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The mask of a bird, for a place where no birds sing.
"As may be seen on picture here,
In Rome the doctors do appear,
When to their patients they are called,
In places by the plague appalled,
Their hats and cloaks, of fashion new,
Are made of oilcloth, dark of hue,
Their caps with glasses are designed,
Their bills with antidotes all lined,
That foulsome air may do no harm,
Nor cause the doctor man alarm,
The staff in hand must serve to show
Their noble trade where'er they go."
— 17th century poem
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An ankle length overcoat, boots, thick gloves, a brim hat and, most importantly, a mask reminiscent of a raven's face, complete with a beak. And now for the story behind it.

A plague doctor is a physician specializing on tending to those who suffered from the bubonic plague. Interestingly, the beak mask itself predates the full head-to-toe protective garment, invented in the fourteenth century. The explanation behind the beak mask is simple: according to the miasma theory of infection, diseases essentially transfer via the poisonous stench, and the doctors protected themselves from inhaling it by placing various herbs, flowers and other aromatic substances inside the beak. We now know that the miasma theory is false, but the full-body leather costume did a good job protecting doctors from exposure to infection, and the mask blocked airborne infections (especially if the plants contained phytoncides), thus the plague doctor's outfit is essentially a grandfather to our modern mask-and-labcoat medical uniforms; even more so to hazmat suits.

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The costume itself was associated with death (where there's plague, commonly known as the black death, there's the beak doctors), which has become deeply ingrained in popular culture. Thus, a plague doctor's outfit is a typical go-to creepy costume, the resemblance to both The Grim Reaper and Creepy Crows doing this effect no harm at all. It is particularly used when the setting has The Black Death or its equivalent featured. Another common interpretation of this trope is to make the Plague Doctor spread plague instead of treating it.note 

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As the costume is particularly associated with Venice (due in part to being a popular Carnevale costume), these guys will often show up in a City of Canals.

For a modern equivalent see Gas Mask, Longcoat. Coat, Hat, Mask is a broader trope.


Examples:

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     Anime And Manga 
  • In Berserk, one member of Inquisitor Mozgus' Quirky Miniboss Squad wear such a suit. He is a torturer rather than a doctor — he has to wear a suit due to a serious allergic reaction to sunlight.
  • In GARO: The Animation, there was a Horror spawned from a doctor which had the whole plague doctor getup.
  • My Hero Academia: Several members of the Shie Hassaikai, including their mysophobic leader, Overhaul, wear masks like that of a plague doctor. Overhaul's Quirk, in addition to the ability to kill his targets with a single touch, allows him to heal the physical and mental diseases entirely, with the drawback of a moment of intense pain.
  • Neon Genesis Evangelion: Sachiel's face bears a strong resemblance to the carnevale mask. In the Rebuild series, it has become a trademark of almost all the Angels.
  • In the manga reboot Rurouni Kenshin: Restoration, Kenshin meets and befriends a doctor who wears this mask. However, the real reason for the mask is because the doctor is really a woman; she knew that many of the close-minded citizens would not believe in or listen to a female doctor. At the end of their adventure, Kenshin encourages her to reveal her face to the town. She is extremely beautiful, and soon all the guys are scrambling to be treated by her.
  • Pestmask from Skull-face Bookseller Honda-san is depicted as wearing this mask and a witch hat.

     Comic Books 
  • Polish graphic novel "Żyjesz?" ("Alive?"), set on the island of Poveglia during plague days has group of erry plague doctors as the antagonist trying to capture a sick girl and a boy. We never see them without their mask, have strongly played nightmarish presence and are usually seen preforming sinister looking or down right sadistic things (such as pulling teeth from screaming, insane patients ) however since the entire story is silent and from the point of view of a sick girl trying to escape from the island and we only get glimpses of what the doctors are doing, things might be deceiving.
  • Batman enemy Merrymaker dresses as a plague doctor.
  • Doctor Fell from Castle Waiting is a plague doctor who has been driven mad by his experiences.
  • Death Head initially seems to be a slasher story about an enigmatic plague doctor who is going around murdering random people, but then it's revealed that he's a member of a secret society of plague doctors who are dedicated to wiping out those afflicted by a slow-acting zombie plague. The doctors themselves are infected by the virus, but their magic-enhanced masks keep them alive while they work to quarantine and try to find a cure for the sickness.
  • The Russian Major Grom comic book series features a recurring Serial Killer character who wears a plague doctor mask.
  • In Spider-Man Marvel 1602, Baron Octavius (who is dying of the Black Death, and willing to go to any means to cure it) makes his first appearance flanked by plague doctors.

     Film 
  • In the live-action adaptation of Beauty and the Beast (2017) a Plague Doctor's mask in Belle's childhood home indicates her mother died of the plague. A flashback shows a doctor tried to treat Belle's mother but saw it was too late for her, stating Belle and Maurice had to evacuate before they caught it.
  • In the Film of the Book Dan Brown's Inferno, Robert Langdon is haunted by nightmares of an apocalyptic plague, which includes this trope.
  • Eyes Wide Shut: One apparently influential member of the masked orgy is dressed as a plague doctor.
  • Major Grom: Plague Doctor, an adaptation of the Russian comic book series. The plot revolves around the titular Police Major Igor Grom, tracking down a Serial Killer who wears the mask of a plague doctor.
  • Prometheus. The biosuit helmets used by the Engineers have this appearance. As they're handling a deadly alien pathogen, it's likely for Rule of Symbolism.
  • Restoration. Robert Downey Jr.'s character is a doctor during the English Restoration. When the plague hits, he wears a plague doctor uniform to minister to the sick.
  • Solomon Kane: While on The Hero's Journey, Solomon Kane passes two plague doctors, in very accurate costumes, who are overseeing the disposal of bodies of Black Plague victims. They even eerily turns their heads in unison as they watch him pass by.

     Literature 
  • The fact that in The Adventures of Pinocchio, the sick protagonist is treated by an Owl and a Crow, was interpreted by some as an allusion to the trope.
  • Dan Brown's Inferno. The origins of the plague doctor are discussed, and Bertrand Zobrist wears the iconic mask in his video message, and in the alteration he makes to the Map of Hell.
  • In the Deptford Mice prequel book "The Alchemist's Cat", a character uses the outfit as a disguise.
  • In the Doctor Who Expanded Universe New Series Adventures novel Plague City the Doctor, Bill and Nardole meet a female plague doctor in 17th century Edinburgh, who takes advantage of the mask to avoid the prejudices of the era. There is also the Night Doctor, a mysterious figure in a plague doctor outfit who visits those who are doomed to die. It turns out to be Anabelle's outfit animated by an alien intelligence.
  • In The Seven Deaths Of Evelyn Hardcastle, the protagonist's mysterious patron appears dressed in the costume of a plague doctor. As this is set on the day of a fancy dress party, several guests end up wearing such a costume during the evening festivities.
  • In The Thief Lord, Scipio dresses like this once.

     Live-Action TV 
  • In the TV movie Charles II: The Power and the Passion, the king briefly visits a London devastated by the Great Plague. A number of these doctors can be seen in the background, disposing of the bodies.
  • Doctor Who. In "The Woman Who Lived", The Doctor finds a medieval plague mask in Me's library, one of the items collected over her immortal life. A Deleted Scene has Me mourning the deaths of her children from the plague. She abandons her home and encounters a man masked in this fashion, and gives him advice on how to fight the Black Death. After she's left, the doctor does a Dramatic Unmask to reveal he's The Doctor.
  • Father Brown: In "The Alchemist's Secret", the eponymous alchemist is dressed this way in the flashback that open the episode. The main suspect later hallucinates a vision of the alchemist who — when he removes his cowl and mask — turns out to be himself. It is learning of the alchemist's garb that allows Father to deduce that secret is actually a weaponized version of The Black Death.
  • There's a plague doctor visible in the background (or sometimes extreme foreground) of several scenes in The Haunting of Bly Manor. It's revealed that he's the ghost of one of the staff members from when the titular manor was used to house plague victims.
  • The Late Show with Stephen Colbert: After Donald Trump retweeted a parody account that replaced words in his sentences with the word "shark", Stephen declared the world had entered the dumbest time in recorded history, dethroning the period "when we thought a spooky bird mask could protect you from the Black Plague." Cue a plague doctor dancing triumphantly to party music.
  • The Supernatural episode, "Advanced Thanatology" involves a Mad Doctor from the 1960s who wore such a mask while lobotomizing his patients. After his death he returns in present day as a Vengeful Ghost whose spirit is anchored by his collection of plague masks.

     Professional Wrestling 
  • The Villain persona of Marty Scurll features him wearing a plague doctor's mask and umbrella as part of his ring attire.

     Tabletop Games 
  • A Pathfinder module features the "Queen's Physicians," who dress like this. They're actually causing the plague. On the Queen's command, no less!
    • There is also a Plague Mask "wondrous item" that can be crafted be players, and allows the wearer to cast Remove Disease once per day on a single creature touched.
    • One of the weaker varieties of Psychopomps that guide souls to the Boneyard appear as ravens wearing masks like a plague doctor's.
  • The undead ‘Crows’ that serve Band of Blades’ villain Fleshblighter all wear plague doctor masks. Two of her unique named horrors - Lugos and the Doctor - keep the same theme.

     Video Games 
  • Assassin's Creed II and Brotherhood have NPC doctors in this costume. One of the multiplayer characters is a doctor who also happens to be a Jack the Ripoff.
  • Eileen the Crow and the Crowfeather set you can get via the Crow Hunter Badge in Bloodborne has this look. The Beak Mask portion of the set, according to description, even has herbs stuffed in it to protect against the stench of blood and beasts.
  • The Plague Doctor class from Darkest Dungeon. She (despite common assumption) has some medical skill, but in combat is more often found lobbing plague and acid weapons about, and is implied to be in the party mostly For Science!; she wants to see what effects her concoctions have on the various monstrosities of the eponymous dungeons. Her backstory comic implies that she was thrown out of her university after experimenting on the corpse of her own professor, who died to an unspecified disease.
  • It's hard to see and not visible in the inventory, but the Sage's Big Hat item in Dark Souls III has a mask that's clearly inspired by this under its gigantic brim — although given that the Crystal Sages are focused on magic damage rather than poison or the like, it's not entirely clear why.
  • In Dragon Project, Hell Makavrios is an Anti-Magic bird-man with a plague doctor appearance and motif who serves as the Thunder Heat Bow Behemoth. Even his armor set is designed after plague doctors, and his set's name is Bubonia, which is named after the Black Plague.
  • One of the helmets you can find in Dungeons of Dredmor is a Plague Doctor's Mask. It provides minimal normal defense and a small penalty to your sight radius, but also gives substantial resistance to toxic, putrefying, and asphyxiation damage.
  • Invoked in Figment. The Plague, a nightmare representing the fear of disease, has a face resembling a plague doctor mask.
  • Final Fantasy XIV features two entire, stylized plague doctor outfits (including the iconic beaked mask and top hat) as spellcaster i185 gear sets drop from the Pharos Sirius Hard Mode and St. Mocianne's Arboretum dungeons: the Plague Doctor's set (worn by healers), and the Plague Bringer's set (worn by damage-dealing spellcasters).
  • The outfit for generic Dark Mages in Fire Emblem: Three Houses includes a mask similar to plague doctors' overlapping their hoods. Their promotion class, the Dark Bishop, continues this motif, but have the hoods overlapping their masks.
  • HITMAN: Silvio Caruso keeps a collection of Renaissance-era art and antiques in his mansion, one of which is a full Plague Doctor's outfit propped up on a mannequin. Agent 47 can, of course, use it as a disguise, but it's obviously a very suspicious getup so it's mostly only useful for challenges. Wearing it while walking around in an area where people won't immediately be hostile to you, however, will cause passers-by to comment that you've been playing too much Assassin's Creed.
  • In Injustice 2, a plague doctor mask is a customizable head option for Scarecrow.
  • The Wizzrobes from The Legend of Zelda occasionally sport a similar outfit.
  • Lobotomy Corporation: One of the abnormalities you have to manage is a plague doctor who appears to have a pair of large crow wings.
  • In Monster Hunter: World, the Great Girros armor sets resemble the traditional costume of a plague doctor. Fittingly, they're one of the sets that give the Effluvial Expert skill, which protects your health from being sapped in the lower levels of the Rotten Vale.
  • The Player Character of My Friend Is A Raven wears a plague doctor's uniform.
  • Othercide is set in a dark world which has been swept by a plague. A whole group of enemy units are named "Plague [Something]", and all have the appearance of robed thin and tall (actually taller than your units) humanoids, which face include a long and pointy beak. One of them is literally named "Plague Doctor", it wears a hat (more a Robin Hood-esque cap than the classical round hat usually associated with the outfit), and wields a sickle.
  • The Plague Doctor, also known as the Jade-lich, in Outward is a specific lich associated with the "decay" element, i.e. poison and disease damage. He lives in a huge ziggurat in the Hallowed Marsh, siphoning the naturally-occurring decay energy out of the waters to feed himself, and also runs a cabal of dangerous cultists. His exact motivations aren't clear, but he claims to be working toward the benefit of humanity, and can be reasoned with if one is powerful enough to get his attention.
  • Overwatch has Reaper's "Plague Doctor" and "Nevermore" skins, which resemble a plague doctor's costume.
  • Path of Exile has waxed leather clothing and plague mask hats.
  • Characters reminiscent of plague doctors pop up in Pathologic, as the decease spreads throughout the town.
  • Payday 2 has a Plague Doctor mask plus hat as a reward choice for reaching infamy level 2, along with a bonus for the Mastermind and Fugitive skill trees (the former of which includes medical skills).
  • The Pokémon Spritzee from Pokémon X and Y is a small pink bird who happens to be based on a plague doctor; its face resembles the iconic mask, it has the Healer ability (which lets it heal an ally's Standard Status Effects), one of its moves is Aromatherapy, and it's known as the Perfumed Pokemon.
  • In Ragnarok Online the guards of the city of Geffen have a uniform heavily based on the plague doctors, sans hat. There is, however, no plague. Note that the plague doctors' outfits in real life are themselves based on military uniforms.
  • In RuneScape there is a set of quests set in West Ardougne collectively named the Plague City Quests that live this trope to a T. You learn to love Ye Olde Worlde hazmat suits.
  • Plague Knight from Shovel Knight has the iconic mask, but switches out the overcoat for a robe, among other things. Then again, he's also a Mad Scientist who throws bombs as a primary battle tactic and aside from the mask is an alchemist rather than a doctor. An update of the game in 2015 let you play the whole game as him.
  • The Sinking City has an unlockable plague doctor outfit.
  • Team Fortress 2 has some cosmetic items for the Medic based around the look: a plague doctor's mask called the "Blighted Beak", and the "Grimm Hatte" and "Virus Doctor" hats.
  • The Plaguebearer role in Town of Salem has the appearance of an anthropomorphic crow wearing a plague doctor's outfit, and their role involves infesting the town to become Pestilence. Ironically, Doctor does not show up as a possible role to an Investigator.
  • Grand Apothecary Putress of World of Warcraft wears a mask inspired by the beak mask, and is a plague-spreader. Warlocks have a similar armor set, they, however, being demonic mages, have nothing to do with plague.
    • Warlocks specialized in Affliction, however, do most of their damage by afflicting targets with various diseases and ailments as a primary means of dealing damage.
    • Shadowlands adds a cloth armor set that was very clearly based on plague doctors.
    • Plague Deviser Marileth wears a bird-skull mask and robes that give him this aesthetic. Though as his title suggests, his job is to create plagues rather than treat them.

     Visual Novels 
  • In The Arcana, Julian, Valdemar, and the Apprentice all worked as plague doctors. Julian's first appearance has him wearing the iconic mask.
  • Twilight foot soldiers in Code:Realize wear a black uniform with a raven's head mask, rather appropriate for an intelligence organization run by an alchemically-created Artificial Human with an agenda related to chemical weapons and the Philosopher's Stone.
  • In Havenfall Is for Lovers, Frankenstein wears the full getup, which he very likely adopted back when such suits were in common use given that he's several centuries old by the time of the visual novel.
  • Zero II's outfit in Zero Time Dilemma is based off of a plague doctor, although obviously more for fashion than for function, judging by the frilly cravat and butterfly pin they also adorn. It is also symbolic of him being the Plaguemaster who unleashes the Radical-6 virus on the world, which kills 6 million people.

     Web Comics 
  • Baskets of Guts:
    • Animalculists have a touch of this. And especially their horses.
    • Some of paraanatomists also sport familiar masks.
    • One of the criminal barons is a more classic example.
  • In Digger, trader Manuel wears a plague doctor mask at all times.
  • Ingrid The Plague Doctor has the titular character, as well as her mentor Dr. Fleming.
  • Magience has a guild of Plague Hunters who wear black cloaks and rainbow-colored beak masks.
  • Navaan, the "doctor", from Oglaf wears this outfit. Seen here. (Caution, surrounding comics are NSFW.)
  • In S.S.D.D the captain of the Latihan wears a microbial isolation suit modeled after a plague doctor's outfit for the intimidation value. It's even worse after he pumps the atmosphere full of hallucinogens.
  • The Wretched Ones has Charlie seeing a plague doctor on the street (in the 21st century). So far, no one else has seen it.
  • This comic by norwegian comic artist Oomizuao features a plague doctor competing with Pesta, the Norwegian personification of the black death. He arrives too late to help in the first few farms, finding The Grim Reaper there waiting for him. The end of the comic reveals that the Reaper is following him because he's been afflicted with the plauge himself, although his time is not yet up.

     Web Original 
  • In The Fear Mythos, one of the Fears is known as the Plague Doctor. It looks like the historical doctor, but instead of treating disease, it spreads it.
  • The ASMR-specialised channel Ephemeral Rift has Corvus Clemmons, a plague doctor who will speak to the viewer as though they are his patient.
  • Reverend Mord, host of The Hidden Almanac, dresses as a plague doctor, though his job does not involve dealing with plagues. It's also been said that under the mask, he's actually a sentient swarm of beetles, but that's just a rumor. Probably.
  • Mortasheen features a family of monsters that are avian and heavily based in appearance on the plague doctor. This being Mortasheen they spread plague.
  • French Youtube documentary channel Nota Bene (focused on history and mythology) has a 8-bit like plague doctor drawing as its logo. A more detailed one also appears in the opening title of early videos.
  • The SCP Foundation has SCP-049. This being the Foundation, naturally he's a horrifying Deadly Doctor. He also doesn't seem to be aware that he is one, and genuinely thinks that he's helping to treat the Plague. He actually isn't a man wearing plague doctor clothes but a humanoid entity which skin and face that are identical to plague doctor's garb and mask. It is never made clear if the pestilence he claims to cure is a real disease threatening humanity or he is just delusional. There's also an Affectionate Parody of him in the form of SCP-049-J, which is basically the original SCP-049 played for Black Comedy.
  • Behold, the Mysterious Dr. Plague, an official blog for a line of stuffed animals based off of the traditional plague doctor and his Distaff Counterpart, the Plague Nurse.

     Western Animation 
  • Adventure Time has Princess Bubblegum wear this in the episode "What Have You Done?". She was spraying a green gas that covered the candy kingdom in fog. Unsurprisingly, Finn and Jake got scared.
  • One appears in the pilot of Disenchantment, surprisingly presented as a regular doctor with an office in Dreamland.
  • My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic: In "A Health of Information", the legendary pony healer Mage Meadowbrook wore a plague doctor-like mask while calling on patients. In her time, healers are stated to have worn such masks for the explicit purpose of not catching sicknesses themselves. Meadowbrook's mask in particular also had the secondary function of keeping the Flash Bees calm so she could collect their honey for her cures.
  • In the The Owl House, the various members of the Emperor's Coven all wear uniforms reminiscent of plague doctors. In an interesting touch, the type of bird your mask is styled after seems to represent your rank; the town guards look like ravens, Warden Wrath wears a classic ibis mask, Coven Witches have parrot-like helmets, and Emperor Belos himself wears a golden helm that kind of resembles a vulture head (with horns).

     Real Life 
  • There's the continued use of the decorative Medico Della Peste (Plague Doctor) mask-and-costume set in the Venetian Carnevale to this day. Many settings even only semi-based on Venice have a tendency to trot it out, as well as the other masks (most based in the Commedia dell'Arte). For instant decadence, just add death and pretty masks.
  • The Deadly Doctor part of the trope has some credence. Based on Miasma theory, if the outside of the suit didn't smell then it was safe. Therefore a plague doctor could be unknowingly carrying around infectious material from plague victims and bringing them to patients who had less serious illnesses. Since sterilization wasn't perfected until much later, plague doctors may have been spreading the disease on some occasions.
    • Plague doctors had a habit of dying quite regularly as epidemics became lengthy. Sure, the outfit could and did protect them from the fleas that were the real problem while they went about wearing it, especially when new. But, they didn't understand how to remove what they were wearing without transferring whatever they had picked up that day to themselves at the end of it. Not to mention the bacteria and mould build-up caused by moisture in the interior of the mask through use combined with the difficulty of cleaning all those seams. And, many would sleep near their gear at night. Spot the problem? Yeah: if it wasn't plague-carrying fleas, you were likely to pick something else up from the fluids and/or worse you still had on there. Because a quick hose-down every so often that would remove visible signs of "miasma" wouldn't catch an awful lot.
    • Thankfully while they didn't know the exact reasons, plenty of plague doctors did catch on that thoroughly rinsing with water and vinegar, cleansing their suit with smoke, or other cleaning both kept the foul smells away but also kept them from getting sick. Later plague doctors also adopted practices that meant they didn't need physically touch the patients, such as checking a pulse with a cane; which further reduced transmission.
  • The popular head-to-toe outfit with the beaked mask was invented by Charles de Lorme in the early 17th Century. The beaked mask functioned as a primitive respirator. It had two tiny holes to allow air to pass in and out. To remove odor, the mask was stuffed with aromatic chemicals. These chemicals included dried roses, caryophyllus, and ground mentha. Phytoncides were also added to disinfect breathable air. Some masks had a special sponge soaked with vinegar located at the end of the beak, serving as a filter, collecting pathogenic particulates that pass through.
  • During the Coronavirus Pandemic in April-May 2020, police in Norwich, England were looking for a persistent curfew-violator who had been seen in the north-western suburbs of the City in full Plague Doctor outfit. It has been pointed out that Hellesdon is the district containing the local university, which has both a medical school and teaches a cross-disciplinary degree in the History of Medicine. And that it is reputed the university was built over the sites of several medieval mass graves for plague victims — something the School of East Anglian History would be well aware of.
  • At the start of the COVID-19 Pandemic, it was quite the trend among certain hipsters to try to turn their medical masks into a fully functioning Cosplay of a Plague Doctor's mask, which is the definition of irony since their medical mask and the Plague Doctor's mask is literally the same thing after 700 years of medical science and improvment — The beak wasn't put there and filled with herbs because it looked cool, it was there for the exact same reason as the medical mask is filtered to the smallest possible amount — We are using the height of our medical knowledge to figure out the most effective way to stop breathing in diseases.

 
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Plague Doctor Treats COVID-19

Atun-Shei contracts COVID-19 and calls a doctor to help.

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