Oliver! is a musical adaptation of Oliver Twist, with book, music, and lyrics all by Lionel Bart. It premiered on London's West End in 1960, and had its first Broadway production in 1963.
The Movie was released in 1968. It was directed by Carol Reed (The Third Man). It starred Oliver Reed (Carol's nephew) as Bill Sikes, Mark Lester as Oliver (with his songs sung by a girl, Kathe Green), Jack Wild as the Artful Dodger and Ron Moody as Fagin. It was the last musical to win the Academy Award for Best Picture until Chicago 34 years later, and it remains the only G-rated movie to win.
A sequel titled Dodger, set seven years later and focusing on the Artful Dodger, was staged in 2008 by David Lambert.
Oliver! provides examples of:
- Actor Swap: Probably since hes hardly even shown, Charley Bates is played by two different boys.
- Adaptation Title Change: The title was shortened from Oliver Twist.
- Adaptational Nice Guy: Fagin is still not exactly a heroic character, being self-serving and at least somewhat manipulative. However, he's much nicer than his villainous book counterpart, as he does show genuine kindness and care to the children he trains as thieves and makes a dramatic contrast to the abusive and cruel adults Oliver has encountered previously.
- Adapted Out: Monks and the Maylies are omitted. Rose was down in the notes to appear originally, but got dropped from the story.
- Affably Evil: Fagin and Dodger, who, while genuinely pleasant to the kids under their care, actively look for children to recruit using many of the same criteria as modern cults. Fagin, however, after seeing how Nancy and Bill turned out, has something of a change of heart and, after some soul-searching and the destruction of his operation, resolves to turn over a new leaf.
- All Girls Want Bad Boys: Nancy sings about her love of Bill Sikes, the best thief, who's a cold, bullying monster. It turns out bad for her in the end - he winds up killing her.
- The Artful Dodger: Jack Dawkins. Even more so than in the book.
- "Awkward Silence" Entrance: In the film adaptation, once the Artful Dodger believes Oliver Twist is an ideal fit for Fagin's gang, he drags Oliver through the city into the slums where he lives. When the two of them walk in, the rowdy boys playing card games, practising their tricks or chatting loudly over a cigarette, freeze and stare as Dodger and his guest walk past them towards Fagin's office. One boy is so suspicious, he jumps off a high ledge and lands behind Oliver to get a better look, his landing acting as a Jump Scare.
- Bad Samaritan: Fagin, though downplayed from the book. While still somewhat self-serving, he is portrayed as something of a whimsical Loveable Rogue who does to some extent care for his gang (or at least loathes Sikes' treatment of them).
- Bawdy Song: In a sort of meta-example, "Oom Pah-Pah" both refers to this kind of song and is a very mild example itself.
- Being Evil Sucks: Alone, we see Fagin contemplating this during "Reviewing the Situation", but also noting how hard it would be to start over as a good guy.Fagin: And though I'd be the first one to say that I wasn't a saint
I'm finding it hard to be truly as black as they paint...
- Berserk Button: Do not insult Oliver's dead mother. Or call him a liar for that matter, doesn't matter whether you are a "work ass" calling jerkass or Bill Big Bad Sikes himself, you will make an ugly scene.
- Big Word Shout:Oliver: Please sir, I want some more.
Mr. Bumble: WHAT?!
Oliver: Please sir, I want some...more?
Mr. Bumble: MORE?!!
- Bread, Eggs, Milk, Squick: "I'd Do Anything" starts out with cute lines about the things the boys would do, like "Would you climb a hill? (Anything!)/ Wear a daffodil? (Anything!)" etc. Then in the third verse:
- Broken Bird: Nancy. Her plight is summed up in her song, "As Long as He Needs Me" which explains why she stays with Sikes despite his domestic abuse.
- The Brute: Bill Sikes.
- Cheerful Child: Oliver brings out the best in nearly everyone he meets, even Fagin. The exceptions to this are the completely heartless.
- Childhood Friend Romance: Both Nancy and Sikes grew up in Fagin's gang of child pickpockets, and some stage productions deliberately imply this trope when casting a younger actor as Sikes.
- Compressed Adaptation: A lot of plot convolutions and their related characters, particularly regarding Oliver's tangled family history, get left out.
- Contrived Coincidence: Oliver witnesses and initially gets blamed for Dodger pick-pocketing, his own great uncle, no less.
- Creepy Mortician: The Sowerberrys, a whole family of this. They even get a song, "That's Your Funeral."
- Crowd Song: "Consider Yourself".
- Dark Reprise:
- "It's a Fine Life" is first sung by Nancy and Bet as a relatively cheerful song, but is later reprised by Nancy, Bill Sikes, Fagin, and Dodger in a more sarcastic and dark manner.
- When you look at Bill's treatment of Nancy, the original becomes pretty dark on its own: "Though you sometimes do come by/The occasional black eye/You can always cover one/'Till he blacks the other one/But you don't dare cry!"
- In the original version (and subsequently mounted productions of the show) the orchestration, similar in tone to the rowdy, cheerful way it was sung earlier, gives this moment in the show a severe case of Lyrical Dissonance. The Cameron Mackintosh revival, mounted in the West End in 1994 and 2008, remedied this unfortunate imbalance, thanks largely to orchestrator Bill Brohn and arranger Chris Walker.
- "As Long As He Needs Me" is another example: the first time Nancy sings it to demonstrate how she won't give up Bill despite his abuse, the second is right before Bill decides he doesn't need her anymore - and murders her in cold blood.
- "It's a Fine Life" is first sung by Nancy and Bet as a relatively cheerful song, but is later reprised by Nancy, Bill Sikes, Fagin, and Dodger in a more sarcastic and dark manner.
- Delicious Daydream: The song "Food, Glorious Food" is sung by the boys in the workhouse, who are imagining said glorious food while sick of the gruel they're being served.
- Demoted to Extra: Charley Bates. His role is greatly reduced from the novel. Likely done to put more emphasis on the Artful Dodger.
- Disproportionate Retribution: Speaking Bill Sikes' name aloud is, apparently, grounds for being killed, even if it's a whisper. He claims he actually followed through and did kill someone for boasting that he could his name in vain.
- Domestic Abuse: Bill Sikes to Nancy.
- Double Entendre: The entirety of "Oom-Pah-Pah" is a glorious pileup of double entendres, with just enough subtlety to avoid being cut from even the most kid-friendly productions. Though it's up to the viewer to decide whether "oom-pah-pah" is meant to be alcohol, sex, or both. Considering that it's presented as a drinking song, the former is the most likely, although not by much.Nancy: They all suppose what they want to suppose
When they hear "oom-pah-pah"!
- Downer Ending: The only character who has a happy ending is Oliver himself. And that's after watching Nancy killed by Bill Sikes, who is then killed trying to escape with Oliver. Must've been pretty traumatic to be a part of...
- The Dreaded: Sikes. The moment he arrives in the tavern after "Oom-Pah-Pah" the whole place goes dead quiet, seguing perfectly into his Villain Song.Sikes: Strong men tremble when they hear it
They've got cause enough to fear it
It's much blacker than they smear it
Nobody mentions... my name.
- Drunken Song: "Oom-Pah-Pah": "There's a little ditty they're singing in the city, espec'lly when they've been on the gin or the beer..."
- The Eleven O'Clock Number: "Reviewing the Situation".
- Even Evil Has Standards: Fagin seems to dislike Bill Sikes's penchant for violence and his treatment of Nancy. The thieves and pickpockets under his care also react with horror when Sikes beats Nancy in front of them. Also, when Sikes tells the gang that he murdered Nancy, Fagin is visibly horrified and refuses to help him escape. Even Bullseye, Sikes' rough and tough guard dog, refuses to follow his master after he murders Nancy.
- Everything Has Rhythm: During "Consider Yourself", everyone does this with whatever it is they happen to be doing. Except maybe Dodger and Oliver.
- Excited Show Title!: Oliver!
- Explain, Explain... Oh, Crap!: "Reviewing the Situation" is this trope in musical form. Having realized that the life of a criminal, with all its "trials and tribulations", might not be the best thing for him, and he muses over possible alternatives: getting married, living in society, getting an honest job. Each time, though, he comes to the realization halfway through that the "solution" he's describing would not be an improvement, leading him to conclude:I think I'd better think it out again.
- The Fagin: Fagin.
- Fatal Flaw: Nancy's misplaced Undying Loyalty to the monstrous Bill Sikes.
- Food Songs Are Funny: "Food, Glorious Food". A bunch of starving workhouse boys sing of having all the food they want.
- Hakuna Matata: "Consider Yourself".
- Have a Gay Old Time: "Who Will Buy" has Oliver recite the line "I'm so high, I swear I could fly." This is referring to an emotional high, of course - He's just really happy.
- Haven't You Seen X Before?:The Artful Dodger: [to Oliver, who has just arrived in London] Whatchu starin' at? 'Aven't you never seen a toff?
- HeelFace Turn:
- Nancy is forced by Sikes to lead Oliver into a trap so he can be brought back to Fagin. Later she risks her own life to save Oliver from Sikes.
- Sikes's dog Bullseye. After Sikes murders Nancy, Bullseye runs back to the crowd and leads them to Sikes and Oliver.
- Fagin considers the benefits of this in the song "Reviewing the Situation", but quickly changes his mind.
- Fagin decides at the end that, with the breaking up and arrest of his gang, along with the loss of his precious treasures, there has never been a better time to change his ways.
- "I Am" Song: Bill Sikes' "My Name".
- I Am Very British: In the first half, the difference is made stronger due to a juxtaposition of 'proper' and Cockney English.
- I Am What I Am:
- Ignored Epiphany: Fagin, while "Reviewing the Situation," considered going straight and the situations it might result in, but finally decided:I'm reviewing the situation.
I'm a bad 'un and a bad 'un I shall stay!
You'll be seeing no transformation,
But it's wrong to be a rogue in ev'ry way.
- I'm Going to Hell for This: Bill Sikes has this to say:Once bad, what's the good of turning?
In Hell, I'll be there a-burning
Meanwhile, think of what I'm earning
all on account of my name.
- Innocent Flower Girl: Though unnamed, the Rose Seller has one of the loveliest solos in the show. The part is often cast and costumed to evoke this character archetype.Who will buy my sweet red roses
Two blooms for a penny?
- Irrelevant Act Opener: "Oom Pah Pah" is a drinking song. Looks like it's named after everyone's favorite thing, too. However, this is subverted in the film; although there is an intermission, the song is moved to much later in the narrative and serves a purpose in the story - where Nancy starts it as a distraction to help sneak Oliver out.
- Noah Claypole cheerfully insults Oliver's dead mother.
- Bill Sikes takes this to an extreme.
- Kick the Dog: Bill tries to kill Bullseye, but he not only runs away, but leads the chase right to him.
- Knight of Cerebus: Bill Sikes. The show gets much darker once he shows up.
- Large Ham: Fagin.
- Lighter and Softer: Granted, most musicals are this by nature, but still, the original book is pretty grim.
- Loveable Rogue:
- Fagin, de-emphasizing his Greedy Jew characterization in the original. Particularly notable is Ron Moody's cheerfully hammy performance in the 1968 film version. (He even stands up for Oliver on two occasions.)
- Jack Dawkins, aka the Artful Dodger, is also a "kinder gentler" version; he steals to survive but bears no malice. In fact, the only truly evil gang member is Sikes.
- Love Martyr: Poor Nancy has this BAD for Bill Sikes. She recognises this in "As Long As He Needs Me", but even though he's a murderous thug and robber who beats her and plans to kill Oliver, she still can't bring herself to hand him over to the law.As long as life is long
I'll love him, right or wrong
And somehow I'll be strong
As long as he needs me.
- Luke, I Am Your Father: The musical simplifies matters from the book enormously by making Mr. Brownlow Oliver's grandfather and leaving Monks and the Mayleys out entirely.
- Massive Multiplayer Ensemble Number: "Who Will Buy?"
- Musical World Hypotheses: The musical is mostly Alternate Universe, though the songs Nancy sings at the Three Cripples Inn ("It's a Fine Life" and "Oom Pah Pah") can fit into Diegetic.
- Noble Demon: Fagin is a thief, who trains others to be thieves, and works with Bill Sikes, but deep down he doesn't like his life and wishes the things he does weren't necessary, and tries his best not to be too bad. This trope is exemplified in the song "Reviewing the Situation":Though I'd be the first one to say that I wasn't a saint
I'm finding it hard to be really as black as they paint
I'm reviewing the situation
Can a fellow be a villain all his life?...
I'm a bad 'un and a bad 'un I shall stay
You'll be seeing no transformation
But it's wrong to be a rogue in every way
I don't want nobody hurt for me
Or made to do the dirt for me
This rotten life is not for me
It's getting far too hot for me
There is no in-between for me
But who will change the scene for me?
I think I'd better think it out again!
- Ode to Food: "Food, Glorious Food" is sung by the boys in the workhouse about how they're sick of gruel and want to eat all these other foods instead, including hot sausage with mustard, cold jelly and custard, pease pudding, and a great big steak.
- Old-Timey Ankle Taboo: "Oom-pah-pah":Pretty little Sally
Goes walking down the alley
Displays her pretty ankles to all of the men
They can see her garters
But not for free-and-gratis—
An inch or two, and then she knows
When to say when!
- Orphanage of Fear: The workhouse.
- Our Nudity Is Different: The hooker-advertising-her-wares strip tease described by Nancy:Pretty little Sally
Goes walking down the alley
Displays her pretty ankles for all of the men
They can see her garters
But not for free and gratis —
An inch or two, and then she knows when to say when!
- Pinball Protagonist: Oliver's an orphan, gets passed from orphanage, to a funeral home, then gets kicked out and gets picked up by the thieves guild, then is taken in by a rich old man. It's a musical, and the characters mostly sing around him as well.
- Please, I Will Do Anything!: "I'd Do Anything" is mostly one guy saying he'd do anything for a girl, and the girl making ridiculous or strange suggestions, to all of which he agrees. Then Fagin co-opts it, and does the routine with his gang of loyal street urchins, and his suggestions are a little darker.
- Related in the Adaptation: Well, not really related, but a verse of You Got To Pick A Pocket Or Two mentions that Bill Sikes was one of Fagins trainees as a child, while in the book, he was just a robber that Fagin knew.Take a tip from Bill Sikes
He can whip what he likes
I recall he started small
He had to pick a pocket or two
- Rolling Pin of Doom: "Only it's wise to be handy with a rolling pin when the landlord comes to call!"
- A Round of Drinks for the House: Discussed (optimistically) in "Consider Yourself".Always a chance we'll meet somebody to foot the bill
Then the drinks are on the house!
- Say My Name: Oliver!
- But especially in "My Name"Sikes: What is it?
- But especially in "My Name"
- Sidekick Song:
- "You've Got To Pick A Pocket Or Two" serves as an Anti-Villain Song for Fagin.
- "Consider Yourself" sung by The Artful Dodger.
- Fagin also gets arguably the most fun song in the entire show, "Reviewing the Situation." He shares the reprise with Dodger.
- Spared by the Adaptation:
- Fagin avoids capture and execution in the end.
- The Artful Dodger avoids arrest and being sent to Australia.
- Bullseye does not fall to his death leaping up at Sikes' body as in the novel.
- Undertaker: The Sowerberries get to sing about how wonderful their work looks at the funeral.
- Unholy Matrimony: Subverted with the Bumbles. In their early scenes, they flirt a lot and get a whole silly love song to themselves, but by the end of the play when they reappear, having finally tied the knot, it's clear that, being awful people, they have only managed to make one another miserable.
- Villain Song: "You've Got to Pick a Pocket or Two" for Fagin, "My Name" for Sikes. Other characters who have villainous traits such as the Bumbles and the Sowerberries have their own in "Oliver" and "That's Your Funeral" respectively.
- Villainous Advice Song: "You've Got to Pick a Pocket or Two".
- Welcoming Song: The boys sing "Consider Yourself" to welcome Oliver into their gang.
- What Happened to the Mouse?: The fate of Bet in the book is to end up in an asylum over the trauma of Nancy's death, but she disappears in the musical. A lot of productions will feature her as the one who shouts "You've murdered Nancy!" in the ending.
- "When I'm Gone" Song: "Be Back Soon". The pickpocket boys sing to Fagin and he sings back as they prepare go out into the street to pickpocket. The song mainly references returning, but considering that stealing at the time could conceivably carry a death sentence by hanging, an ominous cloud hangs behind the cheery tune and lyrics. Some examples:
- From Fagin:Fare thee well, but be back soon
Who can tell where danger's lurking
- andGive me one long, last look, bless you
- And the boys:We must disappear
We'll be back here
Today... perhaps tomorrow
- From Fagin:
- When You Snatch the Pebble: During the "You've Got to Pick a Pocket or Two", Fagin lets his urchins demonstrate pick pocketing to Oliver by letting them steal things from his coat. He's not trying that hard to stop them, though, since he's not training them.
- Wide-Eyed Idealist: The title character.
- Would Hit a Girl: Throughout the play, Nancy is a punching bag for Bill Sikes and the beatings grow progressively worse. In the end, Nancy tries to leave with Oliver, but Bill follows them and confronts them by London Bridge. Oliver tries to stop Bill from trying to grab Nancy, but is unsuccessful; Bill in an unprecedented display of barbaric savagery brutally clubs Nancy to death (in the original stage play; she has also been strangled, stabbed and/or had her throat slit). Bill takes Oliver hostage and uses the lad as a bargaining tool to ensure his freedom, but Bill is still caught and killed.
- Your Mom: Noah insults Oliver's mom and outright calls him a bastard.
The movie adds examples of:
- Adaptation Explanation Extrication:
- The film cuts out Old Sally and the deathbed reveal that she stole Agnes's locket while she was dying - instead just having the Bumbles show up at Mr Brownlow's house, implying they knew Oliver had a wealthy mother already and just waited ten years to try and profit off it.
- In the original novel, Sikes and Oliver's failed robbery was Sikes and Fagin's attempt to corrupt Oliver as part of their and Monks' plan, as well as to introduce Rose and the Maylies. Here, the robbery holds no affect on the plot, and the people of the house are not seen afterwards. If anything, the sole purpose for it was the preparation as a means to give Nancy motivation to save Oliver.
- Adapted Out: Old Sally and her death are dropped from the film adaptation.
- Animal Reaction Shot: When Oliver first enters the hideout of Fagin's thieves, everyone stops talking and stares at him, including an owl.
- Character Development: Fagin provides a very interesting case study in the movie adaptation. When Oliver first meets him, he's a loud and frightening stranger who emerges from a cloud of smoke like the very Devil from Hell, bellowing at some random youngster who complains about the food to "Shut up and drink your gin!" Then, as Oliver gets introduced to everyone and he shows him around, Fagin starts looking a lot more like a comical villain, particularly during the song "You've Got to Pick a Pocket Or Two" where he hams up his whole Greedy Jew motif to pull some laughs. Later, as things get more serious, he reveals in his song "Reviewing the Situation" that he's tired of his whole criminal enterprise and wants out, but truly has nowhere to go, making him quite a sympathetic character indeed. By the end, he's pretty much run the entire range of Jewish villain characterizations from Shakespeare's time to ours.
- Dark Reprise: "Reviewing The Situation" is first sung by Fagin as he tries and fails to convince himself to abandon his criminal ways, later reprised with the Artful Dodger as they pledge their dedication to a life of crime. Though the original version has Fagin realizing at the end of each verse that the situation he's imagining is actually unimaginable, so it's debatable how "dark" the reprise is, given that Fagin and Dodger both seem genuinely happy about the prospect:Together till our dying day
The living proof that crime can pay
- Demoted to Extra:
- The Widow Corney, later Mrs Bumble, has her song "I Shall Scream" cut out and doesn't properly appear until she and her new husband show up with Agnes's trinket.
- Bet's solos in "It's A Fine Life" and "I'd Do Anything" are given to Nancy, even though she's still present for them.
- Dying Moment of Awesome: When being attacked by Bill, Nancy screams as loudly as she can, using her last moments to make sure Mr Brownlow finds Oliver.
- Fingerless Gloves: Fagin wears them.
- Flash Mob Cover Up: Inverted in that it's done to prevent a crime. Nancy starts giving out beer and getting her customers to sing a rather lively bawdy ballad, in order to let Oliver, who'd been kidnapped by Sikes, escape unnoticed. It doesn't fool Sikes' dog, however.
- Gray Rain of Depression: The rain pours as Oliver wearily tredges a muddy road to London after escaping from Mr. Sowerberry.
- HeelFace Turn: Subverted with Fagin. He plans to do this, but instead chooses to leave with Dodger and continue a life of pickpocketing.
- Intermission: The film version kept the intermission from the stage play. On the DVD, the intermission also doubles as a prompt to turn the disc over to continue the film.
- Mood Whiplash: When Bill Sikes returns to Fagins hideout all bloodied up, Fagin asks him where Nancy is to which Sikes simply replies She wont peach on nobody no more. Shaken, Fagin says he shouldnt have done that., then about half a minute later, says in a panicked voice She peached? You sure?
- No Song for the Wicked: In the film, Bill Sikes never sings, although other people sing about him.
- Novelization: Random House published a hardcover novelization of the screenplay for younger audiences, illustrated with stills from the film. Among the stills featured were scenes showing the arrival at the workhouse and the death of Oliver's mother, who never appears in the film as was shown. Studio records list Veronica Page as the mother and Henry Kay as the Doctor attending to Oliver's birth.
- Oh, Crap!: Fagin, when he loses his horde of treasures after tripping on the boards that cross the culvert outside the hideout.
- Ooh, Me Accent's Slipping: Oliver Reed slips in and out of his cockney accent in multiple scenes.
- Parent Service: Nancy and Bet look a good deal better than women of their situation probably would have in their time, and Nancy gets a dress that shows some mild cleavage.
- That Reminds Me of a Song: Nancy starts up "Oom-Pah-Pah" as a distraction to let Oliver escape from Bill Sikes.
- Wheel of Pain: The film adaptation briefly shows a variation on the theme during the opening scene.
Other specific productions add examples of:
- Breaking the Fourth Wall: In a London revival, Fagin breaks the fourth wall during a few of his monologues, especially when he is play acting with his 'treasures'. For example, he was looking through an opera glass and pretending he was at a theatre, gesturing towards the Stalls in the actual theatre (where the most expensive seats are) and mentioning that was where all the rich people were, then gesturing at the top tier and saying that was full of poor people. In the second monologue he started recounting the story of the musical and ended up saying: "What the Dickens am I going on about?"
- Composite Character: Bet will sometimes appear in "Consider Yourself" and be the one to scream "You murdered Nancy!" towards the end.
- Fake Food: In some productions applesauce stands in for the gruel eaten by the workhouse orphans in the opening scene. It's easy to "set up" (no cooking required), easy to clean off of prop bowls and spoons, is readily gobbled by a group of 8-14 year-old kids, and looks "truly disgusting" from the audience.
- Gender Flip: In some productions, the Artful Dodger is played by a girl.
- Leaning on the Fourth Wall: In some productions , the lyrics for "Reviewing the Situation" end with "There is no in between for me/But who will change the scene for me?", whereupon the set immediately starts to revolve as Fagin heads back to the fireplace to count his money.
- Medium Awareness: In one production in London, the orchestration uses a violin soloist during "Reviewing the Situation". Since a violin is one of the items that Fagin has in his box of treasures, there were several Played for Laughs moments where Fagin, apparently hearing the violin solo, would stop and stare at the violin, and pick it up to examine it. The same part also featured a long monologue by Fagin where he seemed perfectly aware that he was on stage in a theatre.
- Related in the Adaptation: Some productions make Nancy and Bet sisters as opposed to best friends.
- Spared by the Adaptation: Some productions leave Nancy's death ambiguous, implying there's a chance she survived.
The sequel Dodger:
- Adaptation Expansion: This expands on the novel's statement that Dodger got sent to a penal colony in Australia.
- Amoral Attorney: Two crooked lawyers Snitchey and Craggs.
- Ascended Extra: Bet, who was a Satellite Character in the original, is now upgraded to the female lead.
- The Jailer: The antagonist is a jailer called Jarver.
- Lady Macbeth: Mrs Jarver is more evil and maniacal than her husband.
- Promoted to Love Interest: Bet now becomes Dodger's girlfriend.
- Redemption Quest: The plot involves Oliver helping Dodger reform.
- Younger and Hipper: With a seven-year Time Skip, Oliver and Dodger are now teens.