Guan Yu is one of the most famous names amongst the Three Kingdoms era in China. He's known for his extremely long and beautiful beard, having red skin, being the one who popularized the weapon 'guandao/yanyuedao' (lit. weir moon blade) via his personal weapon, the Azure Dragon Weir Moon Blade, in addition of being one of the few figures in China that went from a mortal into being deified as a God in the Chinese Mythology. Chances are, you often see statues or paintings about him in China, or a few of them in your local Chinatown stores.
Guan Yu, style name Yunchang (or Changsheng depending on if records were spotty or if he changed his style name later in life), was one of the main generals of the Shu Kingdom, founded by his sworn brother Liu Bei. He's very loyal to his brother and if able, will always stick with him no matter what, participating in campaigns against the Yellow Turbans, Dong Zhuo's tyranny, and pretty much anything else. When Liu Bei's rival Cao Cao managed to capture him and persuaded him to serve him, Guan Yu agreed only on one condition: One moment Liu Bei's whereabout was revealed, he would ditch Cao Cao and come back to his brother. And he did, even if Cao Cao showered him a lot of prizes (including Red Hare, which once belonged to Lü Bu).
However, like many men, Guan Yu has one glaring flaw even if he upheld his loyalty to Liu Bei: He's rather prideful and arrogant, which eventually came to bite him back in the ass when he incited the wrath of another rival warlord, Sun Quan of Wu, by provoking them to attack him when they already had problems with his position at Jingzhou. A combination of Underestimating Badassery of the Wu commander Lu Meng and some miscommunication within his own men caused Guan Yu's men to desert him in a most crucial time and he was captured and executed by Wu, costing Shu a good portion of Jingzhou, their strategic domain at the center of China, and it was just downhill for Shu afterwards.
As time passed, values started to shift. In the wake of the turbulence in China after the Three Kingdoms era, people started to latch on the people of Shu, and to appease the government, people started writing pro-Shu stories that gave much praise to them, Guan Yu included, for this one value that was highly revered: Loyalty. For all his flaws above, Guan Yu still valued his loyalty to his brother and the Han Dynasty, making those stories easier to digest. In addition, despite his flaws and downfall, Records of the Three Kingdoms/San Guo Zhi has stated that Guan Yu was a man that exudes honor and merit, spoken highly by friends and foes alike, including Cao Cao and even Lu Meng.
It eventually culminated with the release of Romance of the Three Kingdoms, a very exaggerated epic story about the Three Kingdoms era, where Guan Yu got a lot of new stories that hyped him up as an all around great hero and has a better leadership quality, while still adhering to his honor code and loyalty to his brother. Lots of favorable stories on him get introduced in this epic, like him passing through five gates single-handedly and easily killing off those that barred his way, killing several fearsome generals, or even letting go of Cao Cao when he had a chance to kill him in order to repay his kindness when he was under his custody. Of course, while it's a little toned down, the epic still did not shy away from showing Guan Yu's growing arrogance that led to his downfall.
Regardless, the novel went on to become one of China's most epic stories that even eclipsed historical reports and people started revering Guan Yu even with his flaws around, based on his performance at the novel. The amount of worshippers continue to increase that eventually Guan Yu was deified as one of the Gods in Chinese Mythology. While it may be surprising how a flawed man like him can become a God, the worshippers made it clear that what they worship on him wasn't his war prowess, but rather his 'brotherhood' and loyalty values. Still, it didn't stop some people from thinking that he's the Chinese War God. In fact, the growing worship of Guan Yu strengthened because some people claimed that he blessed them while they went on a war for what they thought to be a righteous cause.
A flawed man going to become a revered hero and eventually a worshipped deity. There are really few to none people in this world that can achieve such thing in their existence aside of Guan Yu.
Tropes as portrayed in other fictions
- Badass Beard: No Guan Yu portrayal has been done without very long, straight beards.
- Blade on a Stick: He has a massive bladed-polearm known as the 'Azure Dragon Weir Moon Blade'. It eventually becomes the basis of the weapon 'guandao'. It's often claimed to be an Anachronism Stew since that weapon type wasn't seen until the Song dynasty, and most historical records show Guan Yu actually wielding a halberd/pike instead.
- Fatal Flaw: Pride. Being a fierce fighter made Guan Yu rather arrogant and it led to his downfall.
- Historical Badass Upgrade: Not on his martial prowess, but more about his leadership. Historically, Guan Yu's leadership wasn't that excellent, but in other portrayals, he tends to be an excellent leader.
- Historical Hero Upgrade: Most of portrayals of him, including Romance of the Three Kingdoms itself, tend to gloss away his more questionable decisions before his downfall, or tones down his arrogance, making him look like an embodiment of righteousness and loyalty first and foremost.
- Red Is Heroic: Thanks to Peking Opera, one thing Guan Yu is known for is that he's got unusual red-colored skin to go along with his mostly green colored garb, and as we know it, he's often portrayed as the heroic figure.
- Overprotective Dad: One of the reasons of the disastrous battle that led to his downfall was because Sun Quan offered his son to marry his daughter. Guan Yu will have none of that, roughly.
- Underestimating Badassery: When he heard that Lu Meng and Lu Xun were plotting against him for Jing, Guan Yu dismissed them, thinking that they're nothing compared to his records. Boy, did it bite him in the ass fatally.
- Undying Loyalty: He's never going to betray his brothers, especially Liu Bei. This is actually his strongest forte.
- War God: He's eventually deified as the Chinese version of the trope, even if it was kind of Sadly Mythtaken, because he's actually more worshipped for loyalty and brotherhood.
Appearances in other fictions
- Romance of the Three Kingdoms: Guan Yu is a mainstay officer in this game, possessing high War and Leadership qualities, making him a good choice for a war general. In addition, his Politics and Intelligence stats are usually on decent scores as well.
- Dynasty Warriors: Having been one of the original playable characters since the first fighting game, Guan Yu is always present in these games, wielding his Azure/Green Dragon Blade (mis-localized as 'Blue Dragon') as a powerful weapon that enables him to clear crowds with ease and still remain a potent dueling weapon. Over time, his children start getting included into the Shu kingdom as playable characters; they all look up to him, and he's proud of them.
- The Lost Bladesman: A Live-Action Film starring Donnie Yen as Guan Yu, recounting his last days in serving Cao Cao, mostly his crossing of five gates.
- Ikkitousen: As the series is about Three Kingdoms generals gender-flipped into voluptuous school girls, Guan Yu's counterpart is Kan'u Unchou (his whole name simply read in Japanese on'yomi), a towering powerful girl that carries around his Azure Dragon Blade (albeit with a white hue) and considered one of the most powerful girls in the cast (and often considered the sexiest). She pretty much set the standards that in any case Guan Yu is to be gender-flipped, the beard is exchanged with long, flowing hair.
- KoihimeMusou: Another gender-flipped Three Kingdoms series. Guan Yu is once again represented as a voluptuous young girl named Kan U styled 'Unchou' (via the same Chinese naming scheme only rendered in Japanese on'yomi), though alternatively called Aisha. She also comes with her own Azure Dragon Blade, and due to Early Installment Weirdness, she used to be the series' main character, until the second game introduced Liu Bei's counterpart (Ryuubi).
- Smite: Guan Yu, being the only deified figure amongst the Three Kingdoms personages, is one of the playable Gods amongst the Chinese Pantheon and is of the Warrior class, titled 'Saint of War'. His movesets include healing nearby allies, a dash with his polearm, spinning his polearm to damage his enemies over time, and suddenly riding Red Hare to charge through the enemy ranks and slashing around.
- Titan Quest: A set of tenets/relics is based on Guan Yu, called 'Guan Yu's Grace'.
- Shin Megami Tensei: Guan Yu, occasionally called 'Kanseiteikun', is one of the recurring demons in the franchise.
- For Honor: Starting with the Marching Fire set, Chinese classes were added, one of them is 'Jiang Jun', and the class takes heavy notes from Guan Yu, with guandao as their weapon and having long beards. The NPC made for this class is also literally named 'Guan Yu', though he also had an original story and background, not the Guan Yu of Three Kingdoms getting transported to For Honor-verse.
- Arena Of Valor: Technically, Guan Yu isn't in that game, but he is in the original version of the game, Wangzhe Rongyao, which used characters based on Chinese history, folklore and mythology (a very patriotic game) and obviously, Guan Yu is there. He's a warrior that constantly rode his Red Hare and has two stances depending on how many distances he has walked (if he walked long enough, he'll have Red Hare run), most of them is about charging forward and swinging his spear. His moveset is then transferred to Arena Of Valor's rendition of Superman, trading the Red Hare riding with Superman's flight.
- Total War: Three Kingdoms: Guan Yu is a unique general serving under Liu Bei and is of the Champion type. He's very good at fighting, but excels at dueling as a nod of several times he went on 1-on-1 duels and prevailing. He fared less better in normal battle (his Vanguard brother Zhang Fei is better in this), but that doesn't mean he's not good in army battles. One of the optional Historical Battle also depicts his escape from the disastrous Fancheng campaign, where the player has to control his squad against Lu Meng's ambush party and surviving.