In The First Law spin-off book Best Served Cold, the main character Monzcarro Murcatto gets...a tad carried away. One of the people on the list she literally smashes their head in with her bare hands.
Also calm is Kirth Gersen, the protagonist of the The Demon Princes series by Jack Vance, who was raised by his grandfather to have no Goal in Life other than to find and kill the five so-called Demon Princes, pirates and criminal masterminds who were responsible for the destruction of the colony world from which Kirth and his grandfather were the sole survivors. The ending has Kirth lapsing into bleak, bleak depression upon the death of his last target - raised his entire life for only one purpose, now that he's completed it he has no purpose at all.
Harry Dresden has that surname for a reason, and god help you if you threaten anyone he cares about.
Harry is famous enough in universe for his curbstomp revenges that in Deadbeat, Mavra, a centuries old vampire threatens him with blackmailing a friend and is given a clear threat of how far Harry will go to get his revenge. That was Book 7 of the series. As of Book 15, we haven't seen her again.
In Skin Game, Michael points Harry's history of taking extreme revenge during the events of Changes is a pretty strong deterrent to other supernatural predators:
Michael: Harry, I'm not sure if you noticed this. But things did not turn out well for the last monster who raised his hand against your child. Or any of his friends. Or associates. Or anyone who worked for him. Or for most of the people he knew.
Ebenezar McCoy is Harry's mentor, and during Death Masks, a Red Court Vampire cheats in a duel against Harry, McCoy responds by dropping a satellite on the vampire's stronghold after he had fled back to it.
Black Iris: Delaney Keating's revenge is a bit smaller-scale than Dresden's, but she rivals him in ferocity. The tagline sums it up pretty well:
Karma's a bitch. But you can call her Laney.
Thomas Middleton's The Revenger's Tragedy is an excellent example of this trope. Vindice (his name literally means Revenge) throws himself into his role as bloody revenger with glee.
In the quote above from The Ballad of East and West by Rudyard Kipling, a British officer rather gruesomely threatens a border raider that the British army will do this to his tribe if he is murdered during a parley.
In Sword of Truth Kahlan's Con Dar (Blood Rage), in which she gains the power to throw lightning bolts in addition to her normal domination power and can only be used to defend or avenge Richard, definitely qualifies.
In the end of the second book, Richard had a rampage of his own. And long before that, Zedd had his rampage during the D'Hara/Midlands war when his wife was killed; one so bad both sides were scared shitless of him.
In the Star Trek novel Vendetta, Delcara mixes it up with the 1701-D crew because she wants revenge on The Borg, and her weapon of choice will take out a lot of innocents along the way.
In Woken Furies, his former girlfriend falls afoul of a patriarchal cult who remove her cortical stack, eventually resulting in her Final Death. When he finds out, he goes to the village and kills every single person who was an adult at the time, in his words, "Every single person who could have done something and instead chose to not." Then he goes on a global crusade, killing every single priest of the religion, cutting their neocortical recorder stacks out, downloading their minds into swamp panthers, and forcing them to fight to the death over and over again. When we meet him, it's implied that he's been doing it for several years. When asked at what point he's planning to stop, he says something along the lines of "they can't give her back to me, so why should I stop?"
In Altered Carbon he returns to a shady medical lab where he had been loaded into a virtual reality and tortured over the course of several subjective days. He kills the pimp who sold him out, everyone who worked at the brothel the pimp ran, and everyone at the medical lab, sparing only the boss's stack for later "interrogation."
In Broken Angels he ends up killing each and every single member of the mercenary company he was working with, even though he was severely injured and a few days away from death by radiation poisoning.
William Shakespeare's Hamlet, naturally. Granted, his hit list only has one name on it, but he very quickly demonstrates that he doesn't mind knocking off a bystander or two to get to him, and the body count simply becomes heinous by the end of the play.
The eponymous character of The Adventures of Samurai Cat books, Miaowara Tomokato, is on this kind of journey to kill the men who murdered his master. In the process, he runs amok through parodies of just about everything, including Disneyland, Star Wars, and others.
A more tragic example is the title character of the poem "The Highwayman". It doesn't go so well, as he's immediately gunned down by King George's soldiers.
The horrifying irony being that she'd shot herself (they'd tied her up with a musket to her breast and her hands tied - she works at the ropes until she can get the tip of a finger onto the trigger) to warn him off and save him in the first place.
In the 12th century German epic Nibelungenlied, Kriemhild's husband Siegfried is murdered by Hagen at the behest of her brother's wife, which is condoned by her three brothers. A few years later she marries King Etzel the Hun, which provides her with the necessary muscle for revenge, and about ten years later she invites her brothers, Hagen and the other retainers to her new place. However the brothers were fought back like madmen all night, resulting in a seven chapter long bloodbath. At the same time, Kriemhild turns into a complete psycho, sending more and more men into the hall and ordering the feasting hall to be burned down, and finally has her revenge as she decapitates her husband's killer personally. By the end, Etzel (who is based on Attila the Hun, no less) is completely terrified of her.
Don Pendleton's Mack Bolan seems to have trouble keeping innocent bystanders alive, but since he's like the black ops version of The Punisher (and in fact was the inspiration for the original Punisher) he is pretty much on a Roaring Marathon.
Redwall has a good few: Grath Longfletch, Lonna Bowstripe, Orlando the Axe, and Gorath the Flame.
In Dan Abnett's Gaunt's Ghosts novel Only in Death, Eszrah goes on one. Believing himself dishonored by living after Gaunt's death, he does the only thing he can — a rampage in which he kills as many as he can with Gaunt's sword before he dies. That is, until he finds Gaunt alive.
In Fall of Damnos, the Ultramarines' battle prowess goes into overdrive and their The Stoic hat flies out of the window when they think that the Necrons have killed captain Sicarius.
In The Godfather Luca Brasi goes on one of these after Vito is shot, and one to such a reckless extent that it takes Vito to call him off.
In Tarzan the Untamed, Tarzan goes on one of these after his home is burned down by invading German troops, and, as he believes, his wife Jane is killed.
The entire premise of David Weber's In Fury Born. Having one of the Ancient Greek Furies involved is usually a fair indicator.
David Valentine of The Vampire Earth series has a few. When his love interest in the first book gets kidnapped, he butchers the man who did it and his bodyguard, then proceeds to head into one of the most dangerous cities in the world. He gets the girl out, too, taking quite a few people (and Reapers). In fact, the entire series seems to be mini-Roaring Rampages of Revenge focused on an individual level contained within the papa-daddy of them all, his goal of exterminating every fucking vampire on Earth.
Sam Vimes in Thud! has a bit of a delayed one after some dwarves threaten his son. (They tried to threaten his wife. She was with her dragons. It didn't end well — for the dwarves, that is.) Near the end of the book he slaughters quite a few of them, and barely stops himself (with some help) from killing their leaders so that he could ARREST them. Which just makes him that much more badass.
Daine from the Immortals series by Tamora Pierce does the whole roaring rampage of revenge thing, taking down an entire city in the process. With an army of zombie dinosaurs.
The first book when Lews Therin takes revenge on himself for killing his entire family when he was insane by drawing on the Power until he eventually kills himself and reshapes the earth he's standing on for miles.
The second is after Aviendha's temporary death in The Fires of Heaven—Rand sees her body and proceeds to rip open a path to the World of Dreams, kill anything in his path without care for who or what they are, and when he finally finds Rahvin, the man responsible for Aviendha's death, uses balefire, a technique not even used by the Forsaken, to erase him from the pattern and turn back time, remarking that he doesn't care if he's unraveled the world as long as Aviendha is alive. Yeah, you don't mess with Rand's girls.
There's also the incident of Egwene being captured by the Seanchan, who take control of her power and spend several months training her to be a weapon and attempting to break her will. When she finally regains free access to her own power it turns out the training to be a weapon thing was pretty successful but the breaking her will thing has thus far only instilled her with a frantic, almost mindless fear and hatred of the Seanchan.
In all versions of Carrie, the telekinetic title character engages in this trope after a horrific prank at her prom ruins the happiest moment of her torturous life and kills her date, culminating in setting the gym on fire and leaving everyone inside to burn alive. And it doesn't end there, either. In the book and the remake film, she levels most of the town, too.
In Field of Dishonor resident Action GirlHonor Harrington goes on a brief rampage after her boyfriend is essentially legally murdered (tricked into a duel by a professional shootist) by challenging each person responsible to a duel and gunning them down. Additionally, in In Enemy Hands she goes on sort of a pre-Roaring Rampage when Ransom orders Nimitz to be killed attempting to take down as many soldiers as possible before she's beaten down.
In A Song of Ice and Fire, Arya Stark eventually develops a to-kill list when bit by little bit, her father is murdered in front of her, friends killed and/or tortured and beaten bloody time and time again as a servant in Harrendal, and has already managed to fill a portion of her kill quota. The worst part? She's nine.
Catelyn Stark after her resurrection. Spending nearly three books losing everything and everyone she held dear, culminating in watching her son get slaughtered in front of her would probably make anyone a vengeance crazy mad lady regardless of zombiefication.
In Chris Roberson's Warhammer 40,000 Imperial Fists novel Sons of Dorn, Captain Taelos wants to atone for his failure by a "Warrior's Pilgrimage." He is refused the honor (for now) and sent to collect aspirants. At the end, he adds the dead from his last mission to his tally to atone for, subtracts those whose lives he has saved, and feels honored by the duty of collecting aspirants.
In Twilight, we find out that Rosalie's record is almost as clean as Carlisle's. She went on one of these after being turned into a vampire, against the guys who raped and murdered her in the first place. Among them was her fiance, whom she saved for last, and then wore a wedding dress to kill. Especially considering her normal characterization.
Tarma from the Vows and Honor series is the last survivor of Clan Tale'sedrin after bandits ambushed them while they celebrated. Her entire family, including the man she loved, is dead. She has been gang-raped and left for dead. What, then, does she do? She declares blood feud against the bandits, an act which is one of the most drastic possible for one of the Shin'a'in (it requires her to swear herself as one of her Goddess's servants and a Celibate Heroine, for a start). Then she rides to a town that the bandits have taken over as their base, and kills them all, one by one.
Herald Vanyel in Magic's Price gets kidnapped, tortured, and raped after having been given a drug that not only blocks his formidable magic but also messes with his physical coordination so that he can't even defend himself using his equally formidable fighting skills. His captors are under strict orders to keep him alive, and when they realize that they've gone too far and he's about to die, they bring in a healer, whose remedy is the antidote to the drug. As soon as the drug wears off. . . . BOOM!
Invoked in Halo: Ghosts of Onyx, where the Spartan-IIIs are recruited from children who have been orphaned by the Covenant and wish to get back at the aliens.
The Forerunner Saga reveals that the Forerunners were at the receiving end of one from the Precursors, in retaliation for the Forerunners wiping them out millions of years before. It's hard to say it was unsuccessful...
Harry Potter did this when he went after Bellatrix for killing Sirius. He even tried to cast a Cruciatus Curse on her.
Sirius himself did this before the series' beginning, when he went after Peter Pettigrew, who betrayed Sirius' best friend James Potter to Voldemort and caused his death.
In her autobiography I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, Maya Angelou relates how her uncles likely killed a man for raping her. Though the act was on her behalf, she was horrified by it, feeling that because she had set the chain of events in motion by reporting the rape, she was responsible for the murder.
"I thought, my voice killed him; I killed that man, because I told his name. And then I thought I would never speak again, because my voice would kill anyone."
In the Magic: The Gathering novel Prophecy, Barrin goes on one (that also turns the big showdown into a complete Curb-Stomp Battle) after his wife is murdered and mutilated by a psychotic enemy mage. His rampage single-handedly wins the war against the Keldons, which raises the question of why he didn't employ those kinds of tactics to begin with.
In the Stephen King collection, Full Dark, No Stars, one of the short stories, "Big Driver", is about Tess, a rape victim who goes on a rampage against those who harmed her.
In the fantasy novel The Conjurer Princess, the title character sets off on one of these after her family is slaughtered at the wedding of her elder sister and her fiance who she loves, with the sole exception of her elder sister who was carried off. By the end, though, she finds out that her elder sister was in on it and the Big Bad actually her real lover...
Tom Clancy's novel Without Remorse is a prequel showing how John Clark got to be the badass that he is in the present day novels. After his girlfriend, a recovering prostitute/drug addict, is killed by the pushers she once worked for, he begins picking them off one by one, Punisher-style, but not before torturing them to find out more information about their gang.
The Lies of Locke Lamora gives us the Gray King, whose family was killed by the other nobles of Camorr because they wouldn't go along with the Secret Peace with the city's criminal elements, headed by Capa Barsavi. So when he returns to town, he starts killing the heads of every gang that works for Barsavi, drowns his daughter in a barrel of horse urine, sets up Barsavi's best thief as a fall guy, and, when the Gray King is believed dead, kills him (with a magically-controlled shark) and his sons at the party. And this is all a lead-up to his revenge on the nobles, which would involve magically lobotomizing all of them and their children.
The Bondmagi would find the Gray King's idea of revenge quaint. The Tel Therin Imperial army attacked a group of them and managed to kill 7 of them. Not only was the army killed to the last man, the Bondmagi took a vote on whether they needed to make an example of the Imperials or not. That's right, massacring an entire army wasn't considered a strong enough message. They then proceeded to burn the Tel Therin Capital city to the ground, citizens and all, merely to prove they were serious. And to add insult to injury they made sure to leave the Imperial throne untouched and completely intact. Not to mention they fact that if you just so happen to kill one not only do they drop everything they're doing so they can murder they everloving shit out of you. They will also burn down your house, where you work, your friends, your family, the family dog, and everyone who had the distinct misfortune of making your acquaintance all to make it absolutely clear that messing with a Bondsmage will simply not be tolerated for any reason.
Locke himself goes on a smaller one after some of his friends are killed. He and Jean kill several of the Gray King's followers, the Bondmage's hawk, and the Gray King himself. They also cut out the Bondmage's tongue and cut off his hands and feet. They only left him alive at all for the reasons above.
Sandman Slim is basically the old story of "hitter from the outfit gets sent up, goes upstate, gets out, seeks revenge on the bastards who turned him in." Only substitute "hitter" for "sorcerer," the outfit for "his cabal," and "upstate" for "Hell."
In Papillon, three convicts come up with a stupid revenge plot, which Papillon refuses to take part in. Having arranged a revolt, they plan to raid the armory and kill every non-prisoner on the island, the families of the guards included. Papillon points out that escape is impossible as there is only boat capacity for forty, a hundred armed men wanting that space, and the massacre will turn all neighboring countries against sheltering them. They don't care as all they want is their bloody revenge and only want to escape to the mainland to go guerrilla against the prison authority. In the end the heads of the revolt are shipped to another island and attempt the uprising on their own, nobody else joins in and their revenge ends with their deaths.
When the Wee Widow Mouse is killed by a basilisk during the first major battle in The Book of the Dun Cow, her friend John Wesley Weasel goes completely berserk, killing thousands of them to avenge her death, fuelled by pure rage. It is even suggested that he would have wiped them out completely if Cockatrice hadn't intervened.
In the last book of the third Warrior Cats series, Hollyleaf freaks out at learning her true parentage and exposes her mother's greatest secret. Then, she attempts to kill her mother, before running away into some tunnels.
Silk goes on one of these in King of the Murgos when a prostitute he was quite friendly with is murdered. He calmly and methodically kills a dozen members of the family responsible in cold blood - even taking the time to make the first few deaths look like accidents - and shows absolutely no remorse when later questioned about it.
Sisterhood Series by Fern Michaels: Played with. The Vigilantes obey a Thou Shalt Not Kill code. However, they will give the sucker a Fate Worse than Death. The first seven books have each of the 7 members strike back against the people who wronged them without getting caught. Also, they wait very patiently for a few months to a year before striking each target.
Over the field rang his clear voice calling "Death! Ride, ride to ruin and the world's ending!" And with that the host began to move. But the Rohirrim sang no more. Death they cried with one voice loud and terrible, and gathering speed like a great tide their battle swept about their fallen king and passed, roaring away southwards.
In Diane Duane's Spock's World, a Vulcan matriarch tries to keep a young woman with the ability to kill with her mind under control by holding her husband hostage. Unfortunately for everyone concerned, the husband is accidentally killed, and the woman telepathically murders every person in the matriarch's household before throwing herself out a window.
Buck from The Call of the Wild goes into one of these after local Indians kill John Thorton, and he slaughters almost every one of them in a rage.
"I am CLARISSE, DRAKON-SLAYER! I will kill you ALL!"
The Hunter, the first of the Parker novels, is about Parker going after his wife and partner who double-crossed him and left him for dead.
In Vampirocracy, Leon admits to himself that this is half the reason he so steadfastly pursues Don.
Hard to Be a God follows an agent from an advanced civilization embedded undercover in a medieval society. As such, he refrains from ever killing anybody throughout the story, despite numerous confrontations. The story proper ends as an attack on his house leaves his girlfriend fatally shot with a crossbow; he calmly picks up his weapons and waits for the attackers to break down the door. The epilogue takes place after he was extracted. At first the extraction team did not know where to look for him after he left the ruins of the house, but then... they saw the trail in his wake.
When Safehold's Merlin Athrawes initially dons the identity of Dialydd Mab, which is Welsh for "Avenging Son", he does so in retaliation against the Inquisition's arrest and imprisonment of a significant number of a town's population in the paranoid belief that an explosive accident was caused by their willing sabotage. We see him attack a barge with the Inquisitors who actually gave the order aboard and kill everyone, using his abilities as a Ridiculously Human Robot to full advantage. Only later do we learn that he also went to the town's garrison and killed its commanding officer, his second-in-command, his third-in-command, all commanders of the infantry companies assigned to cleanse Sarkyn and escorting prisoners to concentration camps, and any and all lower soldiers who "distinguished" themselves during Sarkyn's cleansing. He continues such strikes against the most heinous Inquisitors and quickly becomes The Dreaded, prompting them to treat their prisoners like something resembling human beings or else be the target of Dialydd Mab's next bullet.
In the Lensman series, the reptilian Velantians have suffered for centuries at the hands of the Overlords of Delgon, a species with mind-control abilities who take pleasure in the torture and killing of their victims. Even the Velantian space program was a result of the Overlords, with them having created a compulsion for Velantians to go into space so their astronauts could be lured to Delgon. When the Galactic Patrol stumbles on the species and the Velantians gain not only advanced technology and weapons but access to the Lens, giving the wearer the ability to mentally resist Overlord control, Worsel becomes their first Lensman and swears to utterly eradicate the Overlords from the universe, with the blessing of the Patrol. He succeeds.
In Below, Finch goes berserk in response to his best friend's death in a goblin temple. After destroying their idol completely, he leads a team of just two other men to ambush the goblin priest and its entourage that had dogged the party.
In JK Haru is a Sex Worker in Another World, one of the darker light novels you'll find, the main character is accidentally summoned to another world with a boy she knows. He's the Chosen One with Limit Break powers, she ends up working as a prostitute. Which she's surprisingly okay with (she had done escort work in our world) until another prostitute she's befriended is killed by a platoon of abusive soldiers. She ALSO has Limit Break powers, but hers are BETTER, if way creepier. She wipes out the entire platoon in the middle of monster-infested woods in less time than it takes to tell about it.
In the prologue of Renegades, Ace Anarchy comes home to find everyone in his family but his niece dead, with her telling him that they were killed by a hitman sent by a rival gang. Some time later, he goes to their quarters and murders each and every single one of them.
Semiosis: Once the Orphan aliens start torturing and murdering Pacifist children, Stevland the benevolent Plant Alien suspends his philosophy of non-violence, enlists his fellow plants to help, lures in a pack of ground eagles, and lays a trap to kill as many Orphans as he can.
Sandokan: The main character's reason for being a pirate is to take revenge on those who financed the murderer of his father. The second part of The King of the Sea is one such rampage against the British trade in revenge for the British unprovoked attack and conquest of Mompracem, and Sandokan Fights Back actually has Sandokan returning to his ancestral home to kill his father's murderer and take back his throne.
Utopian Massacres lives up to its title, as Rob Botnic vents his spleen on an entire class of people he blames for the murder of his family.
At the start of The Count Of Montecristo, Danglars and Fernand frame Edmond Dantes as a Bonapartist so they can take his job and fiancee respectively, and when the magistrate Gerard de Villefort finds evidence he's innocent he has instead him thrown in the Chateau d'If because revealing his innocence would have exposed Villefort's father as a Bonapartist and ruined his career. Twenty three years later they have become rich and powerful... And that's when Dantes, who in the meantime has escaped prison, found an immense treasure, and made plans, returns as the Count of Montecristo to utterly ruin them alongside their families, sparing only the children. Or he tries, as his plans against Villefort accidentally get his nine-years-old child killed, something that horrifies him.