the novel in a few respects; Roma genocide isn't on the agenda at all in the book, nor is Paris burned. Also, Disney changed Quasimodo's public humiliation from simple corporal punishment to the whim of a sadistic crowd.
- Distressed Dude: Phoebus and Quasi find the Court of Miracles. They are Bound and Gagged by Clopin and the Roma, mistaking them for "Frollo's spies", leaving Esmeralda to save them from an untimely execution.
- Does This Remind You of Anything?:
- Frollo's "Hellfire" song contains the lyrics 'Like fire, hellfire, this fire in my skin, This burning desire is turning me to... sin!' Given Frollo's hidden lust for Esmeralda, the "fire in his skin" could be suggestive of some S.T.D. like syphilis or gonorrhea.
- During that song, he is panting and freaked out when someone walks in on him.
- Doorstop Baby: Frollo accidentally (but remorselessly) kills his mother and is forced to adopt Quasimodo by the Archdeacon.
- Double Entendre: There are plenty of sexual puns and double entendres that fly over kids' heads. See especially Esmeralda and Phoebus's battle dialogue and the gargoyles' "A Guy Like You."Gargoyles: You ring the bell(e)!
You're the bell-ringer!
- Dramatic Thunder:
- Frollo has one in his first scene during "The Bells of Notre Dame" just before he begins chasing Quasimodo's mother.
- Also during "The Bells of Notre Dame", thunderstorm rolls in after the statues that adorn Notre Dame Cathedral gave Death Glare to Frollo.
- Dramatic Wind: Happens during the climactic fight on Notre Dame.
- The Eleven O'Clock Number: "A Guy Like You" is the last new song of the film, set before the big dramatic climax.
- Elite Mooks: Frollo's visored soldiers, who may be one of the most competent Disney henchmen in history. Compared to Frollo's more thuggish non-visored soldiers, these semi-faceless soldiers are far more menacing, skilled, and overall, very competent, and have effectively carried out Frollo's will, such as ambushing and arresting Roma, searching for Romani hiding places, shooting down Phoebus without hitting Frollo's horse, burning down most of Paris, and even when they were defeated by molten lead in the climax, they managed to damage the cathedral doors just enough so that Frollo can go after Quasimodo. The worst part is that there are a thousand of them at Frollo's command.
- Eloquent in My Native Tongue: Played with. Quasi sounds VERY different when he's alone with the gargoyles than when he's speaking to anyone else. When speaking to other humans, he sounds more childlike, with simpler vocabulary ("NO SOLDIERS! SANCTUARY!") and a stammer. The one time he speaks clearly is when he stands up to Frollo.
- Enthralling Siren: What Frollo sees Esmerelda as - imagining that she cast a spell on him with her dancing.
- Establishing Character Moment:
- The very first thing we see Frollo do is murder an innocent woman and attempts to drown her defenseless child, then to defend his actions as righteous.
- When Quasimodo is fully revealed on-screen, the first thing he does is demonstrating his compassion for living things and a longing to get out of the bell tower by helping a little bird learn how to fly. He turns and we see this playful smile on his face, and he says hello to the baby bird in a gentle and approachable voice. The DVD commentary states that because this scene is the first moment on-screen where you see Quasi's face, it was very important in making sure that the audience was rooting for Quasimodo right off the bat with this moment, and it makes Frollo's emotional abuse of Quasi all the more repulsive.
- Everyone Has Standards: It took very little incentive from a few guards to push the crowd of Parisian citizens to bully and mock Quasimodo. However, during the finale, they have clearly become disgusted by Frollo's parody of "justice". When he's about to burn Esmeralda, the crowd is clearly furious, with people shouting that she didn't do anything and she is innocent, and the guards are barely containing the uprising. (Also note that Esmeralda is an outcast among their society, yet they still pick her side.) It only takes a brief but inspiring speech from Pheobus to launch a full-blown revolt against Frollo.
- Everyone Hates Mimes: Victor has to stop Hugo from spitting on one during the Feast of Fools (although it's more to console Quasi than to protect the mime).
- Evil Minions: Frollo's regular, non-visored guards, in contrast to the visored soldiers.
- Evil vs. Evil: While Frollo is clearly a genocidal maniac it is interesting to note that the Roma themselves live in the Court of Miracles (where all the criminals in Paris hang out) and try to murder Quasimodo and Phoebus for discovering them, all the while singing a jaunty tune about their crimes and deception. On the other hand, some of the lines in "Court of Miracles" imply that the Roma are doing to (what they think are) Frollo's spies what Frollo did to them. So the lines about how criminals live in the Court might have been their way of mocking Frollo's prejudices, along the lines of "You say we're criminals? We'll give you criminals."
- Exact Words: "And He shall smite the wicked and plunge them into the fiery pit!" God does the exact thing to Frollo by smiting and plunging him into the fiery depths of Hell, if one interprets the way he dies.
- Extreme Omni-Goat: Djali, though this trope was not used in the original.
- Facial Profiling: Most of the Romani, including Esmeralda (who is named for her unusual green eyes), are darker-skinned and darker-haired than the other French characters. There are a few lighter skinned Romani background characters. Quasimodo himself is Romani but is a pale-skinned redhead even though his mother has dark skin and black hair; his unusual coloring might have to do with his deformities.
- Family-Unfriendly Death: Quasimodo's mother. She is knocked down the stairs of the cathedral and dies the moment her head hits the bottom stair. While we only see her from the front, it's implied the back of her head split open and her neck broke upon contact.
- Fan Edit: There's a fan edit with some of the gargoyles' scenes edited out or shortened to prevent the Mood Whiplash. The edit makes the film much darker.
- Fashionable Asymmetry: Esmeralda's outfit isn't symmetrical (she has a decorated wrap on one side of her skirt and only one ankle bracelet), and both she and most of the other Roma such as Clopin (who themselves are hardly symmetrical in dress) only have one earring in. Esmeralda is actually sharing a pair of earrings with Djali. Quasimodo is a bizarre subversion of this—his simple outfit is symmetrical, but his body (his hump is slightly offset to the right) and facial asymmetry aren't very attractive.
- Feminist Fantasy: The film transforms Esmeralda from the weak, fickle woman of the novel into being kind-hearted and street-smart. Even when she's in danger, she makes them regret it. Her role illustrates how unrealistic the MadonnaWhore Complex truly is, as all three men want her....but while Quasimodo sees her as a perfect angel and Frollo sees her as a wicked temptress, Phoebus sees and appreciates the person. When Frollo ties her to a stake and threatens to have her burned as a witch if she doesn't become his mistress, she responds by spitting in his face.
- Fiery Redhead: Justified.
- The red-headed Quasimodo showed anger and violence when he met Phoebus for the first time because the former dislikes soldiers entering sanctuary. He also literally used fiery torch to send Phoebus away.
- In the climax, Quasimodo can't resists his master Frollo burning Esmeralda to the point that he powerfully broke the large chains that hold him back. He also literally used fiery molten lead to defeat his enemies.
- Fire Means Chaos: There is fire at the foot of the cathedral as Frollo tries to kill Quasimodo. As Frollo suffers his Disney Villain Death, the fire makes it seem as if he's descending into Hell itself.
- First Girl Wins: Esmeralda ends up with Phoebus, the first love interest that she meets in the film.
- Flames of Love: Judge Claude Frollo's Villain Song compares his "burning desire" for Esmeralda as "Hellfire in [his] skin". He sings in front of a huge fireplace, sees a fiery version of Esmeralda in there and ends his musical number with flame-like shadows surrounding the scenery.
- Flashy Protagonists, Bland Extras: Downplayed. The background characters and minor characters have generic black eyes, while major characters like Quasimodo and Esmeralda have eye colors. This is most noticeable in the ending scene. The little girl gains Innocent Blue Eyes for her close-up, only to go back to black eyes in the subsequent scene.
- For Doom the Bell Tolls: Considering the film's setting and the protagonist Quasimodo being the bell-ringer, it's unsurprising that a lot of the trope is used throughout the film, especially when a scene is focusing on Frollo.
- "Remember, Quasimodo, this is your sanctuary."
- Quasimodo's speech mocking the idea that he could possibly be the hero- literally everything he says comes to pass by the end.Quasimodo: What am I supposed to do, go out and rescue the girl from the jaws of death and the whole town will cheer like I'm some kind of hero?!
- Look at the scene where Frollo destroys Quasimodo's model of Paris. As he does so he picks up a wooden figure of Esmeralda and throws it, knocking over a figure of himself in the process. Also, aside from the obvious symbolism he's invoking by burning Esmeralda's figure, there is how he smashes all the other figures and the cathedral model in his rage; not only does this foreshadow his Villainous Breakdown later on, it specifically shows how he's willing to do anything, whether killing the citizens or attacking the cathedral itself, to get what he wants.
- When Phoebus first visits the belltower, an enraged Quasimodo effortlessly picks him up with one arm, showing his extraordinary strength when protecting those dear to him. The next time he becomes angry is when he sees Esmeralda about to be burned alive.
- Even before Frollo's first Wham Line below that leads to Phoebus' HeelFace Turn, there are hints that he grows weary of Frollo's tactics to locate Esmeralda. One notable example is just before Frollo's raid at the windmill; Phoebus shakes his head in disgust when Frollo orders a group of gypsies to be thrown into the dungeon for not giving him information regarding Esmeralda's whereabouts.
- During Frollo's Villain Song "Hellfire" where he sung the part about how he blamed God for making the Devil stronger than him, it looked like the judges are dragging him to Hell. Guess what his fate is going to be in the end.
- Friend to All Children: The story opens with Clopin entertaining some children with the story of Quasimodo's backstory, and at the end of the film he is seen carrying a little girl as he reprises the opening song with the crowd carrying Quasimodo.
- From Zero to Hero: Quasimodo started as a deformed infant almost thrown into a well by The Villain. He's rescued by the archdeacon but kept as a recluse in the belltowers of Notre Dame. Quasimodo will ultimately rescue Esmeralda, and repulse an assault on the cathedral by The Villain's mooks. He'll end the film being carried on the shoulders of grateful Parisians and hailed as a hero.
- Funny Background Event: After Esmeralda pulls Quasimodo into line for the crowning of the king of fools and moves away; Clopin can be seen mimicking Quasimodo behind his back.
- The Gadfly: Clopin during the Feast of Fools. The second he spots Quasi, you can see plainly on his face that mentally he's saying "This is going to be fun."
- "Gaining Confidence" Song: "Out There" starts off soft and melancholy, and the lyrics are about how miserable Quasimodo is to be shut away from the rest of Paris, but as the song progresses he sings more about how much he's willing to risk to spend one day out there, and how great it would be.
- Game Face: The gargoyle that drops Frollo to his death snarls in his face, glaring at him all the way down with Glowing Eyes of Doom. Keep in mind that gargoyles in this film may or may not really be angels in statue form.
- Genius Loci: The cathedral of Notre Dame itself seems sentient, and the characters sometimes treat it as a person.
- When Frollo tries to drown the baby Quasimodo, the Archdeacon points toward the facade of the Notre Dame, showing that all the statues of the saints, demons and angels, the Holy Mother and even little Jesus are menacingly staring at Frollo. This shakes him enough to backtrack on his murder and merely raise Quasimodo in an abusive environment.
- Quasimodo's gargoyle friends, confirmed to be actually sentient, try to be a positive influence on Quasimodo. They revert back to stone statues whenever someone else is present, making their nature quite ambiguous in the first film.
- In the climax of the film, Frollo tries to hang onto a gargoyle only for the gargoyle to come to life and roar toward the judge, breaking and sending him into a fiery pit of molten lead.
- Get Out!: When Phoebus comes into Quasimodo's tower looking for Esmeralda:Phoebus: Hi there. I'm looking for the gypsy girl. Have you seen her? [Quasimodo approaches Phoebus glaringly] Whoa - whoa, whoa, easy!
Quasimodo [grabs a torch from the wall]: No soldiers! Sanctuary! Get out!
Brutish Guard: Minister Frollo, the gypsy has escaped.
- When the brutish guard reports Esmeralda's escape:
Brutish Guard: She's nowhere in the cathedral. She's gone.
Frollo: But how? I... [pause] Never mind. Get out, you idiot. I'll find her. I'll find her if I have to burn down all of Paris!
- Get Thee to a Nunnery: Multiple:
- The mention of 'strumpets' in "Topsy Turvy".
- Frollo calling the common crowd "licentious" (a somewhat archaic term for "sexually promiscuous").
- God Is Good: Everyone from Frollo to the Archdeacon believes that God will always punish the wicked and aid the righteous. However, the Archdeacon also seems to believe in God's mercy, and scolds Frollo for not showing it. Given it's implied that God Himself struck Frollo down, saving Quasimodo and Esmeralda from him in the process, all signs point towards them being correct.
- Good Bad Girl: Esmerelda is a seductress but she uses her sensuality to entertain, rather than to seduce. Frollo imagines her as a Femme Fatale but she is a much more kind-hearted person than that.
- Good Parents: Quasimodos mother seems to have been a loving parent to him. She didnt reject him because of his appearance and she risked her life trying to keep her baby from Frollo.
- Good Shepherd: The Archdeacon is well named; he's the most benevolent character in the story. A lesser man would give a minister with armed soldiers what he wanted but he denies Frollo with a simple rebuke and assures Esmeralda of her safety. He'll put the fear of God into anyone who violates the sanctity of the Cathedral.
- Gory Discretion Shot: When Quasimodo's mother is murdered by Frollo, she instantly dies the moment she lands headfirst on the stairs with no hint of gory anywhere, not even when the archdeacon holds her we don't see any hint of blood where her head got hit.
- Gosh Dang It to Heck!: Averted. It's the second Disney film that refers to "hell"/"Hell", Sleeping Beauty was the first, and the first that outright mentions "Damnation" . . . Twice in the same scene.
- Groin Attack: Quite a few, once notably with a bottle cork. Also, pity those poor guards who ran afoul of the guy in stilts. Ouch.
- The Grotesque: Multiple:
- Quasimodo won a prize for being the ugliest person in Paris.
- Victor, Hugo, and Laverne, while repeatedly referred to as Gargoyles, are all actually technically Grotesques (a Gargoyle generally has a spout to convey water, while these three are apparently just decorational when in stone form. Grotesques are the correct name for the fantastical stone figures that often adorn buildings). This is entirely separate from the trope, however.
- Hand Gagging: Victor does this to prevent Hugo from spitting on a mime.
- Handicapped Badass: For a guy with a spine like a boomerang, Quasimodo is surprisingly nimble and strong. Not only can he lift a grown woman over his head, he broke solid iron chains with his bare hands. All this from years of ringing big, heavy bells and leaping around the cathedral (see Le Parkour below).
- Happy Harlequin Hat: The points of the King of Fools crown droop and have bells on the end like the flaps of a jester's cap.
- HeelFace Turn: After moments of increasing conflict with Frollo over his tactics, Phoebus finally snaps and defies Frollo when he orders an innocent family to be burned alive in their home for not giving him intel over Esmeralda's whereabouts.
- Heroes' Frontier Step: Quasimodo didn't make a step when he saved Esmeralda. No. His HFS is when he holds Frollo by the cape and doesn't let him go. He wouldn't let the man who mistreated him for years, killed many Roma, including his mother, fall to his death. This short moment definitely solves the riddle: "who is the monster and who is the man".
- Heroic Bystander: All of the Parisian citizens mutiny against the soldiers when Quasimodo rescues Esmeralda from the stake and Frollo "declares war on Notre Dame herself," as Phoebus shouts. They break rank, free the Roma, and start fighting the armed men.
- Heroic Seductress: Downplayed with Esmeralda, who only dances seductively to entertain rather than manipulate. Outside of her sexy dances, she's an All-Loving Hero who is defined by her kindness and compassion.
- He Who Fights Monsters: Clopin was perfectly willing to execute Phoebus and Quasimodo because he thought they were spies of Frollo. That kind of "justice" is similar to the kind of thing Frollo does, though he might have let them get a word or two in before gagging them.
- Hoist by His Own Petard: The Battering Ram used by the Elite Mooks to break down Notre Dames doors was originally a beam tossed down by Quasimodo onto Frollos carriage.
- Holy Pipe Organ: For this film, which largely takes place in/around a cathedral and has more religious themes than your standard Disney fare, Alan Menken makes extensive use of pipe organ in his score.
- Homeschooled Kids: Poor Quasimodo—Frollo royally sucks as a teacher, seeing that Quasimodo is still learning the alphabet at age 20. Then again, this is set at a time when most people were completely illiterate, so he's still ahead of the curve. It's possible that he's purposefully not teaching Quasimodo everything so he could keep him as uneducated as possible. He doesn't want Quasi to get any ideas... (after all, "damnation" is listed twice).
- Horsing Around: Phoebus' horse Achilles when he was told to "sit". His face seemed well smug. Self-satisfied maybe?
- Hot Gypsy Woman: Esmeralda's status as such informs the plot; Frollo wants to both kill her and possess her.
- Humiliation Conga: Ironically after Frollo's guards incite a riot and torture Quasimodo they suffer one themselves by falling down after getting hit in the family jewels and beaten into unconsciousness. It happens again in the later battle.
- Ignored Epiphany:
- The Archdeacon calls out Frollo for committing murder of an innocent woman and going after her baby. He says no matter what Frollo does, the eyes of Notre Dame are watching him, and tells him to atone for his mistake by raising the baby as his own. It seems to work at first, as Frollo gains an Oh, Crap! look... then he says the baby should be raised in the bell-tower, and perhaps the baby will be of use to him.
- In the "Hellfire" sequence, Frollo realizes that his lust for Esmeralda is driving him to sinful acts. Rather than using this moment of self-awareness to tone down his cruelty, he instead blames Esmeralda for being sexy and God for allowing temptation to exist, and then, free of actually being at fault for any of his wrongdoing, resolves to burn down all of Paris to find her.
- Improbable Aiming Skills: Frollo tells his soldiers to not hit his horse when stopping Phoebus. To their credit they DON'T hit the horse!
- Incredibly Long Note:
- "The Bells of Notre Dame" (and its reprise), "Out There", and "Hellfire".
- Clopin holds the A of Esmeralda's name for an incredibly long time in "Topsy Turvy" too.
- This echoes the motif in "The Bells of Notre Dame", when both the Archdeacon and Clopin sing "Notre Dame".
- From the stage show, the last line of "Made of Stone". "As if IIIIIIIIIIIII — were made of STOOOOOOOOOOOONE —"
- In Name Only: This film uses very little of the novel's plot, even if you ignore the considerable bowdlerisation of the more mature themes from the book. Also, the characters' personalities have all been drastically reworked. While there are scenes that echo events from the book, even these appear in mixed-up order or are performed by different characters, changing their context. Disney's Hunchback is probably better considered as an update of the 1939 film, with which it has many similarities.
- In the Hood: Esmeralda uses a cloak to disguise herself and evade the guards.
- Infernal Background: The song "Hellfire," where Frollo sings about his Villainous Crush on Esmeralda, is sung in front of a fireplace. Later, it's backed by...you guessed it, hellfire.
- Ironic Name:
- According to the DVD commentary, Frollo apparently named his big scary black horse "Snowball".
- Inverted with Quasimodo and Phoebus, whose names have been de-ironized. In the book, Quasimodo is called such because Frollo finds him on Quasimodo Sunday, with its meaning of "half-formed" an ironic coincidence; in this film, Frollo gives Quasimodo the name because he's a Jerkass. Also, Phoebus's name, meaning "sun god", is meant to contrast with his cowardice and dickishness in the novel; in this film, though, Phoebus is legitimately heroic.
- Irony: At the start of the movie, Frollo mocks Quasimodo for talking to the gargoyles.Frollo: Can stone talk?Quasimodo: No, it can't.Frollo: That's right. You're a smart lad.
- And at the end of the movie, what's the last thing Frollo sees before his death? A gargoyle roaring in his face.
- I Should Have Done This Years Ago: During the climax, Frollo admits that Quasimodo's mother gave her life trying to save him, rather than abandoning him like Frollo had claimed. While Quasi is still reeling from this revelation, Frollo says that he's going to do what he should have done "TWENTY YEARS AGO!" and tries to kill him.
- It's Quiet
Too Quiet:[While searching for the Court of Miracles]
Phoebus: Speaking of trouble, we should have run into some by now.
Quasimodo: What do you mean?
Phoebus: You know, a guard, a booby trap...
[His torch goes out, leaving them in complete darkness]
Phoebus: ... Or an ambush.
- I Want My Beloved to Be Happy: Quasimodo does what he can to make Esmeralda happy, including blessing her relationship with Phoebus at the end.
- "I Want" Song:
"I ask for nothing/I can get by/But I know so many, less lucky than I."
- Played straight with "Out There", in which Quasimodo sings about wanting a day of freedom.
- Inverted with "God Help the Outcasts" as Esmeralda specifically does not want anything for herself, but asks God to help others who are worse off than she is.
- Jerkass Has a Point:
- Phoebus calls the Roma "criminals and dangerous". He's not entirely wrong; the Court of Miracles is a hang out for "scoundrels".
- Also, Frollo warns Quasimodo that people will be cruel to him if he goes out of Notre Dame, and boy, is he right, though he did nothing but rub in the fact to make it feel worse for him.
- Frollo points out God made the devil far stronger than man.
- Joker Jury: Quasimodo's and Phoebus' trial in the Court of Miracles. It is a mockery of Frollo's corruption of justice where the Roma are concerned, but ends up coming dangerously close to what it is mocking. This is reinforced when, while pronouncing sentence on Phoebus and Quasimodo ("I am the lawyers and judge all in one!"), one of Clopin's split-second costume changes is into a reasonable facsimile of Frollo's, though since he believes them to be Frollo's spies, he probably did it deliberately for the irony.
- Judicial Wig: Clopin wears one briefly in the "Court of Miracles" number.
- Just Following Orders: Frollo reminds Phoebus that he was trained to follow orders after the latter refused to burn down a windmill with an innocent family locked inside. This just causes him to extinguish his torch in a water-butt and do a HeelFace Turn (not that he was much of an antagonist anyway).
- Kick the Dog: Frollo does this a lot in the movie. Especially shoving the Archdeacon down a flight of stairs. It's far from being the worst thing he does, but it's still considered one of those things that you're not supposed to do, and gets bonus points for showing his contempt for religious authorities who get in the way in a way that contrasts with his role as The Fundamentalist at the same time.
- Kid-Appeal Character: The gargoyles, who provide the lions share of levity and comic relief in an otherwise dark movie.
- Knight in Shining Armor: Phoebus. Not only does he look the part with his armor and horse but he acts the part in protecting Esmeralda and saving the family trapped in a burning house.
- Knuckle Cracking: Clopin briefly cracks his knuckles during the Court of Miracles song as he prepares to hang Quasimodo and Phoebus.
- Kubrick Stare:
- When Quasimodo finally decides that he's taken enough crap from Frollo, and that violin starts softly playing in the background...
- Esmeralda gives one to Frollo just after spitting in his face while tied to the stake. Later in that same scene, Frollo manages a chilling stare himself. From Esmeralda's point-of-view, she sees Frollo through the distorted air above the flames grinning maniacally through the smoke.
- Lady in Red: Esmeralda wears an alluring red dress during her performance at the Feast of Fools.
- Large Ham: Clopin. "Court of Miracles" has him dancing and costume changing and arguing with his puppet while singing.
- Last-Second Word Swap: During Frollo's catechism of Quasimodo:Frollo: Shall we review your alphabet today?
Quasimodo: Oh, yes, Master. I would like that very much.
Frollo: Very well: A.
Quasimodo [nervously]: C-C-Contrition.
Quasimodo: Eternal damnation.
Frollo [gives Quasimodo an angry stare] Excuse me?
- Leitmotif: The opening fanfare is reintroduced at the end of "Heaven's Light", makes up the melody during the chorus of "Hellfire", and plays in the instrumental "Sanctuary!" Also, along with "kyrie eleison", "dies irae" is also thrown in at times. "Dies irae" translates into "Day of Wrath".
- Lighter and Softer: It's definitely lighter in tone than the book. Many of the elements and themes presented in the novel—like Quasimodo's hate and contempt for most people or Phoebus being a jerk trying to take advantage of an innocent young girl—were either changed or taken out completely. This is even more the case with the sequel in comparison to the original movie.
- Lightning Bruiser: For such a stocky, barrel-chested guy Quasi is remarkably agile and fast.
- Listing the Forms of Degenerates: Frollo's description of the feast of fools..."Thieves, cutpurses, the dregs of humankind, all meshed together in a shallow drunken stupor..."
- Loophole Abuse: Frollo tries to pull this when Esmeralda indirectly claims sanctuary via Phoebus; since they can't arrest her inside the cathedral, he orders Phoebus to drag her outside. Fortunately, the Archdeacon comes along and tells Frollo off.
- Lost in Imitation: The film is based quite strongly on the 1939 film version (which was itself based on the 1923 version with Lon Chaney), which is also one of the furthest from the book, with the overall story and plot structure being changed completely. It is still generally considered an enjoyable movie.
- The visual designs of Quasimodo, Frollo, Phoebus, the Archdeacon, and Frollo's guards strongly resemble their 1939 counterparts, as do their personalities. For example, Frollo is a judge rather than the archdeacon, and Phoebus is a genuinely heroic character rather than the jerkass he is in the novel. With that said, Esmeralda and Clopin have been completely reworked in both looks and temperament.
- The film also borrows some imagery from the 1939 film. The climax, in which Quasimodo rescues Esmeralda and then defends the cathedral from Frollo's guards, plays out very similarly to how it did in 1939; even specific shots are recreated, such as Quasimodo holding up Esmeralda and shouting "Sanctuary!"
- Love at First Sight: Poor Esmeralda must have had some Love Potion No. 9 before the Feast of Fools because everyone wants her immediately. Inverted with Esmeralda personally; though she falls in love with Phoebus at first sight in the book, in this adaptation she's both distrusting but fascinated by Phoebus and doesn't necessarily fall for him until she witnesses him saving an innocent family from a burning house after refusing Frollo's order to burn it himself.
- Love Hurts: When Quasimodo witnesses Esmeralda's and Phoebus' kiss and realizes that they are in love with each other.
- Lovely Assistant: Esmeralda is this to Clopin; after he gives the introduction he calls her out and she dances for the crowd.
- Loves the Sound of Screaming: Frollo, if his reaction to overhearing a prisoner's torture is anything to go by.
- Love Triangle: Quasimodo falls in love with Esmeralda, who in turn falls for Phoebus. Frollo's lust for Esmeralda forces it into a tetrahedron.
- Loving a Shadow: "Heaven's Light" and "Hellfire" show Quasimodo and Frollo fall in love with Esmeralda, but having warped opinions of her (see MadonnaWhore Complex below). To further the point, Quasimodo builds a figure of her while Frollo lusts after an illusion of her in the fireplace's flames, both resembling Esmeralda but not quite perfectly her.
- MadonnaWhore Complex: Deconstructed. Frollo considers Esmeralda as a Whore because she performs suggestive dances. He lusts after her but knows he can't have her because she is a Whore (plus he's bigoted against gypsies) so he decides to burn her if she refuses him. Meanwhile, Quasimodo is well-intentioned but only sees Esmeralda as a pure Madonna, heavily idealizing her since she saved him from humiliation and possible deathwhich does not mix well with the fact that Quasi has an extremely naive view of human relationships due to him living all of his life locked away from the world. Phoebus gets the best look at what she's like as a person, warts and all, and in the end, is the one she ends up with.
- Magical Romani: Played With. Esmeralda using a puff of smoke to disappear, among other crazy tricks, seemingly suggests that she has some sort of magical powers, but it's all for show since she's doing it in front of a live audience and she never once uses these fake magic tricks again throughout the rest of the film, let alone to perform in front of other people. Nevertheless, Frollo thinks that this trope is in effect and accuses Esmeralda of seducing him with actual witchcraft, even going as far as to try having her burned at the stake.
- Make an Example of Them: Frollo attempts to burn down a miller's house with an innocent family in it because he found a Romani talisman in their yard. He provides the page quote for this trope with that scene.
- Mama Bear: Quasimodo's mother ran in a snow-filled Paris in order to protect her son from being killed by Frollo.
- Maybe Magic, Maybe Mundane:
- The film remains ambiguous as to whether Quasimodo's gargoyle friends are really magical stone creatures that only Quasimodo can hear or just his imaginary friends. On one hand, no one else interacts with them (except for that quick kiss gag) but on the other hand, who pushed the catapult off if not them?Frollo: Can stone... talk?
Quasimodo: No, it can't.
- The sequel however confirms that the gargoyles are real magical creatures and not Quasi's imagination; At the end, the Gargoyles are sad to lose Quasimodo and hope that Madellaine will take care of him. Then Madellaine winks at the Gargoyles and tells them she'll take good care of Quasi, causing the shocked gargoyles do to a literal Jaw Drop.
- Much like with Quasimodo, the gargoyle Frollo sees before he dies is either real or a hallucination brought on by his increasing madness.
- The film remains ambiguous as to whether Quasimodo's gargoyle friends are really magical stone creatures that only Quasimodo can hear or just his imaginary friends. On one hand, no one else interacts with them (except for that quick kiss gag) but on the other hand, who pushed the catapult off if not them?
- Meaningful Echo: "Nobody wants to stay cooped up here forever." First said by Quasimodo to a little baby bird that he is encouraging to fly, later said by Laverne to Quasi when she, Victor, and Hugo encourage him to go to the Feast of Fools.
- Meaningful Name:
- Quasimodo means "half formed", Esmeralda means "emerald", and Phoebus means "sun god" (aka Apollo, who was the patron god of many things, including truth and healing).
- Claude Frollo's name comes from Claudius, which means "lame, crippled." His brother Jehan's name is a form of John, which means "God is gracious."
- Melancholy Musical Number: Esmeralda has sought sanctuary in the cathedral of Notre Dame from Judge Frollo and his minions. While they dare not violate the sanctity of the Church, she is effectively a prisoner there. Since her plight mirrors the prejudice and oppression of the Roma people in Paris, she sings God Help the Outcasts as a prayer for divine relief of the Roma living in the margins of French society.
- Midword Rhyme:
- In "The Bells of Notre Dame":Dark was the night when our tale was begun
On the docks near Notre Dame.
Four frightened gypsies slid silently un-
-der the docks near Notre Dame.
- And "Out There" has no fewer than three:And these are crimes for which the world has little pity
You do not comprehend.
You are my one defend-
-er.Out there they'll revile you as a monster.
Out there they will hate and scorn and jeer.
Why invite their calumny and conster-
-nation? Stay in here.
Out there, sitting in the sun,
Give me one day
Out there; all I ask is one,
To hold forever
Out there, where they all live un-
What I'd give, what I'd dare
Just to live one day out there.
- And in the reprise of "The Bells of Notre Dame":Whatever their pitch, you
Can feel them bewitch you,
The rich and the ritu-
Of the bells of Notre Dame.
- In "The Bells of Notre Dame":
- Mildly Military: Frollo's authority is vaguely defined and appears to have no limits, as it seems as far as the movie's concerned he is the Knight Templar dictator of Paris. He commands a sizable garrison in the city, and can slaughter suspects and burn property at will. The movie makes mention of the King and that there is a war that Phoebus was called back from. It's possible that the King is off leading the war effort and Frollo is in charge in his absence.
- A Minor Kidroduction: An interesting example — the film does start with a baby Quasimodo being snuck into Paris with his parents, but his face isn't seen at the time.
- Mondegreen: An in-universe one. Laverne mishears "Frollo's wrong about both of us" as "Frollo's nose is long and he wears a truss."
- Mood Whiplash:
- The gargoyles' goofy jokes often seem out of place, especially when Frollo's running around trying to slaughter the Roma:Hugo: Paris, the City of Lovers, is glowing this evening.
True, that's because it's on fire, but still, there's l'amour.
- Used intentionally in the "Heaven's Light/Hellfire" sequence: High among the clouds, Quasimodo sings a heartbreakingly beautiful song of love and hope, having finally found some acceptance and affection from Esmeralda, which segues immediately into Frollo all but masturbating over Esmeralda's scarf and fantasizing about burning her at the stake.
- Done in the Feast of Fools sequence. It starts out with a light-hearted, fun musical number, with a dance interlude from Esmeralda but once the song's over and Quasimodo has been crowned the King of Fools, some Jerkass in the crowd tosses a rotten vegetable at him to see if he can make Quasimodo any uglier. Clopin and the other cheerful characters abruptly disappear, replaced by a cruel mob that ties Quasimodo to a pillory and continues to verbally and physically abuse him until Esmeralda puts a stop to it and rescues him.
- In the beginning of the movie, the gargoyles successfully persuade Quasimodo to sneak out of the bell tower and enjoy himself at the Feast of Fools. Happy and confident, he talks about how he's going to get cleaned up, head right down those stairs, march right out that door — and then he runs smack dab into Frollo. In an instant, he's cowering and his stutter is very prominent.
- The gargoyles' goofy jokes often seem out of place, especially when Frollo's running around trying to slaughter the Roma:
- Mooks: Frollo has several soldiers and guards under his command, and with the exception of Phoebus we never learn their names and they obey Frollo's orders without question.
- Mook Horror Show: During the climax, as Frollo's guards attack the cathedral, we get their terrified perspective of some of Quasi and the gargoyles' defenses, such as the attacking birds and the raining molten copper.
- Morality Chain: There is only one thing keeping Frollo in check for a good 50% of the movie: the Archdeacon. He constantly reminds Frollo of his mortality, and also that even though he can deny his atrocities, he can never hide his crimes against the Almighty. He's constantly reminding Frollo of his place, but Frollo doesn't like it one bit. By the end of the film, not even the Archdeacon can hold him back.
- Morality Kitchen Sink: Quasimodo and the Archdeacon are the only truly good characters in the movie (and even the former has several Let's Get Dangerous! moments). Esmeralda is a Knight in Sour Armor. Clopin and the gypsies in general are Unscrupulous Heroes. Phoebus is a Pragmatic Hero in sour armor who later has a HeelFace Turn. The crowd of Parisian citizens start off as a bunch of bullies that mock Quasimodo, but end up siding with the heroes when Frollo goes too far and accept Quasimodo at the end. Even Judge Frollo, for all his nastiness, sociopathy and monstrosity, is given a very humane and relatable moment in his Villain Song "Hellfire."
- Ms. Fanservice: Esmeralda, so much that all three of the other main characters want her. Sick of drawing petite princesses like Ariel and Belle, Disney decided what they really needed was a heroine who looked like a Victoria's Secret model who pole dances.
- Mundane Solution: When Quasimodo and Phoebus search for the entrance to the Court of Miracles. They come across a gravestone marker serving as the secret entrance. Phoebus notices some writing on it and deduces they have to translate it in order to open the path. Quasimodo simply shoves aside the stone lid covering the hidden staircase.
- Mythology Gag:
- Two of the gargoyles are named Victor and Hugo.
- During the Topsy-Turvy sequence, Clopin sings about the Festival of Fools as "A day we mock the prig, and shock the priest!" As this lyric is sung, Quasimodo encounters a puppet show with a hand puppet that looks remarkably like Frollo. This is a subtle reference to Frollo's status as a priest in the book.
- Narrator: Clopin is an All-Knowing Singing Narrator because unlike most narrators, Clopin is a significant part of the story, though he enjoys himself far too much considering what is going on.
- Never Say "Die": Averted in the Swedish dub of "Hellfire".(English) Frollo: But she will be mine or she will BUUUURN!
(Swedish) Frollo: If she won't be mine then she'll DIIIIE!
- Nice Job Breaking It, Hero!: Frollo's Batman Gambit might have failed had Quasi not had his epiphany and led Frollo directly to the Court of Miracles.
- Nightmare Face: Frollo's face at the climax on the bell's tower looks like a demonic version of and The Joker with fiery red eyes. Even his teeth glow yellow.
- Nobody Here but Us Statues: When Quasimodo helps Esmeralda and Djali escape, they briefly pose as statues when a distracted guard comes into the path.
- Non-Human Sidekick: Believe it or not, Djali, Esmeralda's adorable and intelligent goat, is not a Disney creation.
- Noodle Incident: It's never explained what Frollo's previous captain of the guard did to disappoint him.
- Not Allowed to Grow Old: Averted. Both Frollo and the Archdeacon have visibly aged between Quasimodo's adoption and the events of the main movie.
- Not a Mask: Happens to Quasimodo during the festival. That horrendous visage is HIS FACE!
- Obfuscating Disability: Some of the Roma have been doing this whenever they move around Paris. In the Court of Miracles however, they remove the masquerade: Where the lame can walk, and the blind can see.
- Oblivious to Love: Esmeralda has no idea of Quasimodo's crush.
- Obsession Song: "Hellfire" again. "She will be mine or she will BUUURNN!"
- Oh, Crap!:
- In Frollo's introduction, Quasimodo's father reacts in fear upon seeing him.
- Frollo when he realizes his soul is in danger after the Archdeacon scolds him for killing Quasimodo's mother.
- Quasi when he suddenly runs into Frollo and then accidentally gives away his intention to attend the Festival of Fools.
- One of the gypsies very clearly has this expression when Frollo first arrives in the Court of Miracles.
- Frollo also has it after Quasimodo throws down a wooden block that smashes his carriage.
- Frollo when he comes face to face with the demon that drags him into the molten lead for his death, probably also realizing God has passed judgment on him.
- Quasi when Frollo reveals the truth of what happened to his mother.
- Ominous Latin Chanting: Given the setting, this happens often. A good deal of it is during Frollo's Villain Song where it quotes Latin Catholic prayers — in particular, the confiteor, which serves as a nice counterpoint to Frollo's Never My Fault attitude.It's not my fault (Mea culpa)
I'm not to blame (Mea culpa)
It is the gypsy girl, the witch who set this flame (Mea maxima culpa)
It's not my fault (Mea culpa)
If in God's plan (Mea culpa)
He made the devil so much stronger than a man! (Mea maxima culpa)
- Opposite Day: The Feast of Fools. "Once a year we turn everything upside down; every man's a king and every king's a clown!"
- Our Gargoyles Rock: The Plucky Comic Relief trio, and the bat-head-from-hell that turns on Frollo in the climax.
- Panty Shot: The brief scene of a troupe of women doing the Can-can with their knickers are in full view. Clopin is at the end of the line of can-can dancers, also in a skirt.
- Parent Service: The best example is probably Esmeralda's pole dance.
- Parental Abandonment: Frollo claims that Quasimodo's mother abandoned Quasimodo when he was an infant when in reality Frollo murdered her. His dad is presumably dead as well, since he was captured by Frollo's thugs the same night Quasimodo's mom was murdered.
- Le Parkour: How Quasimodo gets around the Cathedral exterior. Apparently he gets it from his mother, who was able to vault over fences, one-handed and carrying a baby.Esmeralda: You're quite the acrobat.
- Personal Horror: Quasimodo has this when he inadvertently leads Frollo to the Court of Miracles when he goes there to warn everyone that Frollo is coming.
- Perverted Sniffing: Frollo sniffs Esmeralda's hair at one point. Both the audience and Esmeralda herself know that he was not imagining a rope around her neck, as he claims he did.
- Pet the Dog: Averted. Frollo sparing Quasimodo's life in the prologue and raising him might have been an act of kindness for an otherwise wicked person and even become a redeeming factor, if his reasoning wasn't screwed up in the first place and he did right by it. Frollo twists it around for the following reasons: First off, he only does it after the Archdeacon tells him to. Second, he does it simply because he fears God may punish him for his sins, despite denying he sinned at all. Third, he refuses to allow Quasi into his household, and exiles him to the belltower for the rest of his life. Fourth, he simply sees Quasi as a pawn he may use later on, and never truly accepts him as his son. Fifth, he lies about the death of Quasi's mother instead of revealing the truth when Quasi's ready that he raised him to atone for her death. Sixth, he's emotionally abusive towards Quasi, drilling it into his head that he's just a monster whom no one but him could "love".
- Power Trio: The three gargoyles. Hugo is led by whims, Victor is very moral, and Laverne is in the middle—Id, Ego, Superego.
- Prayer of Malice: Frollo's song "Hellfire" includes a prayer to the Virgin Mary for Esmeralda to burn in hell or else become his.
- Produce Pelting: After Quasimodo is crowned the "King of Fools", he is strapped to a pillory and spun around while the crowd throws vegetables at him, such as tomatoes.
- Public Execution: The climax of the film involves Quasimodo trying to rescue Esmeralda from being burned at the stake in public by Frollo.
- Pun: When Phoebus gets hit by Esmeralda's goat Djali, he makes a punny retort: "I didn't know you had a kid."
- Punished for Sympathy: Frollo orders Phoebus to burn down a mill with the miller and his family still inside. Not only does Phoebus refuse, but when Frollo sets the fire himself, he goes in to rescue the family. Frollo would have had him executed for treason right then and there, had Esmeralda not come to the rescue.
- Race Lift:
- Quasimodo; in the novel, his parentage is unknown, but in this version, his mother is Romani (though Quasi doesn't look it, skin tone-wise).
- In contrast to Esmeralda who due to being Ambiguously Brown in the source material may or may not have recieved a race lift, Clopin certainly has recieved one. In the novel, Clopin was a Frenchman and the leader of the Romani was a completely different character who answered to Clopin as Paris' King of Thieves, Beggars, Vagabonds and the like.
- Reasonable Authority Figure: Phoebus as Captain of the Guard. When he enters Paris, he sees some guards harassing Esmeralda and accusing her of stealing the money she earned. He distracts them with Achilles's "antics" so she can get away, and then reveals he is the new captain before they can arrest him. When Quasimodo is humiliated and tied up in public, he asks permission from Frollo to step in and reluctantly obeys orders. He actually finds Esmeralda after Frollo orders her arrest, but talks her down from fighting him in the cathedral, and lies to Frollo that she claimed sanctuary so she can't be arrested. Then he asks Quasimodo to look out for her and apologizes for trapping her in the cathedral. Finally, when Frollo orders him to burn the miller and his family alive, Phoebus refuses and then dives into the burning mill to save everyone. When Frollo prepares to execute him for insubordination, Phoebus snarks, "Consider it my highest honor, sir."
- "The Reason You Suck" Speech: After trying to literally backstab Quasimodo, Frollo finds himself at his mercy, and Quasimodo renounces everything Frollo ever told him about what a cruel place the world is, saying that it's men like Frollo who have made it so.
- Rescue Romance: Played with. Quasimodo falls in love with Esmeralda after she rescues him; Frollo ironically develops his lust for her due to this same incident. Esmeralda, on the other hand, is oblivious to the former and is disgusted by the latter. After they rescue each other several times, Esmeralda and Phoebus end up falling for each other, but only when they rescue other people (Phoebus falls for Esmeralda when she rescues Quasimodo, and Esmeralda falls for Phoebus when he rescues the miller's family).
- Rivals Team Up: Quasimodo and Phoebus team up to warn Esmeralda of Frollo's ambush on the Romani hideout at dawn. Frollo followed Quasimodo and Phoebus, leading him straight to the hideout.
- Roguish Romani: Frollo wants to exterminate the Romani population in the secret Court of Miracles, where the scoundrels of Paris live and are implied in-song to feign disability. Other examples of the racism in the film include accusations against Esmeralda of stealing her earnings and later witchcraft, as well as Phoebus labeling the Romani as "criminals and dangerous".
- Rousing Speech: Phoebus in the climax. "Our people" in this context likely refers to the innocent French that Frollo terrorized, made homeless, and (probably) murdered in his obsessive search for Esmeralda. At the very least, a pretty large section of Paris is burning because of Frollo's actions.Phoebus: Citizens of Paris! Frollo has persecuted our people! Ransacked our city! And now, he has declared war on Notre Dame herself! WILL WE ALLOW IT?!!?
Crowd: [charging] NOOOOOO!!!!
- Rule of Symbolism:
DVD commentary: Here's some more of our ham-fisted symbolism—Frollo falls down in the shape of a crucifix!
- Frollo falling into a lake of Hellfire-like molten lead.
- Esmeralda's "God Help the Outcasts" and Frollo's "Hellfire", when taken together, sound much like the parable of the Pharisee and the tax collector.
- Quasimodo tied with chains to the cathedral pillars with his arms outstretched brings to mind both Christ's crucifixion and Samson being put on display for the Philistines. When he breaks free and the pillars crumble, it is reminiscent of how Samson met his end, pushing down the pillars and bringing the roof down on himself and everyone else in the hall.
- Elements of the Notre Dame architecture are used to convey different moods: for example, the statues foreboding and ominous, the stained glass beautiful and hopeful.
- in "Hellfire", the camera pans from a huge opulent cross to the fireplace below, indicating that under all his apparent virtue, Frollo has a much darker side, notably his lust for Esmeralda.
- At the end of "Hellfire" in the DVD Commentary:
- Frollo offers pieces of silver to the Roma he captures for information about Esmeralda. While it doesn't go to thirty, the allusion is still there to Judas selling Jesus out to the Romans.
- It actually does; he offers ten to the first group he finds, then he offers twenty to the next. Ten plus twenty equals thirty.
- Also, during the last few minutes Esmeralda is wearing a white dress. See Color-Coded for Your Convenience above.
- Pay very close attention to the scene where Frollo destroys Quasimodo's model of Paris. As he does so he picks up a wooden figure of Esmeralda and throws it, knocking over a figure of himself in the process. Also, aside from the obvious symbolism he's invoking by burning Esmeralda's figure, there is how he smashes all the other figures and the cathedral model in his rage; not only does this foreshadow his Villainous Breakdown later on, it specifically shows how he's willing to do anything, whether killing the citizens or attacking the cathedral itself, to get what he wants.
- Quasimodo's mother running away from Frollo and his soldiers with a baby draped in a white cloth, looks very similar to the scene in The Bible where Moses's mother tries to hide him when Pharaoh ordered that all boys of Israelitic origin shall be thrown into the Nile. The difference here is that she succeeds by putting him in a braided basket and has him float by the river, and never getting killed.
- Sadistic Choice: Frollo gives Esmeralda one last chance to decide her fate before her execution: "Choose me or the fire." She spits in his face.
- Saintly Church: The cathedral itself, since there are hints that it has a life of its own and is silently watching everything. The fact that a gargoyle on it comes to life to make Frollo fall to his death would back this up. That also applies to the three gargoyles. They were sent/brought to life to watch over Quasimodo, thus setting up all the events that have occurred through the film. Finally, Genius Loci (in the form of a patron saint) is Church doctrine.
- Samaritan Relationship Starter: Esmeralda and Phoebus are initially attracted to but wary of each other, but they only fall for each other after each witnesses the other committing a noble and selfless act (e.g. Esmeralda defending Quasimodo from Frollo; Phoebus refusing to burn an innocent family in their house and rescuing them).
- Sanity Slippage Song: "Hellfire" is like a visual metaphor of Frollo's religious hypocrisy collapsing in on itself, leading to the conclusion he either marries a Romani or slays all of them.
- Save the Villain: Quasi has an easy chance to let Frollo fall to his death during the climax, but chooses not to. Frollo promptly tries to kill him anyway... and pays the price.
- Scenery Porn: The Cathedral of Notre Dame is drawn with perfect accuracy. When you visit her in real life and slowly come to the realization that the artist painted every single statue correctly as possible, it gets even better. Particularly since they included the medieval statues which were once part of the facade of the cathedral and are now stored in a small museum on the other bank of the Seine.
- Screw the Rules, I'm Doing What's Right!:
- Phoebus objects to Frollo's order to burn down a windmill with a family trapped inside.Phoebus: With all due respect, sir, I wasn't trained to murder the innocent.
Frollo: But you were trained to FOLLOW ORDERS!
- Phoebus defies the order, in which Frollo commits the deed himself. When Phoebus breaks in and rescues the innocent family, he gets arrested by Frollo's guards and is ordered an immediate execution.
Phoebus: Citizens of Paris! Frollo has persecuted our people! Ransacked our city! And now, he has declared war on Notre Dame herself! Will we allow it!?
- In the final battle, Phoebus invokes this in the citizens if Frollo's word is seen as law.
[the people of Paris arm themselves, free the captured gypsies, and they all attack the guards]
- Phoebus objects to Frollo's order to burn down a windmill with a family trapped inside.
- Seeking Sanctuary:
- Quasimodo's mother tries to do this in the opening scene, but the door is locked, and the Archdeacon too late.
- Phoebus convinces Esmeralda to do this when Frollo tries to capture her inside Notre Dame. While she doesn't at first because she believes Phoebus led Frollo to her, Phoebus makes it look like she did. Frollo orders the guards to physically drag her outside, but is again confronted by the Archdeacon. He decides to bide his time, knowing she'll have to leave eventually.
- Finally, Quasimodo claims sanctuary for Esmeralda before all of Paris during the climax, to unanimous cheers.
- Shoo Out the Clowns:
- When the crowd turns on Quasimodo at the end of "Topsy Turvy", Clopin immediately disappears, despite having been present through the whole number, as well as crowning Quasimodo and putting him up on the stage. This is subverted later when Clopin turns out an intimidating leader of the gypsies, and also becomes part of the captives set to be burnt at the stake.
- Double-subverted with the gargoyles, who jump right into the battle for Notre Dame, but disappear during the final confrontation with Frollo.
- Before Frollo plans on setting Paris on fire, and Quasimoto thinking Esmeralda's dead. Djali the goat (Esmeralda's animal companion) suddenly disappers midway through the film. He doesn't return until after Frollo's death and Notre Dame's fires are extinguished.
- Laverne near the end tells the pigeons that are always bugging her to "fly my pretties, fly, fly!" (which is a Beam Me Up, Scotty!), complete with the original backing music from The Wizard of Oz. Also a shout-out to one of Alfred Hitchcock's movies, The Birds.
- Quasi and the gargoyles' relationship (and the fact that they can move (and shoot crunched-up rocks at rapid fire speed) even though they may or may not be imaginary) is similar to the relationship of Calvin and Hobbes.
- "Out There" has references to no less than three previous Disney movies. Fellow France native Belle Belle is seen strolling along reading yet another book, Pumbaa is shown being carried through the street on a stick, and the Magic Carpet is draped over a man's arm. In addition, Jafar's old man disguise appears for a slapstick gag in the climax.
- The climax, with the dramatic Notre Dame battle between Quasimodo, Esmeralda, and Frollo, may have been inspired by the end of Batman (1989), which has Batman, Vicki Vale, and The Joker in a very similar situation atop a gargoyle-filled Gotham Cathedral. And like the Joker, Frollo is sent to his doom by a gargoyle statue and Screams Like a Little Girl too. Both even had an ironic choice of last words (Frollo: "And He shall smite the wicked and plunge them into the fiery pit!"; Joker: "Sometimes I just kill myself!") In the rare moments when Frollo smiles, he strikingly resembles the Joker.
- In the same scene as above, Frollo's revelation to Quasimodo on the truth of his mother seems identical to the moment Luke finds out what really happened to his father. Less dramatic, though.
- There are numerous shout-outs to both Singin' in the Rain and King Kong (1933) in Quasimodo's climbing and acrobatics throughout the film.
- Clopin's animator noticed how similar the music for "Court of Miracles" was to Dukas's L'apprenti sorcier (best known for its use in Fantasia), that at one point, he had Clopin dance and lift with his robe like Mickey. This melodic similarity is probably what led Alan Menken to change the melody for the song in the theatrical adaptation.
- One can hear the Goofy yell at one point during the film.
- Shut Up, Kirk!: When the Archdeacon angrily rebuffs him for bringing violence into the church, Frollo merely shoves him aside, snarling that he won't be interfering with his directions again. Given the Archdeacon was about the only entity that could keep Frollo under control, this is a sign he's jumped the slippery slope.
- Silent Snarkers: Djali and Achilles, being a goat and a horse respectively, do not talk but their snark is clear regardless.
- Sitting Sexy on a Piano: Laverne conjures up both an evening dress and a piano during the gargoyle's Disney Acid Sequence.
- Skeletons in the Coat Closet: The Roma guarding the entrance to the Court of Miracles wear skeleton costumes to blend in with the numerous skeletons lying around the catacombs.
- Slasher Smile: Frollo briefly sports one as the fire is set to burn Esmeralda at the stake. He also sports one at the climax when he's about to kill Quasimodo and Esmeralda during his "And He shall smite the wicked, and plunge them into the fiery pit!" line.
- Smack on the Back: Phoebus winces from Quasimodo slapping him on the back, which no doubt aggravated his shoulder injury.
- Smoke Out: Esmeralda disappears and reappears in a puff of smoke at will.
- The Smurfette Principle: Only Esmeralda, making the main cast at a 3:1 male-to-female ratio. Likewise in the gargoyles, it's 2:1 with Laverne as the only female.
- Spared by the Adaptation: Quasimodo, Esmeralda, and Clopin.
- Spiteful Spit: When Frollo offers Esmeralda a choice between him or death by burning, she chooses the latter by spitting on his face.
- Stock Scream: One of the guards in the climactic battle lets out a Goofy Holler (YAAH HOO-HOO-HOOEY!) as he falls to his death.
- Sudden Principled Stand: Phoebus against Frollo.Phoebus: With all due respect, sir, I was not trained to murder the innocent.
Frollo: But you were trained to follow orders.
[Phoebus angrily douses his torch in a barrel of water; Frollo snarls with rage]
Frollo: Insolent coward. [grabs another torch and sets the fire himself]
- Then after Phoebus manages to save the miller's family, Frollo orders him executed right before Esmeralda intervenes.Frollo: The sentence for insubordination is death. Such a pity. You threw away a promising career.
Phoebus: Consider it my highest honor, sir.
- Suddenly SHOUTING!: Courtesy of Frollo: "Isn't this [figure] new? It's awfully good. It looks very much like the gypsy girl. I know... You helped her ESCAPE!"
- Suffer the Slings: Esmeralda uses a makeshift sling to rescue Phoebus.
- Surrogate Soliloquy: Esmeralda's song "God Help the Outcasts" is delivered to the image of Christ hanging on the cross inside the cathedral.
- Teeth Flying: Phoebus punches out a guards teeth during the climax.
- Tempting Fate:
Phoebus: Speaking of trouble, we should have run into some by now.
- Frollo says, "And He shall smite the wicked, and plunge them into the fiery pit!"... whilst standing above a fiery pit.
- Phoebus saying there should be an ambush waiting for them. He considers bad things that could happen, then mentions an ambush only when he realizes that they're about to be ambushed.
Quasimodo: What do you mean?
Phoebus: You know, a guard, a boobytrap... [the torch goes out] ...or an ambush...
- This Is No Time to Panic: When Quasimodo helps Esmeralda and Djali escape the cathedral.Quasimodo: Don't be afraid.
Esmeralda: I'm not afraid. [Quasimodo jumps and the trio is dangling over the ground a second later] Now I'm afraid.
- The Stinger: A brief clip of Hugo bidding the audience goodbye and laughing shows up before cutting to the Disney logo at the end of the film.
- Timmy in a Well: Djali saves Phoebus and Quasi from hanging by running to get Esmeralda.
- Title Drop:
Clopin: Ladies and gentlemen, don't panic! We asked for the ugliest face in all Paris, and here it is! Quasimodo, the hunchback of Notre Dame!
- In the middle of the Feast of Fools, Clopin crowns Quasimodo with one of these.
- Several non-English dubs share this title drop, such as Swedish ("Det är Ringaren i Notre Dame!") and Finnish ("Se on Notre Damen kellonsoittaja!"). The Japanese dub of the film, however, changed the movie's title to "The Bells of Notre Dame" because "hunchback" is too much of an insult to say. This introduces other Title Drops, however; particularly the opening and ending song.
- Together in Death: Done very subtly in the climax. After Quasimodo is left hanging off the Notre Dame balcony, Esmeralda tries to help him up to no avail. As Frollo towers over her ready to strike down with his sword, the look on Esmeralda's face shows that although she's terrified, she would rather die alongside Quasi than let him fall to his death to save her own skin.
- Totem Pole Trench: Esmeralda is known for doing this to hide from the soldiers. She does this by carrying Djali on her shoulders and wrapping a blanket around them so they could pass as an old man.
- Trick-and-Follow Ploy: How Frollo finds the Court of Miracles; he tells Quasi that he's already found it so Quasi (accompanied by Phoebus) goes to warn them, thus enabling Frollo to find it.
- Two Guys and a Girl:
- Quasimodo, Phoebus, and Esmeralda for a Love Triangle.
- The gargoyles Victor, Hugo, and Laverne.
- Ugly Hero, Good-Looking Villain: Variation of the "Deformed Hero, Normal Villain" kind: Frollo is not handsome, but his looks don't have the stigma attached of Quasimodo's looks.
- Victoria's Secret Compartment: Esmeralda pulls a hankie from her cleavage to use it for a magic trick to escape from Frollo's guards.
- Villainous Face Hold: Frollo does this multiple times to Quasimodo. He grabs the face of an upset Quasimodo and forces him to look up at him whilst mocking him over his only friends being the stone gargoyles. He grabs Quasimodo's face again during the first part of "Out There", where, in an attempt to control Quasimodo, Frollo tells him he'll be killed if he ever leaves the bell tower.
- Villain Reveals the Secret: Exploited by Frollo. During the final part of the climax, Quasimodo finally knows of his lost mother's fate, who died while trying to save him. Sadly, Frollo told him his entire life his mother was heartless and unable to feel "real love". As he tells the truth, Frollo finally attempts to kill his foster-son.
- Villain Song: "Hellfire" is partly about Frollo's Holier Than Thou attitude and his Evil Plan to reconcile it with the trope below.
- Villain Love Song: "Hellfire" speaks of Frollo's lust for Esmeralda.
- "The Villain Sucks" Song: "The Bells of Notre Dame" becomes this in one part. It rants about how evil Frollo is.
- Villain World: With the king out fighting a war, Big Bad Frollo runs the show here and he is a genocidal Roma-hating tyrant who kills people for committing petty crimes.
- Warning Song: Clopin begins the film putting on a little theater for a group of children, all the while singing "The Bells of Notre Dame" to tell them the story of how the titular hunchback, Quasimodo, came to be the bellringer of Notre-Dame, and under the care of Judge Claude Frollo. Ostensibly, the song is to warn the children the dangers of corruption that power brings, and that no one is above the judgement of God. The latter of which, within the song itself, is sung to Frollo by the Archdeacon as a warning in and of itself. The Archdeacon gave Frollo that warning after Frollo claimed a clear conscience for murdering Quasimodo's mother on the very steps of the church; the Archdeacon himself was too late to stop him, but arrived in time to save the infant Quasimodo's life.Archdeacon: You can lie to yourself and your minions! You can claim that you haven't a qualm! But you never can run from nor hide what you've done from the eyes! The very eyes of Notre-Dame!
- Wham Line: Several.
Frollo: Burn it.
- From Frollo:
Frollo: Nor would I.
- And later:
Frollo: I should have known you would risk your life to save that Gypsy witch, just as your own mother died trying to save you.
- And still later, an In-Universe one:
Guard: Minister Frollo, the gypsy has escaped.
- He also has another In-Universe one delivered to him in the "Hellfire" sequence:
- What Happened to the Mouse?:
- During the final battle, the Archdeacon tries to stop Frollo once again, this time from killing our heroes. Frollo shoves him down a flight of stairs. Though he is alive after impact, he is never seen or mentioned again. Actually you can spot him in the final scene of the film, when Esmeralda and Phoebus are leaving the Cathedral... but it's only for few seconds and in background. In fact most people didn't notice him until the Blu-ray edition.
- What became of Quasimodo's father after his arrest is unknown.
- It's never addressed in the end what happened to any of the soldiers who aided Frollo, but chances are, they were likely arrested and will stand trial for their crimes against Paris and the church.
- What the Hell, Hero?: During the climax, when Quasimodo has given up on trying to save Esmeralda and tells the gargoyles, who are trying to encourage him to save the day, to leave him alone, the gargoyles respond with disappointment. As they revert back to inanimate stone one by one, they deliver this powerful punch to the gut:Hugo: Okay. Okay, Quasi. We'll leave you alone.
Victor: After all, we're only made out of stone.
Laverne: We just thought maybe you were made of something stronger.
- What You Are in the Dark: When Frollo enters the cathedral and orders Phoebus to arrest Esmeralda, our hero whispers for her to claim sanctuary. At this point, she believes it was all a ruse to capture her and snarls under her breath "You tricked me...". Yet, Phoebus outright tells Frollo to his face Esmeralda claimed sanctuary, saving her from arrest. Even Esmeralda is surprised that despite her thinking he deceived her, Phoebus protected her.
- While Rome Burns: When Frollo is threatening to burn down all of Paris (and seems to have already burned down quite a bit of it), the gargoyles are singing about how Quasimodo might have a chance with Esmeralda after all.Paris, the City of Lovers, is glowing this evening
True, that's because it's on fire, but still, there's l'amour
- White Stallion: Achilles. It helps with the characterization of Phoebus as a Knight in Shining Armor.
- Windmill Scenery: The miller's house where Frollo burned it down.
- Xanatos Speed Chess: After Esmeralda indirectly claims sanctuary through Phoebus, Frollo can't arrest her. Frollo gets around this by stationing guards at every door of Notre Dame to watch for her. Frollo knows that Esmerelda will have to leave Notre Dame sooner or later for one reason or another; this way, the moment she steps outside, she's as good as caught.Frollo: You've chosen a magnificent prison, but it is a prison nonetheless. Set one foot outside, and you're mine.
- X Must Not Win: The gargoyles use this on Quasimodo, who responds to "You can't let Frollo win" with "He already has." Then, upon hearing Frollo's words as he tries to burn Esmeralda alive, Quasimodo changes his mind and keeps fighting anyway.
- Yank the Dog's Chain: The prisoner who gets freed ... for about three seconds.
- You Are Too Late: The Archdeacon heard Quasimodo's mother calling for sanctuary but just as he came outside, he found her corpse and Frollo about to drown the baby. He angrily and guilty takes her corpse to bury her and chastises Frollo for committing murder outside the house of God.
- You Fight Like a Cow: This exchange occurs between Phoebus and Esmeralda in the cathedral:Phoebus: You fight almost as well as a man!
Esmeralda: Funny, I was going to say the same thing about you!
- You Monster!: An indirect version. In the opening song, narrator Clopin opens his story by promising it to be "a tale of a man and a monster." At the end he asks "Now here is a riddle to guess if you can, sing the Bells of Notre Dame: Who is the monster and who is the man?" Frollo does call baby Quasimodo a monster when he sees that the child is misformed, and tries to kill him for it. You can probably figure out on your own to which character the riddle alludes. Then its reprise asks, "So here is a riddle to guess if you can, sing the Bells of Notre Dame: What makes a monster and what makes a man?"