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They call it 'coffee' because like actual coffee, it'll keep you up all night if it's done right.

The meaning under the text. Here's an example from Woody Allen's Annie Hall. The subtext is directly under the text, in italic.

HER: Hi!
Oh, God, nobody cool says Hi.

HIM: Hello!
I'd love to take her out. I hope my deodorant's working.

HER: Nice view.
He's talking to me! And he'll hate my silly dress.

HIM: (Taking a furtive step toward her) Just look at the clouds over there.
I've got to find out who she is.

HER: I'm Leslie ...
What a stupid name. He'll hate it and hate me.

HIM: Neat dress.
I just love her name.

The example is about a sexual attraction, but there are tons of other things that it could be about, anything which is not being said out loud about a topic that is present in the context. Note, in particular, that subtext can be (and frequently is) read into a work where none was actually intended by the author.