Having a Reasonable Authority Figure in charge is brilliant. Be it a good monarch, a superb CEO, a master swordsman with a knack for education in a dojo... whatever the position, it makes the lives of everyone under the title easier. But no one lives forever...
But it's OK! If it's a monarchy, the line of succession is safe, or the king has chosen an agreeable replacement beforehand; if not, there are proper democratic (or at least elective) mechanisms in place for selecting a new leader. The old makes way for the new...
...pity that the new sucks.
This trope is about when a superb or at least markedly superior leader passes away, retires or occasionally gets killed off, possibly by the guy or gal who gets the top spot, and is replaced by someone who is markedly inferior. Markedly inferior can range from just not being as competent to being akin to the worst excesses of insane leaders throughout history.
Reasons for this trope being deployed vary. Sometimes it simply showcases the problem of having an experienced leader suddenly get replaced by someone who hasn't got the hang of things yet; that leader may show Character Development and improve. Sometimes the new leader is fairly competent under normal circumstances, but his father was a genius at war, or intrigue, or even just keeping the wolves from the door, which applies especially to CEOs, and the circumstances are most assuredly NOT optimal. If this is the case, if the new ruler is The Hero, he again will eventually come up to the mark, albeit with a lot of problems and challenges along the way. Unless it's a Downer Ending of course. If he is not the main character, then it will be up to The Hero to guide the new leader or at least ensure he doesn't screw up too badly... or maybe the new king will be the reason for the country/whatever collapsing, the villain winning initially, and the heroes will be La Résistance, stemming from a Prequel or Backstory. Sometimes something in the bloodline will hit the new ruler, leaving him Royally Screwed Up. Sometimes the new leader is just a young child, in which case the regent(s) are the ones who are likely to be incompetent and/or self-serving. And, of course, there's always the chance the new ruler will be a bloodthirsty tyrant or just insane and will prove to be the villain of the piece, or an obstacle for the hero to overcome to defeat the real villain.
In the event of the old ruler trying to do something about the successor to ensure this doesn't happen, you have an Inadequate Inheritor.
This trope will probably have several subtropes eventually. Also, we need some examples which aren't just examples of the successor doing something horrible to the old ruler.
Death Trope. Will involve unmarked spoilers. Read at your own risk, and the risk of others to whom you will blab about it out of shock who haven't watched/read the story yet.
- Defied on The Twelve Kingdoms as the next ruler is not necessarilly the child of the previous king, but rather has to be chosen by the Kirin each time the previous one dies. Rulers gain near-immortality on accession (for themselves as well as their family and retainers), so a successful reign may continue indefinitely. Not all rulers are successful, however: Youko's predecessor only ruled for about 6 years before committing suicide to save her kirin from her own incompetence. By comparison, the wise and even-handed En-Ou has ruled for more than 500 years.
- Nick Fury was fired from SHIELD after starting a secret war with Doctor Doom. During Marvel's Secret Invasion event, he groomed Daisy Johnson, a SHIELD agent loyal to him, to take his place and build a new SHIELD, since the previous one was infiltrated by Hydra. While she was very good at her job, her first time breaking the rules, she is caught and immediately replaced by Maria Hill. Nick was able to keep secret agendas and plans secret for years.
- Similarly, Maria Hill, when replacing Nick Fury was this. She always worked within the system, which meant she could never do quite as good a job as Nick. The world went to crap on her watch. She got better over time, but still is very much inferior to Nick.
- Tormina becomes the new Queen of the Underrealm after her older sister Lady Death abdicates in favor of her. Unfortunately, Tormina was not experienced in ruling nor was as powerful as her sister and to make matters worse, she was handed the throne in the aftermath of a devastating war that ruined the realm. This ended up pushing her to seek the advice of an ancient demon named Satyricos, who became her Evil Chancellor and under his influence, managed to restore the kingdom, but at cost of persecuting all demonkind in the Underrealm. Tormina ends up becoming nothing more than a Puppet Queen to Satyricos, who used her to get rid of all who would get in his way and ends up discarding her when she finds this out.
- Robin Series: While the Rahul Lama did try to get his grandson more involved in all aspects of the ancient martial and healing art he was the last true master of and keep him involved in training their students after his death his grandson runs the school into the ground. By the time Tim is in Paris again long enough to revisit their martial arts school it has been replaced with a fast food joint and all of Shen's remaining "students" are thugs.
- In Eugenesis Prowl has a choice: Being in charge, which he hates (and isn't very good at), or letting Grimlock take control and run what's left of the Autobots into the ground. Or Springer, though for some reason he can't figure out, Prowl doesn't think this would be a good idea. Follow-up fiction would prove his suspicions about Springer right in all the worst ways.
- Many versions of Robin Hood have King John standing in for Good King Richard.
- Happens at the end of Oscar Wilde's short story "The Star-Child". The title character, who used to be cruel, has learned to be a good person, and found out that he is the king. Due to the lessons he has learned, he is a good king and brings peace and plenty to the kingdom, but the Happy Ending is mitigated by the last lines:
Yet ruled he not long, so great had been his suffering, and so bitter the fire of his testing, for after the space of three years he died. And he who came after him ruled evilly.
- Defied in Heralds of Valdemar series, where King Valdemar prayed to every God for a way to ensure that his successors would always be worthy people, and then three white horses jumped out of the grove on the palace grounds and chose himself, his son, and his herald as their bond-mates. From then on only Heralds - chosen by Companions for positive traits like honesty and courage - could inherit the throne, ensuring a minimum degree of competency and benevolence for future rulers.
- Even with the above safeguards, the 'not quite as competent' variant comes into play during the Last Herald Mage trilogy. Elspeth the Peacemaker managed to use diplomacy and marriage alliances to avoid major problems with neighboring realms. However her son predeceased her in a freak accident, and when the crown fell to her young grandson everything started going south.
- Played straight with the King of Hardorn who was a pretty good king and an ally of Valdemar, until his son Ancar killed him and took over, started oppressing and pretty much enslaving his people and began a war with Valdemar AND Karse.
- Le Morte Darthur by Thomas Mallory had as King Arthur's successor a relative nobody named Constantine, the son of one of the lesser knights, no less. Given that, whether historical or legendary, Arthur's Britain was quickly supplanted by the Saxons he opposed, his successor may have had no footprint at all.
- This trope starts off the action in Harald, with the death of the king who forged the alliance that kept The Empire at bay and his replacement's incompetence.
- Though it varies a bit based on the book, the eponymous Wizard of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and its sequels is depicted as an incompetent charlatan who sent Oz backwards under his leadership, which he usurped from the previous monarchy.
- The theme is expanded in greater detail in the Wicked books.
- Joffery Baratheon in A Song of Ice and Fire. His father may not have been the greatest king, but at least he wasn't an insane psychopath.
- The Targaryen family tree are full of these, causing several civil wars, in-house plotting and weak monarchs that left more powers in the hands of the feudal lords. The last one was Aerys II, who sparked a civil war that lost the Targaryens the throne (and most of their lives as well).
- Perhaps the most notable example was the transition from Viserys II to Aegon IV. Although the former was not on the throne very long, he was a valuable advisor to his brother Aegon III and king in all but name during the reigns of his nephews Daeron I (The Young Dragon, who got 50,000 men killed trying to conquer a desert and died at 16 without heirs) and Baelor (The Blessed, who refused to marry and spent his whole reign praying rather than actually doing anything kingly); and is generally considered to be the third best king to seat the Iron Throne (After his great-great-grandfather Jaehaerys I, who led the realm through the dangerous period of being past the initial founder but not being sufficiently established to truly hold together, and grandson Daeron II, who defused the most dangerous rebellion the realm ever faced and ruled wisely for many years). Viserys' son (And father to the excellent Daeron II in an inverted example) Aegon IV, however, was obese, greedy, fathered dozens of bastards all over the place, and directly caused the rebellion that Daeron had to stop by legitimizing all of them. He might not have been as bad as Aerys II or Joffrey, but going from the third best to the third worst out of the twenty monarchs to sit the throne is the biggest change of any of them.
- Lord Tywin Lannister regards his son Tyrion this way, regarding him as a drunken lecherous resentful dwarf and refusing to see any of his good points or realise how his own attitude has made Tyrion this way. He refuses to recognise Tyrion as his rightful heir in the hope of getting his other son Jaime into the position instead, despite Jaime not being interested and having his own flaws that Tywin fails to recognise.
- The Targaryen family tree are full of these, causing several civil wars, in-house plotting and weak monarchs that left more powers in the hands of the feudal lords. The last one was Aerys II, who sparked a civil war that lost the Targaryens the throne (and most of their lives as well).
- In Avram Davidson's "Doctor Eszterhazy" stories, the Emperor of Scythia-Pannonia-Transbalkania is a doddery old man, but his son is a dim-witted militarist and his grandson is a complete fool. So everyone does their best to keep the doddery old man doddering along.
- Discussed in Safehold when Cayleb and Sharleyan's chief advisor worries that while they are beloved by all, their child might end up being this trope. He notes that in history, most successors to exceptional rulers ended up this way, mostly due to Always Someone Better, the "better" being the parent they keep on being compared to. It remains to be seen whether the story vindicates him.
- Mitsuo Momota to Rikidozan regarding the JWA and Japanese "Puroresu" in general. This wasn't even Rikidozan or Momota's fault, as he probably would have been molded into a better successor had Rikidozan not been assassinated.
- When Salvador Lutteroth began making preparations for his son to takeover his place in EMLL, a mass of key officials and talent preemptively left to form Lucha Libre Internacional and The Universal Wrestling Association.
- Our Miss Brooks: In the first radio episode, "First Day", Madison High School's Principal Darwell is replaced by Principal Osgood Conklin. Partially averted in that Mr. Conklin is generally competent with a Hidden Heart of Gold. However, he is also pompous, arrogant, bad-tempered and dictatorial.
- The proverbially wise King Solomon in the Books of Kings of The Bible was succeeded by his son Rehoboam. The first item on Rehoboam's agenda was to so piss off 10 of the 12 tribes he was governing that they rebelled against him and split the kingdom of Israel in two permanently. He subsequently allowed the Egyptians to capture Jerusalem and take all Solomon's treasure.
- Played With, though: God allowed Rehoboam's failures as punishment for Solomon's own actions, since he had built pagan temples for his foreign-born wives.
- Hezekiah, King of Judah, attempted to defy this; according to the Talmud he knew prophetically that he would have an evil descendant and thus refused to marry. However, when he became ill the prophet Isaiah noted that he was still obligated to have children under religious law, even if he could not control what those children did. Hezekiah wound up marrying Isaiah's daughter Hephzi-bah, hoping that having two righteous parents would prevent an evil child; unfortunately, their son Menasheh, and Manasheh's son Amon, were both tyrants anyway. (Amon's son Josiah, however, was an inversion).
- In Warhammer Phoenix King Caledor the Conqueror of the high elves was a great warrior and strategist who kept the kingdom together through the bloody civil war with Malekith's dark elves, oversaw the construction of the Gateway fortresses that remain a fundamental part of Ulthuan's defenses in the present, reclaimed the Blighted Isle, thus ensuring the dark elves can't draw the Sword of Kaine, and resisted the sword's temptations himself, before finally diving into the sea to drown when his ship was taken by the dark elves. His son Caledor the Warrior was a great warrior and...well that's it. His rule is mostly known for a bloody and pointless war with the dwarfs that he ensured (Dark elves attacked a dwarven caravan disguised as high elves. In an unusual show of reasonableness the dwarfs sent an ambassador to talk about this and Caledor responded by having him shaved and sending him home in disgrace). The war left thousands on both sides dead, completely cut the high elves off from their mainland colonies, ended with Caledor slain in single combat with the Dwarven king, and ruined any hope of cooperation between the races. This was the first and definitely the last time the elves named the son of the previous Phoenix King as his successor.
- The Conqueror's other son Imladrik the Dragonlord was much more competent than his brother but had no interest in taking the throne, even telling lords plotting to put him there that he would refuse it. This ended up not really working out for him, as he was killed by Prince Morgrim Dragonsbane during the war his brother started. Ironically, his own son was also a Sketchy Successor despite being generally a good person and fairly competent because the position that he was the successor to was that of Master of Dragons and he was unable to get one let him ride it.
- Another good example can be found in the succession of Sigmarite Emperors. While Ludwig II - "Ludwig the Fat" - was considered capricious and was renowned for his gluttonous appetites, he nevertheless allowed the Halflings of the Moot representation by separating the Moot from the neighbouring provinces of Stirland and Averland and by allowing their Chief Elder (and later the Grand Theogonist of the Cult of Sigmar) onto the Electoral Council, allowing them a voice in deciding the next Emperor. His successor, Boris Goldgather, however, has no redeeming action to his name, having proved to be the worst of the Emperors elected from the Drakwald province and possibly the worst Emperor in general, bankrupting the Empire with his ludicrous expenses, fracturing it by pitting Elector Counts against each other and weakening its armies drastically. Under Boris's reign, the Empire was completely unprepared for the plague and later Skaven invasion. It was considered a silver lining in the Empire when the plague killed him.
- This is pointed out as a worry of King Boranel of Breland in Eberron. It's not that his sons are bad people or incompetent, but they just aren't up to Boranel's impressive stature. This normally wouldn't have been all that important (balancing the monarch is one of the reasons Parliament exists, after all) if Boranel didn't have to worry if Breland hadn't gotten excessively dependent on him in the dark decades at the end of the Last War (there is a dark side to being very popular, after all). He has reason to worry, too — even if his sons were as competent and charismatic as he is, several factions have timed their schemes to go off whenever Boranel dies specifically so they don't have to deal with him, meaning that whoever inherits will be immediately thrust into an unstable and dangerous situation.
- The late King Hamlet from Hamlet is considered a ruler among rulers. King Claudius assassinated him to get the job and spends his reign doing nothing but trying to keep people from becoming suspicious.
- Claudius is not entirely incompetent, however. Notably, he manages to avert a Norwegian invasion of Denmark through diplomacy with seemingly no difficulty (Fortinbras does end up on the Danish throne, but only after the entire royal family have died to Hamlet's revenge plot). Some critics see the conflict of King Hamlet representing the old "warrior king" mould, whereas Claudius is more of a modern statesman.
- In Dragon Age: Origins, Maric Theirin is remembered as a much better King of Ferelden than his son Cailan. Subverted with Alistair if you "harden" his personality and make him King: in that case, he becomes a ruler much better than everyone expected (including him), perhaps on par with his dad and his cameo in Dragon Age: Inquisition shows that he's not afraid to put his foot down when it matters.
- The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind: The eponymous province is ruled by King Hlaalu Helseth after his mother, the Queen Mother Barenziah, abdicated following the events of Arena. While Barenziah is generally pretty well-thought-of In-Universe, Helseth is a polarizing figure. To begin with, the Dunmer people see the role as "King of Morrowind" as an Imperial convention they have no need for, as they see their true rulers as the Tribunal Temple and the Great Houses. The more conservative Dunmer in House Redoran and House Indoril feel he is a Quisling, or puppet, for the Empire, and he has a pattern of nepotism favoring his own House Hlaalu. Helseth himself is rumored to be a Master Poisoner who isn't above using the Dark Brotherhood to eliminate perceived threats. ( Including the Nerevarine.) His predecessor as King and that King's chosen heir both died under mysterious circumstances, with Helseth believed to have been involved. He also ends up being the last King of Morrowind, though not due to any political blunders, (Helseth appears to have been rather competent, and well on his way to transforming the role of King of Morrowind into a position with actual power at his last mention) but because of the Red Year; the post-Red Year Dunmer government appears to be an aristocratic republic ruled by a council of the Great Houses (much like the situation prior to the Imperial takeover, although with the theocratic elements toned down).
- X, the main hero of the Mega Man X series, was a robot with 100% free will. His creator, Dr. Light, sealed him up in a capsule and ran a 30 year long test to ensure he would always do the right thing. When Mega Man Zero rolled around, his successor Copy X was left in charge when the real X's time had come. However, despite being a perfect copy of X, Copy X had no memories or experiences that the real deal had. Copy X also didn't have the 30 year test performed on him. This left Copy X as a naïve, crazy Knight Templar who paled in comparison to his predecessor.
- Mass Effect: Andromeda: This is about the most charitable way to view Jorun Tann, the "Director" of the Andromeda Initiative. He was eighth in line to lead the Initiative, and got his position when all seven leaders above him died. What was he before he was put in charge of colonizing an entirely new galaxy? An accountant. It's clear he's in way over his head, and to his credit he does recognize this. He does appear to honestly be trying his best, but he simply doesn't have the kind of experience or charisma his position requires. His inability to fill the shoes of Jien Garson, the Initiative's founder, is the source of a huge amount of trouble the player has to clean up over the course of the game.
- Jorun is painted is a much more negative light in the prequel novel, where his arrogance and incompetence causes the repair workers to rebel and ends in the death of the workers' leader, and the protagonist of the book joining the rebels in exile.
- A variant in Girl Genius. It's not that Gilgamesh Wulfenbach is incompetent - he's a highly capable Spark, has been groomed to rule from the day he was born, and his first independent action was to call down Shock and Awe to knock off a major Knights of Jove force. The problem is, he isn't his father, specifically, and doesn't have his fearsome reputation. When Baron Klaus Wulfenbach was taken off the board, Gil was unable to keep the Pax Transylvania from splintering under the weight of all the factions that were out to take over.
- Robotnik in the Saturday Morning Cartoon of Sonic the Hedgehog gets his job by locking the old ruler in another dimension. He then proceeds to turn Mobitropolis into a robotic wasteland where he alone out of all the organic denizens (besides nephew Snively) is free to live a life of luxury in possibly the darkest incarnation of the villain.
- In The Legend of Korra, Earth Queen Hou-Ting, daughter of the kind-hearted Earth King Kuei of Avatar: The Last Airbender, is a selfish despot who hoards her nation's wealth for herself, leaving her people out to starve and seeks to undo the progress her father made, considering him a weak-willed ruler who was taken advantage of by Aang and Fire Lord Zuko. She was secretly kidnapping Airbenders in her nation to form a secret army (implied to be for an invasion of the United Republic). She eventually meets her end after mocking Zaheer, who proceeds to use Airbending to asphyxiate her.
- King John "Lackland" of England is frequently described as a poor replacement for King Richard the Lionheart. The truth is, arguably, that neither was much good; King John may have lost disastrously in France and sparked a (noble, not peasant) revolt in his own lands due to exorbitant taxes, but King Richard's punitively expensive crusading was the reason why King John had to raise those taxes in the first place. And couldn't have done much for John's French campaigns either. John wasn't a good king by any means, but Richard was arguably just as bad.
- Probably a straighter example, then, would be both Richard and John playing this trope straight in regards to Henry II (who besides doing the classic medieval-king fighting thing also built up his kingdom's institutions—which would last a long time—and its "common law"—which would last to this day and spread around the world).
- Bhumibol Adulyadej, the late King of Thailand, was tremendously popular, to the point of having shrines erected in his honor. Though Thailand has many protests, sometimes violent, the king himself was very very popular. No such luck for his successor, Vajiralongkorn, who is generally seen as a twit and a cad.
- Takeda Katsuyori was the type whose father Shingen was a genius at war. Sadly, Katsuyori could not hold Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu at bay, and he and his immediate family committed harakiri upon his defeat. To his credit, though, he did score some successes, taking a castle that not even Shingen could have in his life, but it's like he's a better military commander than administrator (compared to Shingen who's good at both), and also after the experience with Shingen, Nobunaga and Ieyasu has learned their lessons on how to handle the Takeda Cavalry...
- Richard Cromwell, heir to Oliver Cromwell. The English deposed him and restored the Monarchy. Which gives the impression that they thought, "At least HE was a badass whatever else he was. Richard is not. And if we must have Nepotism we might as well have a king and be done with it."
- An Aversion: Nobody expected Edward VII to be any good as a King: as Prince of Wales, he was a dissolute playboy who drank and smoked a lot, got caught up in a gambling scandal, had more mistresses than you can shake a stick at, and was seen as unhealthily fond of France, French manners, French food, and above all of French prostitutes (he famously had a "love chair" at one of Paris' most notorious high-class brothels for the express purpose of supporting himself while he took two prostitutes at once). Also, he was a gourmand and was tremendously fat. He once appeared as a witness in a divorce trial in which the husband alleged the wife had cheated on him with the Prince (triply scandalous on its own—the Prince is not only accused of having an affair with a married woman, but then he has to testify about it, and it's a divorce trial to boot—made quadruple so by the fact that the husband was an MP and the Prince apparently visited the wife during sittings of Parliament). He also had several mistresses in succession. So, when after decades of Queen Vicky's rule, Edward became King, everyone looked at him with a skewed eye...and proceeded to thank God when he showed he knew his place as King and actually became of great help to the Government, particularly in foreign affairs (his great love of all things French and extensive network of contacts in France set the groundwork for the entente cordiale—he had been authorised to talk to the French about an alliance against Germany as early as twenty years before his accession, and he kept at it until the agreements were signed). None of this kept him from continuing to have as much fun as he could manage throughout his nine-year reign (down to continuing to fairly openly live with his mistress, Alice Keppel), but nobody really minded because he was such a good monarch otherwise.
- Edward VII's son George V became a well-loved monarch, guiding the country through the First World War and sitting on the throne when the British Empire reached its greatest extent, becoming the largest empire in human history covering almost 25% of the entire planet's land, and successfully bringing the monarchy closer to the ordinary people of the UK. His eldest son, Edward VIII, however, fell into the trope hard. Before his death, George knew that his second son, Albert, and Albert's daughter Elizabeth (who wasn't even a teenager yet) would be far better monarchs. Given that Albert is better known as King George VI and Elizabeth II is the longest reigning monarch in British history, while Edward VIII ended up abdicating and being regarded as a Nazi sympathizer, he had good judgment.
- To add to the point above. George VI had not been groomed or trained for the throne, and had a well documented stammer in his early life. Thankfully the latter was treated with the help of Lionel Logue. The former raised doubts among the government about if he was suitable to rule, but the support of his wife (also called Elizabeth) helped convince them he could manage the job. This proved to be well founded. Their leadership and refusal to flee the country during World War II earned them the eternal devotion and admiration of the British people, and his devotion to duty is continued by Queen Elizabeth II herself, who is also quite beloved and respected by many. Sadly, the stress of the war and his smoking is what contributed to his early death in 1952 at just 56 years old.
- A subtle but serious case that overlaps with The Peter Principle; FitzRoy James Henry Somerset, later 1st Baron Raglan, spent much of his life as the perfectly competent chief aide to The Duke of Wellington. As the latter was regarded in Britain, with some reason, as a supreme military badass, it was assumed that Raglan had learned a bit, which would help explain why he was appointed to command the British forces in the Crimean campaign. Unfortunately, what Raglan had actually learned was how to be chief sidekick to a genius Control Freak; he had no significant experience of actually being in charge. This may explain something about the Crimean War.
- The Royal Italian Army had one of the most painful examples ever: the succession of general Alberto Pollio as the chief of staff. Pollio was a capable manager and commander, and upon his death was succeeded by Luigi Cadorna, an equally capable manager and an infamously crappy commander (notably, he was supposed to command a corps in the invasion of Libya during the Italian-Turkish War but was crushed in a wargame rigged to give him victory by general Carlo Caneva, who stole him the command and proceeded to became infamous for cowardice and general imbecility). When Italy later joined World War I, the Royal Italian Army would suffer for over two years against the better-led Austro-Hungarians before Cadorna got finally sacked.
- Most notably, the ones who cried the most for Pollio's death were the Austro-Hungarian government and general staff: Pollio was known for being a supporter of the Triple Alliance that at the time bound Italy with Germany and Austria-Hungary, and his sudden death right before the war and his replacement with a known hater of Austria-Hungary allowed the Italian government to stay neutral at the start of the war and then enter it on the other side.
- Louis XVIII might be seen as a step-down from Napoleon Bonaparte, but he was intelligent enough to understand that he needed to rein in the ultra-Royalists and reconcile the French after the Revolutionary turmoil. When he died in 1824, however, his brother Charles X proved to be as incompetent and intransigent as everyone had feared - he was one of the main voices of the Ultra party. His obsession with erasing the gains from the Revolution led to his dethronement in 1830.
- The Qin Dynasty (China, 221 BC - 206 BC) provides a pretty extreme example. Despite the name, it wasn't much of a dynasty, as the empire was founded by Qin Shihuangdi (in the process uniting China for the first time under a single rule), and ended three years into the reign of his son, who by all accounts was supremely incompetent. Notably, there apparently was a competent successor, but he was forced to commit suicide near the end of the first emperor's life. Reports vary as to whether the order was a forgery from advisers who wanted an heir they could (theoretically) control, or a genuine article from the emperor himself, who wanted all his most competent heirs out of the way, under the logic that, if there was nobody competent enough to replace him, he could not die. Modern consensus is that the forgery theory is more likely; however, given that Qin Shihuang was provably off his rocker by the end of his life from all of the mercury-containing "elixirs of life" he was taking, the other theory isn't entirely inconsistent with the historical record.
- Emperor Commodus of the Roman Empire. Commodus was the successor and biological son of Marcus Aurelius. Marcus Aurelius was viewed as wise and versed in philosophy. While he did not make Rome a prosperous nation, he did maintain its existing success, being the final emperor of the Pax Romana period. He did this largely by preventing anti-Roman offenses, maintaining proper governance while his brother, then co-ruler, fought the Parthian Empire, and Aurelius, then sole emperor, later succesfully repelled Germanic incursions. This positive reputation has endured. Today, Aurelius is renowned as a Philosopher Emperor in the Stoic school of thought, and he is marked as the last of the Five Good Emperors. Commodus was not so well-liked. He was noted as being somewhat lazy and disinterested in statesmanship, partially due to him delegating many of his powers to other individuals working under him, rather than ruling unilaterally. Unlike his father, who aimed to be disciplined and humble, Commodus was vain. He viewed himself as a reincarnation of Hercules and demanded to be addressed as such. He also spent a great deal of time in arenas, acting as an active gladiator, rather than as a spectator. This was seen as unseemly and unbefitting an emperor. Late in his reign, a fire occurred in Rome (the city, not the entire empire). He took this opportunity to "refound" the city, renaming it after himself. He did the same with the months of the year, legions, and Senate. Thus, Commodus, despite being disinterested in ruling, aimed to make himself the center of the empire, with all in it named for him. Commodus's reign was followed by the Year of the Five Emperors, a period of instability, and his decided lack of interest in actually leading his empire has been posited as a cause for the decline and eventual fall of the Roman empire.
- Erik XIV of Sweden. The son of King Gustav Vasa, widely considered to be the father of modern Sweden, Erik was the oldest of Vasa's sons and seemed to be reasonably competent... that is, until he actually became king, and turned out to be mentally unstable and incapable of dealing with the pressures of being king. Among other blunders, he began a campaign of torture against percieved enemies among the nobility, and several failed war campaigns. His reign culminated in the Sture Murders, when the paranoid king ordered the massacre of the Sture nobles, descendants of the royal house that preceeded Vasa, and personally killed Nils Sture, whom he had become convinced plotted against him. After the murders, the king ran away and hid in the woods for days before he was found pretending to be a peasant in a nearby village. This was the final straw, and a year later, an uprising of nobles led by Erik's brother Johan overthrew the king, and eventually had him poisoned in jail. Johan became king, and while a relatively unremarkable ruler, he proved himself a good deal more stable.