One of the most traumatic situations a family can deal with is the loss of a child. The wound cuts deep into both individuals and relationships. It is agony to speak about and somehow the silence is worse. The entire world seems to come to an end.
And yet, life goes on.
The desire to be a parent doesn't pass with the loss of a child. After time has passed they may decide that the time has come to have another child. This subsequent child can come with psychological ramifications that don't exist with other children.
The parent(s) may treat the child as a Replacement Goldfish, or struggle with keeping the child from feeling like one. Fear of losing another child can cause a Mama Bear or Papa Wolf to develop into full blown My Beloved Smother.
On the other hand the child may struggle with never feeling good enough. It can be hard enough to struggle with comparing to an older sibling, it can be downright impossible to compare with the unlimited potential represented by that older sibling's death.
Since this is a Death Trope, expect unmarked spoilers below!
- Played With in Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha, Fate Testarossa was cloned specifically to be a Replacement Goldfish after the death of her mother's first daughter, Alicia. In Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha A's, however, when we get a glimpse of a What If? scenario where both Alicia and Fate are alive, they treat each other as sisters, rather than the original and the copy, respectively. Afterwards, Fate continues to view Alicia as an older sister who died.
- The Stinger of Philosophia reveals that Tomo's parents had another child after her death, who grew up to look and act just like her.
- In Maus, Richieu Spiegelman died in Nazi Germany, while his brother Art was born after WWII ended. Their parents continued to blame themselves for not sending Richieu out of Germany when they had the chance. The final pages of the comic are Art's father, on his death bed, mistaking Art for Richieu.
- In The Assassination of Twilight Sparkle, Twilight Velvet becomes pregnant with a new filly, Mystic Sparkle, four months after her daughter's death. It's deconstructed when a combination of her parents' paranoia over losing her like they lost Twilight coupled with their inability to see her as anything other than Twilight's replacement causes her to run away and abandon her last name.
- A possible Ur-Example comes from The Bible, where Seth was born to Adam and Eve after the murder of their second-born Abel by his own older brother Cain.
- In The Chronicles of Amber, King Oberon had three sons with his first wife Cymnea, of whom only Benedict still lives in the books. The unnamed other two have perished long before the protagonist Corwin and his many brothers, sisters, half-brothers, and half-sisters were even born.
- Ruth Cole, the protagonist of John Irving's novel A Widow for One Year, was born when her parents tried for a Replacement Goldfish child after their two sons were killed in a car accident. It completely fails to repair the parents' marriage.
- A plot point in Seventh Son, the first entry in The Tales of Alvin Maker series: the title character is to be the seventh son of a seventh son, which will endow him with supernatural powers, but only if the preceding six children are alive at the time of his birth. When the novel opens, Alvin's eldest brother Vigor has been mortally injured and desperately clings to life until Alvin is born. Later, Alvin's parents have an eighth child who, naturally, is born after Vigor has died.
- In the Dune series, Paul Atreides' first son, named Leto after his grandfather, is killed in a Sardaukar raid before he was a year old. His second son, also named Leto (causing one Bene Gesserit to state that he should have been called Leto III instead of the II) reigns for 3,500 years as God-Emperor of the known worlds.
- A Song of Ice and Fire has Daenerys, who was born several months after her brother Rhaegar died in the war. She's also a posthumous aunt, since her niece and nephew (Rhaegar's kids) were slaughtered by the Lannisters shortly after Rhaegar's death (Though if the theory mentioned below is true, at least one of her nephews is still alive). As a result, what she knows of him is filtered through her primary caretaker and older brother, middle child Viserys, with the outcome being that she has a very high opinion of him.
- If the most popular fan theory about Jon Snow's parentage are true, then the trope applies to him as well, since his father Rhaegar's two children by his wife (Jon's older half-siblings) were killed alongside their mother by the Lannisters while Jon's mother was still pregnant with him. His half-brother Aegon might still be alive though.
- From the New World reveals that Saki had an older sister who was offed by the community's elders and rendered as an Unperson before she was born, with only her parents being able to speak of her death in private. Her parents shakily decided to have another child despite how her sister died.
- Plenty of examples in Warrior Cats, since life in the forest is dangerous and couples often have multiple litters in the books. For instance:
- Graystripe has three kits with his new mate, Millie, a few years after his daughter Feathertail died.
- Dustpelt and Ferncloud have several litters of kits. Shrewpaw from their first litter and Larchkit and Hollykit of their second litter are dead by the time that Icecloud and Foxleap are born.
- Sorreltail's kits Molepaw and Honeyfern have died before Lilyheart and Seedpaw are born.
- Birchface and Frecklewish die in Mapleshade's Vengeance, long before their half brother Pinestar is born; this is mentioned in Pinestar's Choice.
- Honor Harrington's parents end up trying for another child very soon after receiving reports of her death in Echoes of Honor, somewhat against their will, because of the complicated legal and political consequences of Honor holding noble titles in two polities and having no children of her own. And then it turned out that Honor wasn't really dead...
- Taken to the extreme in My Sweet Audrina, with it forming a main plot point. The title character was born shortly after her older sister, also named Audrina, was raped and murdered in the woods. Her family, particularly her father, is very protective of her and try to encourage to be more like her sister her father even has her sit in the first Audrina's rocking chair in her old room and use a form of self-hypnosis to 'gain the memories' of the "first and best Audrina" and become just as perfect as her (they're a pretty...messed up family). Predictably, this doesn't do wonders for the poor second Audrina's psyche. As it turns out, the "first and best" Audrina never really existed there is only one Audrina, who's family tricked her into suppressing her memories of the rape and believing it happened to her non-existent older sister instead, in a misguided attempt to help her cope after the assault.
- Anne of Green Gables: Anne and Gilbert's first child Joyce died in infancy, but they had six other children after her.
- In Caprica, the prequel spinoff of Battlestar Galactica (2003), we see a young William Adama growing up in the Tauron community on Caprica. The viewer would assume this is the same William Adama as the later Admiral of the Galactica fleet—but toward the end of the series he dies. His parents then have another son, and name him William in his late sibling's honor.
- On Falling Skies, Anne Glass had a son, but lost him during the Espheni invasion. Several seasons later, she gives birth to a daughter, Lexi.
- In Sons of Anarchy, a genetic heart condition runs through the maternal bloodline. Gemma is born with it and after she nearly dies of it as a baby, her parents decide not to have any more kids. Gemma marries and has two kids, Jackson and Thomas. Jackson, the oldest, does not inherit, but younger son, Thomas, does and he dies of it. Gemma later tells Nero that she wanted to have a dozen kids, but her husband, John, didn't want to risk anymore after Thomas. Gemma is extremely protective of Jax. Jax has two sons, Able and Thomas (named after his younger brother). Fortunes reverse and Thomas does not inherit the heart condition, but Able does. Fortunately, with advances in medical technology, Able survives. Gemma is fiercely protective of both her grandsons, but often talks to baby Thomas as though he is the original son she lost.
- In Next to Normal, it is revealed that Natalie was born about a year after her brother Gabe's death.
- Can possibly happen in Dragon Age: Origins, if the Warden decides to kill Connor Guerrin rather than attempt to exorcise the demon inside of him. The epilogue in this case claims that Connor's mother Isolde gives birth to a daughter but loses her life in the process.
- In "What Remainsof Edith Finch", Molly is this to her younger brothers. Subverted for her younger sister Barbara, who would have been about 3 years old when she died.
- In the Family Guy episode "The Juice is Loose", Peter babysits Stewie. Lois reminds Peter of what happened the last time he watched one of their children: he shook Peter Griffin Jr. to death. Since the flashback only shows Peter and Lois, it is implied that the three surviving Griffin children were all born after Peter Jr. died.