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Mohs / Speculative Science

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"Imagine a World where Machines can transmit information across long distances. Where carriages are pulled not by horses, but by engines relying on combustion. Imagine a World where electrically powered ships can sail below the surface of the Sea and heavier-than-air vessels sail the skies. Jules Verne imagined ALL these things.”

Speculative Science: Stories in which there is no "big lie" — the science of the tale is (or was) genuine speculative science or engineering, and the goal of the author to make as few errors with respect to known fact as possible.



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    Anime and Manga  

    Fan Fiction  

  • Evangelion 303: This story makes a deliberate effort to be realistic. The science and engineering used is mostly pausible. Some of the technology (such like the anti-targetting field) is inexistent but feasible.
  • In Friendship is Optimal, the only significant and most unrealistic change to technological progress is the invention of strong A.I. sometime around 2012. Much of the science is then extrapolated from current and theoretical future technology, albeit on a much faster scale since it's being done by an A.I. far more intelligent and capable than humanity.


  • Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, set 20 Minutes into the Future, has only one real speculative element: the memory-erasure device being employed by Lacuna, Inc. Perhaps wisely, the story does not explain how Lacuna, Inc. does its surgery on human memories, but the modern understanding of neuroscience of memory (e.g. how emotional resonance is separate from recall of events) is represented quite accurately.
  • Moon: Minus the Space Is Noisynote  and cloning it was so spot on, NASA personnel who screen tested the film just to see how close they got it were pretty impressed. The best explanation is when one of them asked the Director, "Why does the base look like a bunker?", he replied that he figured that it would just be easier (and cheaper) to transpose stuff that already existed onto the moon — and then another in the group stated that she's in fact working on just that.
  • Children of Men: The world is a Childless Dystopia and has a few advanced technologies here and there, but everything else looks like it would fit perfectly fine in 2027.
  • Her: A future in which Siri-like OS are upgraded to the point of becoming Artificial Intelligence and humans begins forming relationships with them. Outside of some advance technology, the setting of the story is still very much taking place in the near future.
  • Gravity had some factual errors in it, such as the relative position of the space stations where much of the plot is set, and the details of reentry, but the plot is nevertheless well within the capabilities of current technology.
  • The Dark Knight Trilogy is notable among superhero movies for the complete lack of fantasy elements, which is one of the reasons it is securely Alternate Continuity to the DC Extended Universe that succeeded it. No verifiably superhuman characters appear throughoutnote , and all of Batman's gadgets are given logical explanations (mostly resulting from Wayne Enterprises' military contracts). The films only rarely yield to the Rule of Cool, such as the eighteen-wheeler-flipping scene in The Dark Knight.
  • Ad Astra has a few instances of playing loose with physics, particularly regarding antimatter and gravity, but otherwise doesn't stray too far from near-future technology. One hard sci-fi aspect is claiming there is no life outside Earth.


  • Valhalla by Ari Bach aspires to absolute real possibility in every respect, often to plot-clogging detail. The flying cars work on ground effect. The ray guns shoot microwave radiation. The power plant "flips quarks" and about a page is spent explaining exactly what that means and referencing scientists who were working on the theory at the time the novel was written. Every element of the novel that qualifies as science fiction seems to have been researched to ensure actual potential, and all that research is referenced in the form of in-jokes, subtle nods, or outright statements within the story.
  • The works set early in the timeline of Larry Niven's Known Space universe fall into this category, including Protector (which featured Bussard Ramscoops but no faster-than-light travel). The later in the timeline of Known Space you go, though, the farther the scale slides toward the soft side, with FTL, reactionless drives, inertialess drives, indestructible transparent hull material, and finally psychic luck all entering the fray.
  • Robert L. Forward's Rocheworld setting was quite hard through the first two books (it should be, he's a physicist). However, in the third and later books, the science softens to mush, including finding native coffee beans on the moon of a gas giant circling a red dwarf.
  • Dragon's Egg, also by Forward, takes the idea of life on the surface of a neutron star with extreme seriousness.
  • Robert A. Heinlein:
    • In The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress, except for Mike itself pretty much everything in the novel is already around, or could easily be put together in the next half-century (the book is set in 2075-2076). The only fly in jam here is that we had a moonbase for a minimum of thousands by the 90s.
    • The short story "The Menace From Earth" posits a sublunar colony that doesn't require a ton of future-tech but would be absurdly expensive to build with today's technology. Beyond that, the story sticks tightly to realistic extensions of the current technology. The protagonist is even engaged in drafting the design for a starship that anticipates engines that haven't been invented.
  • Charles Pellegrino's Flying To Valhalla and The Killing Star. The Valkyrie spaceships (and their alien equivalents) are a design seriously proposed by Pellegrino and Jim Powell. And, unfortunately, the major source of mayhem is pretty plausible too.
  • Steven Gould's Helm brings two major science-fiction elements: terraforming and technological brainwashing. The former is described in significant detail in an early chapter, and the terrain depicted of the book reflects the planet's history. The brainwashing is treated in less detail, but its mechanism of operation is convincing nonetheless.
  • John C. Wright's The Golden Oecumene trilogy, which has interstellar travel that respects the speed of light, and Count to the Eschaton, which is Space Opera set as hard an SF future as he could write.
  • The Quantum Thief-trilogy, written by Hannu Rajaniemi, an actual astrophysicist, tests the boundaries of the scale by applying the most advanced and uncertain theories in his field as well-known and practically applied everyday facts. Towards the end things start to get extremely crazy, as the possibility of using space-time itself as a quantum gravity computer is brought up. Breaking from the limits of causality and manufacturing new universes? Well, if some extremely exotic variations of the super string theory and the Many Worlds model are correct...
  • Most of the novels of Stephen Baxter, such as the Xeelee Sequence and Proxima, fall withing the softer edge of the spectrum, applying, similar to the Quantum Thief, advanced and uncertain theories in the field as well-known and practically applied everyday facts.
  • The First Book of MARZENA goes to great length to explain new theories of how the brain works and how said theory led to the creation of human-like AIs along with a global revolution of neuroscience and psychology.
  • Alien in a Small Town goes into considerable detail about its Silicon-Based Life Forms, and has no Faster-Than-Light Travel, Humanoid Aliens or any of the other usual soft science culprits.
  • M.D. Cooper's Aeon 14 stays firmly grounded in reality for the first three books, with STL-only space travel, nanotechnology, Bio-Augmentation, and Artificial Intelligence but nothing that actually violates physics. However, the preview of book four establishes that Faster-Than-Light Travel has been developed during the Time Skip, bumping it up to Physics Plus.
  • Literature/Ra lies on the more speculative end of the spectrum, with the "magic" relying on a combination of extreme levels of quantum energy teleportation on a scale far beyond anything considered in reality combined with advanced nanotechnology.
  • Catherine Asaro writes science-fictional romances, but as a Harvard-trained physicist, her science tends toward the very hard. Her Skolian Saga does feature FTL, but it's not based on the usual sorts of applied phlebotinum. It's based on a speculative paper published in the American Journal of Physics, written by...Dr. Catherine Asaro.
  • Military sci-fi thriller Victoria has no technology that breaks the known laws of physics (though some, like commercially useful cold fusion, reach toward the speculative). The military hardware featured for the most part either exists today, or consists of plausible next-generation concepts (when it's not recycled outright old stuff). Biotechnology is somewhat more advanced than might be strictly plausible for the story's 2030s date, ranging from engineered super-plagues to cheap and easy ectogenesis, but still nothing that is impossible.
  • The Black Cloud by Fred Hoyle is a very solid example, even with the presence of a giant sentient gas cloud. The cloud is initially believed to be a Bok Globule (a dark nebula) drifting into the solar system and the physics equations used to detect it are very real. It helps that the author had a degree in astrophysics and was actually the one to coin the term "Big Bang." note 
  • We Are Legion (We Are Bob): Pretty hard, but the use of subspace and digital clones keeps it from being diamond hard.
  • Paradyzja by Janusz Zajdel is an interesting example. At first glance, an orbital city with Centrifugal Gravity is pretty hard, but not that hard - but then we learn the city is really located on the surface of the planet, and its inhabitants are purposefully taught physics wrong so they never work it out and can continue to be abused by their lords and masters. A spy from Earth confirms this little fact experimentally, by checking for Coriolis forces.

    Tabletop Games  

  • Quite neatly demonstrating that science fiction hardness is not perfectly correlated with plausibility: Car Wars. The only thing lifting it above Futurology on the Scale is the optional Body Backup Drive rules.
  • Sufficiently Advanced fits here. It's very unlikely that everything will work exactly as the author describes, as the tech is way into the future from where we are now, but the author (a physicist) tries to avoid anything that's outright pseudoscience. This still leaves a fair amount of flex. For example, Time Travel is sort of possible - but it's much easier to send information back through time than matter, leading to Chronotech taking a unique form in this game.


  • Person of Interest: The show is, for all intents and purposes, set in the present with the added existence of Artificial Intelligence, and as it goes on explores more and more the moral and geopolitical ramifications of its existence.
  • Intelligence (2014) is fundamentally a present-day spy procedural flavored with a Brain–Computer Interface.
  • Season 1 of The 100 fits here. Aside from a weird snake/eel/worm monster that appeared in the Pilot (and only in the Pilot), and some acid fog that's given a reasonable-ish explanation in Season 2, the only speculative leaps required are that a nuclear war has occurred, and that humanity has built a (barely) self-sustaining space station with Centrifugal Gravity. Later seasons introduce a lot more Phlebotinum and breaks from known science.

    Video Games  
  • ΔV: Rings of Saturn is one of the most accurate depictions of space travel in visual media, with spacecraft systems, performance and visuals being closely extrapolated from existing and near-future speculative tech. The only thing bringing it above straight Futorology is alien technology, including a wormhole hidden inside Daphnis.
  • I Miss the Sunrise is set far in the future, but doesn't rely on Applied Phlebotinum. Many of the technologies present are described in great detail and generally work according to real physics.
  • Most of Sid Meier’s Alpha Centauri falls into this, with the technologies researched being based on genuine extrapolations and projections of current (theoretical) science; these are probably on the borderline with Futurology. The main exception is the Psychic Powers, but there are hints that there's a rational explanation for those, as well. Of course, all of this runs afoul of Gameplay and Story Segregation, but not that much.
    • The Alien Crossfire expansion pulls it further from this and towards Physics Plus: despite the fact that the Progenitors are Starfish Aliens, "resonance" is somewhat dubious as a possibility.

    Web Comic  

  • Deep Rise Almost everything is considered possible in principle by modern science.
  • Mare Internum takes place during the early days of Mars's colonization. It starts out on a research station with technology that could all conceivably exist and a pretty realistic view of Mars. Then life and the survivor of an ancient advanced civilization is discovered beneath the surface. The existence of the advanced aliens and their Organic Technology (which can keep them in stasis for billions of years, and allow Mike to breath their atmosphere, among other things) could push the comic into One Big Lie territory.
  • Unity is a series of webcomics centered around an ancient colony ship populated by sapient descendants of terrestrial species.


    Web Original  

  • Orion's Arm falls at the softer end of this category. Things that are almost certainly impossible can be accepted but only so long as it is shown that they don't violate any known laws of physics. Wormholes that might violate causality undergo Visser collapse, extremely fast sub-light speed travel with Reactionless Drives has ridiculous amounts of math preventing violations of thermodynamics, brains the size of stars can be made but are subject to all the problems that come with it like light delay between different parts and the constant threat of turning into an actual star.

Futurology: Stories which function almost like a prediction of the future, extrapolating from current technology rather than inventing major new technologies or discoveries. Expect Zeerust in older entries.

     Anime and Manga  


  • Gattaca: Set in a very near future that introduces no really new technology but speculates on the advance of subtle human genetic manipulation and fetal selection and the ethical and social implications of a society that quickly relegates the non-engineered to second class status. The gamete selection technology portrayed in the movie is a reasonable extrapolation from technology that already exists; indeed, the furthest-out thing in the film is a manned expedition to Titan (and given an entire world population of geniuses, it's not much of a stretch except for the fact they don't wear spacesuits or seatbelts).
  • It can be difficult to see it this way because it was only "fiction" for a couple of years, but The Truman Show actually fits neatly into the category of Futurology, as well as the third of Asimov's Three Kinds of Science Fiction.


  • Red Mars by Kim Stanley Robinson, (as well as much of his other work) reads like genuine prophesy. Every single tool in Red Mars is carefully researched. Well, with the exception of the longevity treatment, for which we are given almost no scientific explanation. It's there purely as a literary device to keep the main cast around longer while things continue to change on Mars.
  • Given that The Machine Stops by E. M. Forster dates back to 1909, Zeerust is painfully evident throughout — but the idea of a globe-spanning information-processing system managing the delivery of food, operation of air travel, and aiding the dissemination of information is far from implausible, even if many of the details are distorted relative to what is now considered feasible.
  • Jules Verne did some of these, with 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea and From the Earth to the Moon being the more oft-cited examples because major parts of their premises later came true, namely, the development of the submarine and the possibility to send space travelers to the moon through some sort of ballistic propulsion.
  • Stephen Baxter tends to write in this category, with books like Titan, about a mission to the moon using a combination of decommissioned Shuttle, ISS and Apollo technology.
  • Michael Flynn's Firestar series, a near-future setting about averting an asteroid that might otherwise hit the Earth.
  • Neuromancer, the William Gibson novel, falls on the hard side of the spectrum, largely because his vague depiction of Cyber Space has preventing it from aging too badly (although Zeerust abounds nevertheless). His description of the Freeside space colony is not too far off from what humans could realistically create in the near future, although it gets some of the details about Artificial Gravity wrong. Ironically, the most difficult thing in the novel to create in real life might be the AI itself that the title refers to.
  • Andy Weir's The Martian is extraordinarily hard sci-fi, with a focus on mechanical engineering, chemistry, NASA technology and procedure, and astrophysics.
  • In Outlander Leander, Nagdecht is a technologically advanced society, but almost everything they have could be recreated today or will be possible in the near future.
  • While Seveneves doesn't bother explaining what blew up the Moon, everything that follows is plausible with current or near-future technology.


  • Max Headroom: Strongly related to its 20 Minutes into the Future premise, though still spiced with the occasional TV commercial that makes people's brains explode. Which may be a comedic exaggeration of a Reverse Funny Aneurysm; certain TV shows have been known to trigger grand mal seizures.
  • ReGenesis: Set in the present, showcases bleeding edge biotechnology for its science fiction aspects (most of the technology featured are real or in the "theoretical possible but impractical/expensive/unethical stage of development)". Sometimes it's less science-fictiony than CSI.
  • TV docudramas about near-future space exploration, such as Space Odyssey Voyage To The Planets and Race to Mars.
  • Jupiter Moon, a British Sci-Fi series taking place on a decommissioned space vessel.
  • Star Cops, an earlier British series that, although not very successful with viewers or critics, remains one of the hardest TV SF shows ever written.

    Tabletop Games  

  • High Frontier aims to be a scientifically accurate simulation of the industrialization of the solar system in the near future. All the technologies available in the game are things that are feasible in the near future, and their statistics are as accurate as possible. An actual excerpt from the appendix:
To avoid the evaporation losses suffered by radiations that use liquid droplets in space, dust radiators use solid dust particles instead. If the particles are electrostatically charged, as in an electrostatic thermal radiator (ETHER), they are confined by the field lines between a charged generator and its collector. If the spacecraft is charged opposite to the charge on the particles, they execute an elliptical orbit, radiating at 1200 K with a specific area of 71 kg/m^2 and 213 kW_th/m^2. The dust particles are charged to 10^-14 coulombs to inhibit neutralization from the solar wind. Prenger 1982.

    Video Games  

  • Deus Ex: Human Revolution revolves largely around the impact that cyborg technology would have on society and portrays such technology (and is socio-economic impact) rather realistically. Indeed what is most likely the series' most unrealistic point is the time frame; the series is set in 2027, much too soon for cybernetics to make the advances seen and also become ubiquitous.
  • Kerbal Space Program: Whilst largely based on existing technologies, the vanilla game does include plausible near-future tech such as single-stage-to-orbit Space Planes and manned interplanetary transport. There are many mods available, some of which push the tech level around the scale. Space Compression is used, but the proportions are accurate.
  • Children Of A Dead Earth: A space combat simulator that has more in common with KSP than other softer entries into the genre. The dev has done extensive research into a wide variety of topics to ensure the most realistic game-play experience possible. Spaceflight is done through a full n-body simulation (compared to the patched conics approximation of KSP) and spacecraft systems are so faithfully modeled that making a custom nuclear reactor that actually works ought to come with an honorary degree in nuclear engineering.

Back to Mohs Scale of Science Fiction Hardness.

Alternative Title(s): Futurology


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