In Sonic the Hedgehog (2020), Sonic is shown peeping on Tom and Maddie's movie nights over the years he has spent in secret at Green Hills, and Sonic's favorite is Speed. Sonic even imitates Dennis Hopper's famous "Pop quiz, hotshot" and notes that Keanu Reeves is a national treasure.
In "The Springfield Files", Homer tells Lenny and Carl a trick he learned from watching the film.
"I saw this in a movie about a bus that had to speed around the city, keeping its speed over fifty, and if its speed dropped, the bus would explode! I think it was called..The Bus That Couldn't Slow Down.
In "Bye Bye Nerdie", as Otto's drag race with Marge is styled like a scene from the film; Milhouse exclaims "Wow! It's just like Speed 2, only with a bus instead of a boat!".
There was also an issue of the Simpsons Comics that directly parodies Speed, with Sideshow Bob rigging the Springfield Elementary bus with a bomb as it's main plot.
Actually, to be exact, he'd rigged Bart's usual seat on the bus with a massive spring that would launch the seat (and thus Bart) out of the bus once it went too fast; everyone on the bus just assumes it's a bomb because Bart (who was ironically kept back in detention for that field trip) overheard Bob leaving a message on Skinner's answerphone but the machine cut in before Bob could specify the nature of the threat.