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Referenced By / Foundation

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Comic Books

  • Civil War: Reed Richards admits to having basically invented psychohistory, but needs someone to check his figures. He asks recurring villain Mad Thinker for help, as he's an evil super-mathematician who likes to use Xanatos Gambits. The Thinker is bowled over by the scope of Reed's calculations.
  • Transformers: Shattered Glass'': A young mathematician named Megatron noticed in his numerical studies of social trends that civil war was almost certain.


  • The Arrival: When Zane is talking about the signal, he states that it could be the alien's Encyclopedia Galactica, a Fictional Document used in Foundation.
  • Prometheus: Weyland's hologram-message to the crew bears a striking similarity to Hari Seldon's series of hologram-messages. Seldon is also physically diminished, reveals the true hidden nature of their mission, and is secretly manipulating people from beyond the grave. Although, in Seldon's case, he really is dead.


  • Captain French, or the Quest for Paradise: One of the planets is named Trantor, a major planet within the Foundation series.
  • Paul Mc Auley's Evenings Empires: Trantor is the name of a major location in the asteroid belt.
  • The General Series: In The Heretic and The Savior, Center makes several references to aspects of future-prediction calculations as 'Seldonian'.
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  • Phule's Company novel Phule's Errand: A few scenes parodying Foundation.
  • Donald Kingsbury's Psychohistorical Crisis: This book makes an obvious reference to the Foundation series with its name, and more subtle ones in the plot.
  • Spheres of Influence: An AI named Isaac quotes from Foundation, implying that he's modelled on Isaac Asimov.
  • Sten: Famed diplomat Sr. Ecu sends the equally renowned psychologist Rykor a copy of an ancient Earth manuscript. Rykor says she finds the idea of "psychohistory" fascinating, but found the protagonist "Selden" rather repellent.

Live-Action TV

  • The Daily Show: When Bruce Bueno De Mesquita was invited as a guest (on 2009-09-28), he referenced Hari Seldon by name.


  • Deep Purple: Their song, "The Mule", is based on a Foundation story; "The Mule". The titular antagonist has Mind Control and emotion-reading powers, and has Converted even his deadliest enemies into loyal servants.
    No one sees the things you do
    Because I stand in front of you
    But you drive me all the time
    Put the evil in my mind
    Just another slave for the mule
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  • Yes: Their song "And You and I" from the album Close to the Edge borrows ideas from Foundation; "as a foundation left to create the spiral aim" and "There'll be no mutant enemy we shall certify".

Tabletop Games

  • Paranoia: Acute Paranoia supplement: The new secret society The Foundation is dedicated to creating refuges where Alpha Complex citizens can survive when the Complex is destroyed. This is a reference to Isaac Asimov's Foundation series, in which the Foundation was set up to preserve knowledge when the Galactic Empire fell.
  • Traveller:
    • Supplement 11 Library Data (N-Z). The science of psychohistory allows the prediction and manipulation of the future behavior of large populations.
    • The name of some emperors, such as Cleon.
  • Warhammer 40,000: There is mention of a quarantine planet named Proxima Trantor.

Video Game

  • Civilization: Beyond Earth: If you find the remains of a failed expedition you can perform a psychohistorical analysis of their records to learn from their mistakes. The ADVISR also performs one at the very beginning of the game to tell you about Affinities if you choose to activate Full Guidance.
  • Elite: Frontier: First Encounters has one in a nod to Foundation where the science of psychohistory and a figure named Dr. Seldon are mentioned in a news article called "Universal Scientist".
  • No Man's Sky: The 26 November 2016 update is named "Foundation" and there's a "Foundation" achievement, earned by having 250,000 units in your inventory.
  • Stellaris:
    • Planet names include Melpomenia and Solaria.
    • The Great Khan, like the Mule, comes apparently out of nowhere to become a potential Galactic Conqueror and is rumored to be a powerful psychic (though these rumors are never confirmed for the Great Khan).

Web Animation

  • Dimensional Prophecy of Zohar Redux: The protagonists are a group of Mathematicians who design an algorithm that can predict future Caine attacks. The algorithm is once called a form of "psychohistory", a term invented by Dr Asimov that his mathematicians use to predict the future.

Web Original

Western Animation

  • Futurama: The holophonor is a recurring musical device based on the Visi-Sonor.
  • Justice League: In "Twilight", an incredibly powerful AI living in a space base has stumbled into the problem of having developed as far as computers allow, and must now merge with a humanoid alien in order to continue. In other words, same as the climax of Foundation and Earth.