Citation Needed is a web series produced by The Technical Difficulties: Tom Scott acts as the host and moderator while the other members - Chris Joel, Matt Gray, and Gary Brannan - act as contestants. It is an episodic Panel Game along the lines of QI, where Tom "almost-randomly" selects an article from That Other Wiki (keeping the article hidden from the others) and asks questions related to it while the other three try to answer them. Correct answers earn points and a ding, while particularly good answers are awarded Mystery Biscuits!note .
Jokes, puns, and divergences abound as Tom tries to get through the article in some semblance of time while awarding points and Mystery Biscuits!note to the panelists.
On February 21st, 2018, Tom announced through his Twitter that the 2018 run of the show would be the last one. In the time between series 7 and 8, the Technical Difficulties experimented with 3 different formats to replace the show, which were released on Matt & Tom's shared channel. The final episode, The Sweater Curse and Clothing Controversies, was uploaded on November 29, 2018. After Citation Needed ended, the TechDifs started up a new series called Two Of These People Are Lying on June 12, 2019.
Tropes found in this series:
- Absentee Actor:
- Accidental Pun: Matt's kind of prone to this...
Tom: (It) was published in the British Medical Journal without someone pointing out what rather obvious thing?Matt: That it was bollocks? (everyone golf-claps, Matt suddenly laughs as he realizes) I didn't even know I was making a joke 'til I had done it!
- On the topic of cello scrotum, which early on was revealed to be a made-up medical condition that was submitted by Dr. Elaine Murphy:
Matt: It's like you have to put some tightrope walking in there because this guy's a one-trick pony.
- On the topic of Charles Blondin, a tightrope walker who did a pantomime production. Gary has just joked about him being the front half of a panto horse.
Gary: Oh f*ck off!
Matt: That wasn't a joke. [beat] Oh, horse! Panto horse! [shrugs] I must just be naturally funny...
[Matt starts corpsing at a bad joke he's just come up with]
- And of course, the glorious example from the episode on time-teller Ruth Belville.
Tom: That's the look that means this is about to hit the cutting room floor.
Gary: Everybody, roll up your sleeves, this one's coming!
Audience: [cued by Gary, crescendoing] Oooooooooh...
Matt: [still corpsing] This is terrible! [composes self] Did she meet her untimely death at—
[A mix of cheering and groaning from both the panel and the audience]
Matt: Oh no! No!
[Tom awards MYSTERY BISCUITS]
Matt: That wasn't even the joke!
- Alone Among the Couples: Inverted. Several jokes have been made about Gary being the one married person on the panel.
- Aroused by Their Voice: Will Seaward's guest appearance in Season 6 Episode 3 inspires quite a few jokes about his voice, particularly whenever he says "Panthers."Gary: Can you make anything not sound kinky?!
- Attention Deficit... Ooh, Shiny!: They are quite prone to getting distracted if it's interesting enough. From the Thomas Midgley Jr. episode...Tom: We are now three diversions deep, but keep going!
- Audience Participation: Starting with the special at the tail end of Season 5, the show has been filmed in front of live audiences. This naturally leads to the audience getting in on the fun.
- On one occasion in the "Ice Block Expedition" episode, Tom asks for mathematicians in the audience to judge whether Chris or Gary was closer to the answer of how much arctic ice had melted when the expedition reached Algiers - the answer was four liters, and Chris' answer was zeronote while Gary had said "an nth" (1/n), which is undefinable. Chris won the point.
- Series 6 Episode 3 saw Tom bring back the "Chris Joel, ornithologist" Running Gag from the podcast days using for the gag; Tom said "Ornith," the audience said "ologist!"
- In the same episode, Tom asks the question "what pest eats the Stephen's Island Wren?", and an audience member calls out "Bill Oddie!"
- Before Season 7 Episode 3 started taping, Gary orchestrated a call-and-response with the audience. This lead to Audience Participation Failure in both episodes 4 and 6, where the audience jumped the gun, and a glorious reprise of the gag in Series 8 Episode 3.
- Badass Beard: Chris sports one (as well as a Badass Moustache to go with it), which got longer as the show progressed. In series 1 and 2, it was more or less a rather large goatee. By series 6, it had grown to cover the lower half of his face, and by series 8, it could rival Ned Kelly's. Sometimes the camera will catch him smoothing out or otherwise fiddling with his beard.
- Big Fun: Gary, as lampshaded many times.
- Censored for Comedy: Very rarely, one of the panelists will say something in the studio that could get them in legal trouble, so Tom censors it out with the title "CENSORED FOR LEGAL REASONS." In the Sidney Weltmer episode, it led to this:Gary: For those of you in the "Abroads" part of the world, Derek Acorah's professional title is—
[Series of rapid fire bleeps under a black screen with "REMOVED FOR LEGAL REASONS"]
- The third experiment, The Format Laboratory had a running gag proposed by Chris where everyone keeps making jokes until one of them needs to be cut, and the last one made before the cut is "the nth degree". Eventually Tom of all people hits it.
- Cheese-Eating Surrender Monkeys: France is the country the gang mock most frequently.
- Couch Gag: Every episode begins with Tom introducing the panel, leaving gaps after their names for them to improvise. What they say is different each episode, but they usually use this template:
- Chris says a short variant of "hello."
- Gary ad-libs a silly sentence.
- Matt usually ends it with a variant of "Hello, Youtube!"
- Often in different languages, such as Swedish ("Hej hej"), French ("Bienvenue"), German ("Guten abend") and Arabic ("Marhaba").
- Deadpan Snarker: Everyone gets their turn as this, but Chris does so the most.
- Early Installment Weirdness: Series 1 had "sponsorship" jokes at the beginning of each show (a carryover from the group's previous podcast series), and Tom didn't introduce the other panelists with their now-familiar titles.
- Also, in the earlier series Tom clearly didn't curate the articles but had them picked at random using Wikipedia's random article feature - which led to far looser banter as the pages he dredged up were often far less educational and interesting.
- Entertainingly Wrong: Sometimes, the panelists get the gist of the article's topic and come up with something plausible(-ish), but untrue. Tom occasionally gives MYSTERY BISCUITS for such answers. The Jack Churchill episode gives us a particularly epic example.Tom: [Churchill] was captured-
Chris: Yes. Was he?
Tom: Do you know the story there?
Chris: Oh, I can only presume that he was captured, went along willingly, beat all the guards at chess and poker, drank the camp commandant's rum, then dug his way out with his teeth while the commandant was passed out, chewing on broken glass and spitting it at guards, before having relations with the entire female population of the nearest town, lighting a cigarette on the ground, not even using a match, flipping the V and then walking into camp and saying, "What have you f***ers been doing?"
[audience applauds, Tom awards MYSTERY BISCUITS]
- Expository Hairstyle Change/Power Copying: Discussed in S6 E3. After Will Seawardnote makes a terrible pun:Tom: Will, you have slotted into Matt's seat just perfectly.Will: Well, when I ate him I stole his powers! That's how it works.Chris: You actually had a buzz cut didn't you, before you went in? (mimicks hair shooting out of head)Gary: The man was clean shaven and five-foot one.
- Expospeak Gag: In the vein of I'm Sorry I Haven't a Clue, most of the prizes for a given episode's winner is basically Tom giving a long description then pausing before repeating it in simpler terms that just so happen to rhyme. For example:
- Four-Temperament Ensemble: Matt (sanguine), Gary (choleric), Chris (phlegmatic), and Tom (melancholic).
- Fun T-Shirt: Well, hoodie, actually, but same effect; For the entirety of series 8, Gary wore a black hoodie with "SATIRE" written in green on the front. It then became a small running gag throughout the series up until the end.
- Grand Finale: 8x06 plays this for laughs: Tom makes it clear from the get-go that Citation Needed will end with that episode, and the finale nature of the episode is used as joke material throughout the episode.Tom: This is the final episode, and I'm feeling a bit like a teacher on the last day of school, but nevertheless, we are talking about "The Sweater Curse."
Gary: F*** off! That's no way we're ending this on jumpers!
- Ham-to-Ham Combat: Tons of it, typically involving Gary.
- Incredibly Lame Pun: Many of the jokes Matt makes. The others are prone to this as well, but Matt's are particularly infamous to the point where on several occasions Gary's response is a mock "Get Out!!" at their lameness.
- Joke and Receive: Occasionally the panelists will make jokes about the subject only for it to be completely right.Chris: I've just realized, we've not actually touched on telegraphs yet, and we have to do that at least once or twice a seas—
Chris: oh, f*** off!
- Late to the Punchline: On a couple of occasions Tom has visibly needed several seconds for a joke made by one of the others to sink in, usually resulting in a Face Palm on his part when he eventually gets it.
- Mad Libs Catchphrase:
- Starting with Series 4, the group have taken to using the phrase "And the wheel spins and lands on [offended country]!" after a joke by Brannan about getting a wheel that points to various countries that they'll offend that episode.
- From the beginning, there was "As we [workers in specialized field] call it," usually spoken after Tom corrects the gang's Buffy Speak description of a real thing.
- Magic A Is Magic A: Discussed in 3x02: "The Boobrie and Conservative Pandas" in which Gary mentions that "If you're gonna make something up, at least you make it up consistently!"
- Not So Above It All: Despite being the Straight Man of the TechDif crew, Tom's not above jumping on the joke bandwagon himself. During the Turra Coo episode (S7 E3) he also does this unintentionally.Tom: There's a full circle to this story.Gary: Did it become a cow again?Tom: (looks at audience as they're laughing) It was never not a cow, Gary.Tom: That doesn't mean it still can't be... (realises what he's saying) For God's...! (Face Palms)
- Only Sane Man: Tom is usually the last remaining member of the show who tries to move the episode along even as the others get caught along in whatever zany antics pop up.
- Oop North:
Tom: And standing in for Matt Gray, the mouth from the South, Will Seaward!Will: Hello! I'm not from Yorkshire.Gary: (recoils in his seat, away from Will) Get him out!
- All four members met at the University of York, and three of them are native to the areanote . Tom, as the odd one out, hails from the East Midlands, specifically Nottinghamshire. Out of the group, Gary has the most prominent Yorkshire accent and has also worn a hoodie labelled "Professional Yorkshireman" on set.
- Lampshaded in S6 E4 with Will Seaward replacing Matt:
- Overly Narrow Superlative: Gary is introduced as "Everybody's favourite Gary Brannan, Gary Brannan."
- A Rare Sentence: In the "Thomas Trueblood" episode, Matt blurts out "How can I run in these marrow-y clogs?" Gary and Chris promptly joke about how great the sentence is.
- Running Gag:
- Three series in a row Gary references Tinder. This despite the fact, as Tom points out the third time this happens, that Gary is the only one at the table who is married.
- The repeated invocation of National Stereotypes:Chris: Can I take a guess at the country we're insulting today? [...] Italy!Gary: (in mock Italian accent, upon the mention of Stefania Follini) Hold-a onto your pasta pizza lasagna!
Gary: The wheel spins and lands on France!Chris: It's not a wheel! It's just a piece of cardboard with an arrow saying "France"!
- The amount of times they insult France when the subject of the episode is a French person, led to this exchange in Series 7:
- Whenever one of them mentions the Chuckle Brothers, somebody else will implore the American segment of their audience not to look them up on Google, sometimes followed up by another member imploring they do and also look up any of the Chuckle Brothers' more recent segments.
- Gary has been asked to do his goose and train horn impressions 3 times in the series so far. They invariably end with him doing an impression of a goose being hit by a train.
- Later on in the series (and carrying into the group's other videos), Chris has a penchant for saying strange things that may or may not be related to the subject at hand, then shrugging it off (usually with the phrase "Sorry, wrong meeting").
- Shout-Out: Frequently, especially to British pop culture.
- In "Neckarwestheim and the End of the World", Chris talks about touring a decommissioned nuclear bunker, and mentions that as he left the bunker, he saw a group of people standing outside the chain-link fence, looking in, which gives Gary an unpleasant flashback.Gary: Aaah! Aaah! Aaah! It's like Threads! It's like Threads happened!
Chris: Oh, it's Threads turned Up to Eleven. If you guys are around on a different Sunday, because we're busy tomorrow, you'll - well, you'll hate it, but you'll all love it, I'm sure, it's great.
Gary: No! No! No! Because it'll make me think of Threads!
- Two episodes (1x05 "Neckarwestheim and the End of the World", and 6x05 "Accoustic Kitty and Bat Bombs") have ended by quoting Jeremy Clarkson's "on that bombshell..." Catchphrase from Top Gear, as a pun.
- Because Chris reads books, y'know, he'll sometimes throw in references to authors he reads. Take this example from the "Benjamin Rush" episode:Gary: Why aren't all expeditions done on opiates? Strong opiates! Ranulph Fiennes, off his tits at the North Pole, I'd gladly watch that!
Chris: Have you read any Hunter S. Thompson?
- In "Neckarwestheim and the End of the World", Chris talks about touring a decommissioned nuclear bunker, and mentions that as he left the bunker, he saw a group of people standing outside the chain-link fence, looking in, which gives Gary an unpleasant flashback.
- Smart Ball: for all their joking around, the three panellists all have subjects where they are very well-informed, such as history for Garynote , engineering for Mattnote , and birds and literature for Chrisnote . This is actually a Running Gag for Gray and Chris, as whenever the subjects of ornithologynote or history come up, it's cue for a chant of "When I say 'ornith-', you say '-ologist'!" or "When I say Brannan, you say archivist!" respectively.
- Speak in Unison: In "Hail Cannons and Operation Popeye", this happened twice in the same episode! The first time it was when Matt suggests that a hail cannon allows one to create hail, Chris and Gary say Why Would You Want That? in the exact same rhythm and cadence. The second time was Gary and Matt referencing Bohemian Rhapsody after Chris says "thunderbolts and lightening". Both got applase and biscuits were had!
- Straight Man: Tom is this to the other three and their shenanigans, such as in the episode about the hydraulic telegraph where the others mock him relentlessly for saying "There are flags and there is water", leading him to throw his hands up in defeat and say in exasperation, "Are you done?" Many jokes have been made playing off his (relatively) serious demeanor in his quest to finish an episode.
- Toilet Humour: a fair bit of it, especially back in the podcast episodes.