Unlike telephones, walkie-talkies are half-duplex devices. This means only one party may speak at a time. If both attempt to transmit simultaneously, neither of them will hear each other. In the professional world, Voice procedure keeps radio communications organized, which commonly involves saying "over" when one station finishes transmitting so that another party knows that they can begin. On large networks, call signs may be used to identify communicators without having to rely on their name. Since available channels are limited and airtime is valuable, code words (called "procedure words" or "prowords" in radio jargon) are typically used to keep transmissions brief. For example, "Roger" is generally used to mean "understood."
While this makes sense for a military unit containing hundreds of soldiers or a cab dispatcher keeping track of dozens of cars, the average layperson is unlikely to be familiar with this convention. Chances are they'll think "Roger" is the name of a person, or mistakenly believe "over" is part of the sentence.
Frequently, an overzealous character handed a radio for the first time will insist their partner use perfect protocol when it's completely unnecessary, such as when there is only one other person with another radio. They will almost certainly create outrageous code names and raise a fuss when the other characters don't cooperate.
"Over" is the radio equivalent of Telegraph Gag Stop. Over.
Contrast Hollywood CB, where walkie-talkies work like telephones and no special protocol is used. For other unrealistic depictions of radio usage by military or professional personnel, see Artistic License Military.
- When Bill Engvall flew with the Air Force Thunderbirds, the control tower attempts to avert this by telling Bill that he can speak normally. Unfortunately, this is Bill Engvall, who convinced himself that he has to say "Roger" with everything he says or else the jet will fall out of the sky. The combination of his fear of heights and the pilot's high-speed maneuvers causes him to crank it Up to Eleven, where he is randomly screaming "Roger! Roger Roger Roger Roger!" at the pilot in the middle of chewing him out.
- Airplane!: "Over" and "roger" are the names of Captain Oveur and co-pilot Roger Murdock, causing confusion while requesting their take-off clearance. To make matters worse, the Captain's first name is Clarence, which sounds similar to "clearance". At the same time, navigator Victor is looking for the proper vector.
"We have clearance, Clarence."
"Roger, Roger. What's our vector, Victor?"
- In the first Artemis Fowl book, one of the Corporals in the LEPrecon refuses to address his Captain appropriately over the radio because he is his brother.
Captain Kelp: Check in.
Corporal Kelp: A big negatori, Trouble.
Captain Kelp: Were in the field, Corporal. Follow procedure.
Corporal Kelp: But Mommy said!
Captain Kelp: I dont care what Mommy said, Corporal! Rank is rank! You will refer to me as Captain Kelp.
- In the season 3 finale of Stranger Things, Hopper, Joyce and Murray are about to infiltrate the Russian Elaborate Underground Base but they need Dustin and Erika to assist them as Mission Control. The latter two agree on the condition that Murray's code sign would be "Bald Eagle". They then milk the gag for all it's worth.
- Viewtiful Joe 2: One of the bosses, Sergeant Big John, frequently talks over the military walkie-talkie and as such he always ends his sentences with "over". Even when he's disguising himself as "Big Lee" later on, he still says "over" after his sentences, which easily gives up his identity to Joe and Silvia.
- In Doug's 1st Movie, Doug is talking over a walkie-talkie and ends his call with "Roger" while the bully Roger is walking by and assumes Doug is talking to him.
- The Simpsons: In "Treehouse of Horror V", Marge tries to call the police on a two-way radio when Homer goes insane.
Marge: Hello! Police! This is Marge Simpson! My husband is on a murderous rampage! Over!
Chief Wiggum: Well, thank God it's over. I was worried there for a second. [hangs up]
- When Stewie and Brian use a walkie-talkie in Family Guy, Stewie refuses to acknowledge Brian's transmissions unless he ends them with "over." This becomes a problem when the last word in Brian's sentence is "over."
Brian: I don't want to hang out with you anymore when this is over.
Stewie: When this is what? You gotta finish your sentence. Over.
Brian: That's it. My sentence is over.
Stewie: Your sentence is what, Brian? Over.
Brian: My sentence is... wait a minute, I have to say "over" even if the sentence ends with the word "over?"
Stewie: Ends with the word what, Brian? Over.
- In the episode where Brian and Stewie join the army, Stewie says a bunch of jargon over the radio and tells Brian that he's just making up random names and numbers and doesn't know what they mean.
- In the Rugrats episode, "Tommy's First Birthday", Howard gives Tommy a set of baby monitors as a present, which Drew and Grandpa Lou use as walkie-talkies. When Didi realizes she rented a stage and puppets but not puppeteers, she says, "All men report to base immediately!" into one of the monitors. Stu then tells her, "Come on, Deed, that's not the right lingo at all.".
- Comes up in What's with Andy?
Steve Rowgee Jr.: Roger dodger. I mean, Roger and Wilco.
Steve Rowgee Sr.: It's "Roger and out."
- The name-confusion gag occurs in the prologue to the Ren & Stimpy episode "Space Madness".
Ren: Come in, Cadet Stimpy. Do you read me?
Stimpy: Cadet Stimpy here. We read you. Roger.
[a man appears next to them]
Man: Roger here.
- The Adventures of Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius: In "Professor Calamitous I Presume", Jimmy is trying to rescue Goddard from the villain while Carl and Sheen are at the Candy Bar. They keep in communication with walkie-talkies.
Sheen: Roger. We'll wait here at the Candy Bar in case the kidnapper comes in for a snack. Over and out.
Carl: Who's "Roger"?
- In the Bugs Bunny cartoon "Haredevil Hare", Bugs is so traumatized by the rocket trip to the moon, once he lands he does a series of spastic fits. He continues to throw fits as he answers the walkie-talkie from mission control, but still takes the time to end the communication properly with "over". Later, when he tries to call for help about Marvin the Martian going to blow up Earth, all the walkie-talkie picks up is a radio commercial jingle.
- Downplayed in The Loud House. Lincoln and his best friend Clyde live across the street from each other and use walkie-talkies so Lincoln doesn't have to fight for talk time against his 7 sisters. They use very silly Punny Name codenames but otherwise have rather mundane and ordinary communication protocol.
- Combined with Leaning on the Fourth Wall in Sonic Boom.
Sonic: Coming in for a hard landing, Tails. You got me covered?
Knuckles: Who's Roger?
Sonic: [in Roger Craig Smith's ACTUAL voice] He's talkin' to me. [in Sonic's voice] Thanks, buddy! I owe you one.