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Outside (also known as 1. Outside) is the twentieth studio album by David Bowie, released in 1995. This album also sees Bowie reunite with Brian Eno for the first time since Lodger in 1979, and unlike the Berlin Trilogy, on which he served as a collaborator rather than a producer (as is commonly mis-believed), Eno actually did take over production duties this time around. The album marks yet another shift in sound and style for Bowie, this time switching over to a blend of industrial rock and art rock influenced heavily by Nine Inch Nails (to the extent where he toured with NIN and became personally acquainted with Trent Reznor while supporting the album).

Set 20 Minutes into the Future in 1999, a new art craze is sweeping the world: the murdering and mutilation of human bodies. Known as "Art Crime", Detective Professor Nathan Adler has been tasked by the government to investigate the phenomenon and determine which actions within the movement are truly art and which are just glorified murder. When a 14-year old girl named Baby Grace is found murdered in too gratuitous of a way to count as art, Alder is sent to find and arrest the culprit— which causes waves of conflict when everyman Leon Blank is accused and incarcerated, despite Blank's claims that he had never even set foot in the town where the murder took place. Thus, the album explores these events and their fallout in a (possibly) nonlinear fashion, focusing not only on the storyline but also providing in-depth character studies— from Nathan to the names on the suspects list to even the anonymous murderer and their victim— and a thorough examination of what truly counts as art in a world where the meaning of the word "art" itself is coming under question more than ever before.


The album is considered a continuation of Bowie's Career Resurrection that started with Black Tie White Noise and spawned three singles: "The Hearts Filthy Lesson", "Strangers When We Meet" (itself a re-recording of a track from The Buddha of Suburbia), and "Hallo Spaceboy", the latter of which was remixed by the Pet Shop Boys and incorporated into the Major Tom saga. Among those who aren't fans of Black Tie White Noise, this album is almost unanimously considered Bowie's artistic comeback, and those who do enjoy Black Tie White Noise see it as an even further improvement.

Bowie planned for the album to be the album to be the first of a trio of concept albums (the second would have been called 2. Contamination), but Bowie ultimately scrapped the other two records and left the story unfinished. However, the themes of the album would continue to be explored on its follow-ups, Earthling and 'hours...', with a lingering influence that stretches all the way to .



  1. "Leon Takes Us Outside" (1:25)note 
  2. "Outside" (4:04)
  3. "The Hearts Filthy Lesson" (4:57)
  4. "A Small Plot of Land" (6:34)
  5. "(Segue) – Baby Grace (A Horrid Cassette)" (1:39)
  6. "Hallo Spaceboy" (5:14)
  7. "The Motel" (6:49)note 
  8. "I Have Not Been to Oxford Town" (3:47)
  9. "No Control" (4:33)*
  10. "(Segue) – Algeria Touchshriek" (2:03)*
  11. "The Voyeur of Utter Destruction (as Beauty)" (4:21)
  12. "(Segue) – Ramona A. Stone/I Am with Name" (4:01)
  13. "Wishful Beginnings" (5:08)*
  14. "We Prick You" (4:33)
  15. "(Segue) – Nathan Adler" (1:00)
  16. "I'm Deranged" (4:31)
  17. "Thru' These Architects' Eyes" (4:22)*
  18. "(Segue) – Nathan Adler" (0:28)*
  19. "Strangers When We Meet" (5:07)*

*Absent from Excerpts from Outside

"Paddy? What a fantastic tropes page. Tell the others!"

  • Aborted Arc: The album was intended as the first of a trilogy, but since it became an Orphaned Series, the world shall never know what was to become of its characters.
  • Album Intro Track: "Leon Takes Us Outside", an instrumental piece with cryptic spoken-word phrases on top of it.
  • Anachronic Order: Applies to both the liner notes' short story and the arrangement of songs and spoken-word segues on the album itself.
  • Call-Back: The PSB remix of "Hallo Spaceboy" not only references Major Tom, but also cuts up and mixes up the lyrics for "Space Oddity" in the second verse.
  • Celebrity Paradox: Played with in the short story that accompanies the album, which is written as the diary of Detective Nathan Adler. Briefly recounting the history of the shocking performance art that paved the way for the "art-crime" fad, he notes that in The '70s "Bowie the singer remarked on a coupla goons who frequented the Berlin bars wearing dull surgery regalia: caps, aprons, rubber gloves and masks." No first name is given.
  • Darker and Edgier: One of the darkest albums in Bowie's discography.
  • Death Song: Well, Death Album in this case.
  • Clip Show: "Hallo Spaceboy" consists of Bowie and Pet Shop Boys interspersed with old-timey video clips.
  • Epic Rocking: "The Motel" at 6:51, "A Small Plot of Land" at 6:34. The album itself is also notable for its length; at 74:36, it is the longest studio album Bowie ever put out; Bowie later regretted its length and suggested in interviews that it would've been more digestible as a double album (as in, keeping the tracklist identical but splitting it across two CDs even though it can fit snugly on just one).
  • Evil Laugh: Forms part of the music for "Wishful Beginnings".
  • The Exotic Detective: Detective Professor Nathan Adler of Art-Crime Inc. in 1. Outside: It's his job to not only investigate grisly "art-crimes" to find out who done 'em, but also determine whether they actually qualify as works of art or not. ("Art's a farmyard. It's my job to pick thru the manure heap looking for peppercorns.") He has aspects of the Hardboiled Detective — he wears a trenchcoat and fedora, and has a world-weary, growling voice in his spoken-word segues — but is far more erudite and intellectual.
  • Hell Is That Noise: The voice for Ramona A. Stone is that distorted and disturbing it comes as a relief when her act segues into "I Am With Name".
  • A Load of Bull: One of the mad artists pictured in the booklet is known only as "The Minotaur" and conceals his face beneath an elaborate bull head mask. Bowie wears a similar mask in the video for the album's first single, "The Hearts Filthy Lesson", in which a cabal of other bizarre artists create a minotaur of their own (as Bowie explained in an interview. He's also a painter in Real Life and has created several works featuring minotaurs).
  • Loads and Loads of Roles: Bowie gives voice to a 52-year-old detective, a 14-year-old female murder victim, mad artists of both genders, a 78-year-old shopkeeper, etc. (There are pictures of most of them in the booklet, via the magic of makeup, costume, and image manipulation of Bowie himself)
  • Long Title
    • The full title as presented on the album cover and interior insert reads 1. Outside: The Nathan Alder Diaries: A Hyper-Cycle
    • The full title presented in the linear notes reads The Diary of Nathan Alder, or The Art-Ritual Murder of Baby Grace Blue: A non-linear Gothic Drama Hyper-cycle
  • Madness Mantra: "The Voyeur of Utter Destruction (As Beauty)" ends with one, with the Minotaur repeating the words "call it a day" ad-infinitum.
  • New Sound Album: Industrial rock and electronic.
  • Orphaned Series: Was supposed to have two follow-ups.
  • Pietà Plagiarism: "The Hearts Filthy Lesson" where Bowie can be seen "cradled" by a mutilated mannequin in a few shots.
  • Rearrange the Song: "Strangers When We Meet" originally appeared on The Buddha of Suburbia before being re-recorded and released as a single from this album.
  • Re-Cut: The initial LP release of the album in 1995 was as a truncated single-disc version named Excerpts from Outside, which cut out six tracksnote  and shortened both "Leon Takes Us Outside" and "The Motel" considerably. Partly as a result of this, while side A on cassette copies ends with "No Control" (and CD copies don't have "sides" to begin with), side A on Excerpts ends at "Hallo Spaceboy". It wouldn't be until 2019 when the full album would be released on vinyl, as a double-LP, and even then the CD release is still treated as the definitive version (if only because it gets far more mileage out of the format than the cassette and LP releases do in regards to their respective formats).
  • Rock Opera: Despite its highly nonlinear and enigmatic structure, this album is far more specific about its storyline and characters than his other concept albums.
  • Sanity Slippage Song: "I'm Deranged"
  • Shout-Out: A sample from a Brian May concert is played near the end of "Segue - Ramona A. Stone/I Am With Name".
  • Shown Their Work: The Bowie-penned short story that makes up the bulk of the liner notes for 1. Outside not only establishes the album's storyline and characters, but also weaves in stories of the grisly "precursors" of the art-crime movement. These are mostly Real Life 20th century artists of the True Art Is Incomprehensible school, and often particularly grisly ones at that: Hermann Nitsch, Chris Burden, Damien Hirst, Ron Athey, and Guy Bourdin; Burden had previously inspired the "Heroes" song "Joe the Lion".
  • Slasher Smile: Definitely helps to stand next to a dismembered corpse too.
  • Spoken Word in Music: Aside from the segues, this is used quite a bit in "The Hearts Filthy Lesson"
    "Paddy, who's been wearing Miranda's clothes?"
  • Title 1: The title was written as 1. Outside because it was planned as the first part of a trilogy.
  • Title Track: Double subverted with the opening piece "Leon Takes Us Outside", which is then followed by "Outside"... but these only count if you treat Outside as the official album title.
  • Word Salad Lyrics

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