Cassie Dewell: The Big Bad of The Highway Quartet is a serial killer known as 'the Lizard King': a truck driver who preys on truck stop prostitutes. His crimes go undetected for a long time because he uses his occupation to dispose of his victims' bodies far from where he killed them, usually across state lines. And because he is committing his crimes across multiple jurisdictions, the local authorities cannot detect any pattern.
Cat of Many Tails by Ellery Queen has Ellery being hired as a special investigator to assist the NYPD to catch a serial killer who has been terrorizing New York. Initially, the only pattern Ellery can find in the killer's targets, who vary in sex, race, and marital status, is that each victim is younger than the one before.
Child 44 by Tom Rob Smith has one operating in the Soviet Union in the early 1950's. The catch? The killer is the protagonist's brother, Andrei, from whom he was separated as a child. Turns out Andrei was killing his victims the same way that he and his brother killed game for food, in an effort to lure his brother back to him. Not to kill him, just to be with him again. You find out the identity of the killer a while before the end of the book (if you can put the clues together), so it becomes a whydunnit.
Subverted in the Agatha Christie novel The ABC Murders, where Hercule Poirot receives a series of letters from 'ABC' threatening to kill a series of victims in alphabetical order and challenging Poirot to unmask him. Alexander Bonaparte Cust is being used as a front by the real killer, who wants to murder his brother for the inheritance and plans to cover it up by disguising it as the act of a serial killer.
In Damnatio Memoriae, Enim and Jack are searching for whoever has been killing local girls in the town outside of their boarding school. Enim thinks he finds the killer, but given that he's an unreliable narrator, it's hard to know what really happened.
A savage serial killer plagues the city in Dance of the Butterfly. This is but one of many negative forces motivating the protagonists.
In part of Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine, a woman finds herself on a bridge chased by a serial killer called "The Lonely One" who remembers she has a pair of scissors in her purse.
Several Discworld books, most prominently Hogfather, give delicate references to the Assassins' Guild's "scholarship boys"- that is, people who made it into Assassin school by proving they were already very good at discreetly killing people. The Guild keeps such scholarships in place not because they approve of indiscriminate slaughter, but because anyone who has a natural aptitude for their kind of work had better damn well be where you can see them.
The period mystery Eater of Souls is a serial-killer story set in Ancient Egypt. One of the few cases where the "Visionary" variant of this trope is genuinely and plausibly suspected to be legitimately-supernatural by the investigators.
In the Fate/Zero novel, the historical hero Gilles de Rais (summoned to the war as Caster) is a visionary serial killer (with aspects of a thrill killer) who kills to spite God for abandoning Jeanne d'Arc. He favours children as his targets. His master, Ryuunosuke, is a sadistic thrill killer who ended up summoning Caster out of curiosity and gleefully follows Caster because he considers him an artist.
Dean Koontz's Frankenstein: Prodigal Son has a subplot about a serial killer called the Surgeon, a Hedonist who harvests body parts from women to piece together his "perfect woman". The reader is made aware of his identity fairly promptly; the real mystery is for him, upon learning that there's a Copycat Killer who's stalking him.
Saxon Hyde from Ghoul by Michael Slade, and the Headhunter, among others. All of the author's novels include a Serial Killer at the centre of the plot, but also discuss cases of Real Life killers such as Ted Bundy and Ed Gein. Slade is the pseudonym for Jay Clarke, a lawyer who specializes in criminal insanity.
In the Flannery OConnor short story, A Good Man Is Hard To Find, a serial killer called "The Misfit" and minions meet up with a family, whose matriarch tries to talk her way out but it does not work out for her.
" The Hunter" from Gun Machine has over two hundred kills to his name, performed over a series of twenty years, using "appropriate" pre-used guns to kill every target. He is eventually revealed to be a visionary mission killer: The Hunter is a delusional psychotic attempting to make a wampum pattern out of his murder weapons that he believed would kick-start the Ghost Dance and return Manhattan to its pristine pre-colonization state.
Hannibal Lecter is the definitive serial killer series, in that almost every fictional serial killer since has been inspired by the two examples in the movie.
Hannibal Lecter himself is a cultural icon. He's a well-educated man, a famous psychiatrist, and a genius who sometimes helps out the protagonists. His cold eyes are the only signs that he is a serial killing cannibal. Although in the book (but not the film), he has maroon eyes and six fingers on one hand.
Francis Dolarhyde from Red Dragon (the first of the Lecter novels) and the movie Manhunter is a gruesome one, complete with scrapbook of newspaper clippings and drawings from when he was a kid, reflecting his Freudian Excuse. Rather than sending taunting letters to the cops, he sent fan letters to the incarcerated Hannibal Lecter himself.
Buffalo Bill from the second book, The Silence of the Lambs, is a complete maniac who kills and skins five women. Although feminine and very disturbing, he is a fairly generic serial killer. Buffalo Bill is actually a combination of real life serial killers Ted Bundy, Ed Gein, and Gary Heidnik.
Serial killers are the main subject of I Am Not a Serial Killer. The protagonist, John, is obsessed with true crime, making him conveniently capable of doing his own snooping when a string of murders begins in his hometown. Each book showcases a different killer with different motivations and methods, contrasted with Johns attempts to remainmoral. By the middle of the fourth book, John himself qualifies, despite his efforts.
Gretchen "the Beauty Killer" Lowell, first introduced in Heartsick, has tortured and killed over 200 people, whether alone or by manipulating her lovers into killing for her.
In The Hellfire Club by Peter Straub, Dick Dart is most definitely this, despite how much he hates being called this by the media.
A staple of the In Death series from the first book, Naked In Death, which features a serial murderer of Disposable Sex Workers. This turns out to be not quite a straight example — the first killing was unplanned and personal, and the other murders were committed by a different person to cover up the first by framing it as the work of a serial. However, NYPSD psychiatrist and profiler Dr. Mira has no doubts that, now that he's gotten a taste for it, the murder will absolutely find excuses to kill again. Over the following 52 novels and novellas in the series, Eve has gone up against nearly every type on the list.
No actual serial killer appears in Into The Hinterlands, but Destry borrows techniques used to investigate them such as geographic profiling in an attempt to analyze patterns in Rider raids on settlements and locate their encampments.
Grant from From Russia with Love has urges to kill during the full moon, and went working for the Soviets to be able to continue to do so. He became a SMERSH agent, and they use him as their chief executioner.
Kafka on the Shore, by Haruki Murakami, has a strange example: a character known as Johnny Walker (very strongly implied if not proven to be the dad of the main character, Kafka.) Why is it strange? Instead of people, he kills cats, and eats their hearts.
Martin Vanger from The Millennium Trilogy defies all stereotypes and all rules on top of this page. He is the kindly CEO of a corporation, a nice but troubled guy, and a friend who even saves the protagonist's life. And he is a serial killer who has been imprisoning, raping, and murdering hundreds of young Russian girls. This has been going on since he was a teenager. The most chilling thing is Martin's explanation for his actions: "This is every man's innermost dream. I take whatever I want".
The Roman Empire setting of the Marcus Didius Falco novels might strike some as an odd place for a serial killer, but Three Hands in the Fountain has one anyway. Then again, the thoroughly modern sensibility of the series makes it work.
Annie Wilkes from Misery is an "Angel of Death" example. She was a nurse, and killed many old patients, and later, babies in the hospitals she worked in.
Mr. Fox by Helen Oyeyemi has the title character, a charming, wealthy aristocrat who is revealed to have killed hundreds of young women that he keeps in a chamber in his estate.
John Dread, from Tad Williams' Otherland series, was raised by a violent, drug-addicted mother who fulfilled her revenge fantasies against the world by intentionally turning him into a sociopath. He started killing as early as 6, was moved from institution to institution and deemed "incorrigible", and finally escaped into society after Corrupt Corporate Executive Felix Jongleur noticed his abnormal psychic powers and began training him as a Psycho for Hire. He murders women for pleasure in fetishistic ways (acting out a Revenge Fic against his mother) and records all the killings in his private video library. He taunts the police by leaving bizarre clues at the scene and "fogging" security cameras with his "twist". He chafes at Jongleur's leash, and eventually breaks free by infiltrating the heroes' group in Otherland and discovering how to break the network's security, upon which point he proves how Eviler Than Thou he is by going on a godlikekilling spree.
In Beka Cooper, Deirdry Noll as the Shadow Snake is a comfort/profit killer. Her modus operandi is to find an otherwise poor family who has some small item of value (an enamel-on-gold lily pendant, some money, pearl earrings, a spell book, so on), kidnap one of their children, and demand the item in return for the child's life. If the item is not paid up in a week, she kills the child.
The David Eddings novel Regina's Song has the Seattle Slasher, a killer who paralyzes sexual predators with a syringe of curare and then carves them to pieces with a linoleum knife. She was a Mission/Revenge type, targeting sex offenders because one of them raped and murdered her twin sister, and ultimately seeking out and killing the specific rapist responsible for that act.
Semiosis: Three people on the human space colony of Pax are sadistically killed, forcing Tatiana to investigate the colony's first serial murderer. It turns out to be Jersey, who was driven to it by compulsive thoughts from a serious brain infection and is desperate not to hurt her family instead.
In Stationery Voyagers, Clandish Consto toys around with the idea of making a career out of being a Serial Killer. Then, he decides to become a full-blown terrorist instead (with plans to become a god).
The first story that featured the infamous demon barber Sweeney Todd, The String of Pearls, had Sweeney murdering his customers by means of a barber's chair rigged to send people down to his basement, taking his razor to any who survived the fall, then delivering the bodies to Mrs. Lovett's pie shop across the street through a tunnel below to be made into pies. Sweeney was not motivated by vengeance like in the musical, but money. The story is a lot less romantic or melodramatic than the musical, and it ends with the two getting caught, Mrs. Lovett poisoning herself before the trial after almost getting lynched by her customers during her arrest, and Sweeney himself being tried, convicted, and hanged for his crimes. Note that Sweeney does share this trope's tendency to keep "trophies", as Tobias finds his house to be crammed with victims' clothing and other personal possessions.
The Tim Dorsey novels have Serge A Storms, who goes on spree killings whenever he's off his meds (Read: Every single book). Some people he kills in the pursuit of wealth, and others he kills purely because they offend him, usually for some sort of anti-social behavior (Unsportsman like conduct at a Little League game, playing music too loud...) or for damaging some part of Florida history. A great deal of the humor in the stories comes from the truly inventive ways he can come up with to off people.
King of the Road, the sequel to The Brotherhood of the Wheel, has the Harlequins - a cult of clown-themed serial killers who use alchemically-treated face paint. They've been killing and dismembering countless victims for centuries and the latest incarnation is influenced by Juggalo culture to the point where the Harlequins have their own knock-off group, the "Lunatic Clown Squad". The hidden goal of the Harlequins is to harvest enough pineal glands from their victims to create the Azoth.